- Anton Ivanovich Denikin
name = Anton Ivanovich Denikin
image_size = 200px
caption = Anton Denikin in 1918
birth_date = birth date|1872|12|16|mf=y
death_date = death date and age|1947|08|08|1872|12|16|mf=y
Ann Arbor, Michigan
Xenia Vasilievna Chizh
Anton Ivanovich Denikin (Анто́н Ива́нович Дени́кин) (
December 16, 1872– August 8, 1947) was Lieutenant Generalof the Imperial Russian Army (1916) and one of the foremost generals of the White Russians in the civil war.
Denikin was born on
December 7, 1872, in Szpetal Dolnyj village near the Polish city Włocławek(then part of the Russian empire). His father, Ivan Efimovich Denikin, had been born a serf in the province of Saratov. Sent as a recruit to do 25 years of military service, Ivan Denikin became an officer on the 22nd year of his army service, in 1856. He retired from the army in 1869 with the rank of a major. In 1869 Ivan Denikin married a poor Polish seamstress, Elżbieta Wrzesińska. Anton Denikin, the couple's only child, learned to speak two languages (Russian and Polish) at the same time. His father's commitment to Russian patriotism and the Orthodox religion was crucial for Anton Denikin's decision to become a soldier.
The Denikins lived very close to poverty (retired major's small pension was their only source of income). After his father's death in 1885, Denikin's family financial situation got even worse. Anton Denikin began tutoring younger schoolmates so that the family could earn an additional income. In 1890 Denikin began a course at the Kiev Junker School, a military college from which he graduated in 1892.
Denikin was educated at the Kiev Military School and the Academy of the General Staff and first saw active service during the 1905
By the outbreak of
World War Iin August 1914 Denikin was a Major General and in command of the Kiev military district. He joined the Eighth Army initially as Deputy Chief of Staff in September and was sent to Galicia commanding the 4th Rifle Brigade.
In 1916 he was appointed to command the VIII Corps and lead troops in Romania during the last successful Russian campaign of the war, the
Brusilov Offensive. Following the February Revolutionand the overthrow of the Czar he became Chief of Staff to Mikhail Alekseev, then Aleksei Brusilov, and finally Lavr Georgevich Kornilov. Denikin supported the attempted coup of his commander, the Kornilov Affair, in September 1917 and was arrested and imprisoned with him. After this Alekseev would be reappointed commander-in-Chief.
October Revolutionboth Denikin and Kornilov escaped to Novocherkasskin southern Russia and, with other Tsarist officers, formed the Volunteer Army, initially commanded by Alekseev. Kornilov was killed in April 1918 near Ekaterinodarand the Volunteer Army came under Denikin's command. There was some sentiment to place Grand Duke Nicholasin overall command, but Denikin was not interested in sharing power. In the face of a Communist counter-offensive he withdrew his forces back towards the Don area in what was known as the Ice March. Denikin led one final assault of the southern White forces in their final push to capture Moscowin the summer of 1919. For a time, it appeared that the White Armywould succeed in its drive; Leon Trotsky, as commander of Red Armyforces hastily concluded an agreement with Nestor Makhno's anarchist " Revolutionary Insurrectionary Army of Ukraine" or 'Black Army' for mutual support. Makhno duly turned his Black Army east and led his troops against Denikin's extended lines of supply, forcing him to retreat. Denikin's army was decisively defeated at Orelin October 1919, some 400km south of Moscow. The White forces in southern Russia would be in constant retreat thereafter, eventually reaching the Crimeain March 1920. The Soviet communist government immediately tore up its agreement with Makhno and attacked his anarchist forces. After a seesaw series of battles in which one side or the other gained a victory, Trotsky's Red Army troops, more numerous and better equipped, defeated and dispersed Makhno's Black Army.
Facing increasingly sharp criticism and emotionally exhausted, Denikin resigned in April, 1920 in favor of General Baron P. N. Wrangel. Denikin left the
Crimeaby ship to Constantinople and then to London. He spent a few months in England, then moved to Belgium, and later to Hungary.
From 1926 Denikin lived in
France. Although he continued to remain bitterly opposed to Russia's Communist government, he chose to remain discreetly on the periphery of exile politics, spending most of his time writing and lecturing. However, this did not prevent the Soviets from unsuccessfully targeting him for abduction in the same effort that snared exile General Alexander P. Kutepov in 1930 and later General Evgenii K. Miller in 1937. "White Against Red - The Life of General Anton Denikin" gives possibly the definitive account of the intrigues during these early Soviet "wet-ops."
Denikin was a talented writer, and even before World War I had written several pieces in which he analytically criticized the shortcomings of his beloved Russian Army. His voluminous writings after the Russian Civil War (written while living in exile) are remarkable for their analytical tone and candor and are a "must read" to anyone interested in the Russian Civil War. Since he enjoyed writing and most of his income was derived from it, Denikin started to consider himself a writer and developed close friendships with several Russian émigré authors--among them
Ivan Bunin(a Nobel Laurate), Ivan Shmelev, and Aleksandr Kuprin.
Although respected by most of the community of Russian exiles, Denikin was disliked by émigrés of both political extremes, the right and the left.
With the fall of France in 1940, Denikin left Paris in order to avoid imprisonment by the Germans. Although he was eventually captured, he declined all attempts to co-opt him for use in Nazi anti-Soviet propaganda. The Germans did not press the matter and Denikin was allowed to remain in rural exile. Although not formally part of the resistance, his activities would certainly have been sufficient to cause his arrest had they been fully known to the Nazi authorities.Fact|date=February 2007 Diary entries kept by his wife during this period also make it clear that he was appalled by Nazi anti-Semitism,Fact|date=August 2008 a fact that may shed light on his actual attitude towards the pogroms of the Russian Civil War.
At the conclusion of the war, correctly anticipating their likely fate at the hands of Stalin's
Soviet Union, Denikin attempted to persuade the Western Allies not to forcibly repatriate Soviet POWs. He was largely unsuccessful in his effort.
From 1945 until his death in 1947, Denikin lived in the
United States, in New York City. On August 8, 1947, at the age of 74, Denikin died while vacationing near Ann Arbor, Michigan.
General Denikin was buried with military honors in Detroit. His remains were later transferred to St. Vladimir's Cemetery in
Jackson, New Jersey. His wife, Xenia Vasilievna Chizh, was buried at Saint Genevieve de Bois cemetery near Paris.
Marina Denikinaapplied for and was granted Russian citizenship in 2005. On October 3, 2005, in accordance with the wishes of his daughter and by authority of President Vladimir Putinof Russiathe remains of General Denikin were transferred from the United Statesand buried at the Donskoy Monasteryin Moscow. Marina Denikina died November 17, 2005, at her home in Versailles, near Paris.
# "Anton Ivanovich Denikin." Biographies. Answers Corporation, 2006. Answers.com
1 May. 2007. http://www.answers.com/topic/anton-ivanovich-denikin
# The standard reference is Dimitry V. Lehovich, "White Against Red - the Life of General Anton Denikin", New York, W.W. Norton, 1974. This book is also available in Russian in two versions: then abridged text is "Belye Protiv Krasnykh", Moscow, Voskresenie publishers, 1992. The second, unabridged, is "Denikin - Zhizn' Russkogo Ofitsera", Moscow, Evrasia publishers, 2004.
# Grey M. Bourdier J. "Les Armes blanches". Paris, 1968
# Grey M. "La campagne de glace". Paris. 1978
# Grey M. "Mon père le géneral Denikine". Paris, 1985
Kenez P."Civil War in South Russia. 1917-1920. The defeat of the Whites". Berkeley, 1972
Kenez Peter"Civil War in South Russia. 1918. The first Year of the Voluntary Army". Berkeley,Los Angeles, 1971
# Luckett R. "The White Generals: An Account of the White Movement in the South Russia". L., 1971
# Additional reference: "Ukraine: a History" by Orest Subtelny
# Ипполитов Г. М. "Деникин" — М.: Молодая гвардия, 2006 (серия ЖЗЛ) ISBN 5-235-02885-6
Denikin wrote several books, including "The Russian Turmoil" (5 volumes), "Old Army", "The Career of a Tsarist Officer: Memoirs, 1872-1916" and "The Road of a Russian Officer" (unfinished, published posthumously in 1953).
See also the list of references in Russian edition of Wikipedia.
* [http://query.nytimes.com/mem/archive-free/pdf?_r=1&res=9A02EFDA1131E03ABC4E51DFB466838B639EDE&oref=slogin Pogroms in Southern Russia; Massacres of Jews in Several Towns Follow Retreat of Denikin's Army; New York Times (
February 26, 1920)]
* [http://www.shtetlinks.jewishgen.org/Colonies_of_Ukraine/pogroms/ukrainianpogroms.htm Jewish Eyewitness Accounts of Pogroms Committed by Denikin's Army]
* [http://dwardmac.pitzer.edu/anarchist_Archives/bright/berkman/bmyth/bmch28.html Berkman, Alexander; "FASTOV THE POGROMED" from The Bolshevik Myth, New York: Boni and Liveright, 1925]
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Anton Ivanovich Denikin — Anton Iwanowitsch Denikin Anton Iwanowitsch Denikin (russisch Антон Иванович Деникин; * 4. Dezemberjul./ 16. Dezember 1872greg. in Szpetal dolny, einem Vorort von Włocławek (Leslau, Polen); † 18. August 1947 in … Deutsch Wikipedia
Anton Ivanovich Denikin — Anton Ivanovitch Dénikine Anton Ivanovitch Dénikine Naissance 16 décembre 1872 Włocławek, Pologne Décès 7 … Wikipédia en Français
DENIKIN, ANTON IVANOVICH° — (1872–1947), one of the generals and organizers of the White Army in the Russian civil war of 1918–21. His name is associated with the savage pogroms perpetrated against the Jews by his officers and soldiers in Russia and the ukraine during these … Encyclopedia of Judaism
Denikin, Anton Ivanovich — ▪ Russian general born Dec. 16 [Dec. 4, Old Style], 1872, near Warsaw, Pol., Russian Empire died Aug. 8, 1947, Ann Arbor, Mich., U.S. general who led the anti Bolshevik (“White”) forces on the southern front during the Russian Civil War… … Universalium
Denikin, Anton (Ivanovich) — born Dec. 16, 1872, near Warsaw, Pol., Russian Empire died Aug. 8, 1947, Ann Arbor, Mich., U.S. Russian general. A professional in the imperial Russian army, he was a lieutenant general in World War I. After the Russian Revolution of 1917, he and … Universalium
Denikin, Antón (Ivánovich) — (16 dic. 1872, cerca de Varsovia, Polonia, Imperio ruso–8 ago. 1947, Ann Arbor, Mich., EE.UU.). General ruso. Militar de carrera en el ejército imperial ruso, fue teniente general en la primera guerra mundial. Después de la Revolución rusa de… … Enciclopedia Universal
Anton Denikin — Anton Ivanovich Denikin Anton Denikin in 1918 Born December 16, 1872(1872 12 16) Włocławek, Warsaw Governorate, Privislinsky Krai … Wikipedia
Antón Denikin — Saltar a navegación, búsqueda Antón Denikin … Wikipedia Español
Antón — Antón. □ V. cochinilla de San Antón, cochinito de San Antón, fuego de San Antón, gusano de San Antón, mal de San Antón, vaca de San Antón. * * * (as used in expressions) Chéjov, Antón (Pávlovich) Denikin, Antón (Ivánovich) Pevsner, Antón… … Enciclopedia Universal
Ivanovich — (as used in expressions) Alferov Zhores Ivanovich Bukharin Nikolay Ivanovich Chaliapin Feodor Ivanovich Chuikov Vasily Ivanovich Denikin Anton Ivanovich Fyodor Ivanovich Glinka Mikhail Ivanovich Guchkov Aleksandr Ivanovich Herzen Aleksandr… … Universalium