Traceability refers to the completeness of the information about every step in a process chain.
The formal definition: Traceability is ability to chronologically interrelate the uniquely identifiable entities in a way that is verifiable.
Traceability is the ability to verify the history, location, or application of an item by means of documented recorded identification. ["Glossary," "ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code", Section III, Article NCA-9000]
The term traceability is used to refer to an unbroken chain of comparisons relating an instrument's
measurements to a known standard. Calibrationto a traceable standard can be used to determine an instrument's bias, precision, and accuracy.
In many countries, national standards for weights and measures are maintained by a National Measurement Institute (NMI) which provides the highest level of standards for the
calibration/ traceabilityinfrastructure in that country. Examples of government agencies are the National Physical Laboratory, UK(NPL) the National Institute of Standards and Technologyin the USA, Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt(PTB) in Germany. As defined by NIST, "Traceability requires the establishment of an unbroken chain of comparisons to stated references each with a stated uncertainty."
logistics, traceability refers to the capability for tracinggoods along the distribution chain on a batchnumber or series number basis. Traceability is an important aspect for example in the automotive industry, where it makes recalls possible, or in the food industry where it contributes to food safety.
The international standards organization
EPCglobalunder GS1has ratified the EPCglobal Networkstandards (esp. the EPC Information Services EPCISstandard) which codify the syntax and semantics for supply chain events and the secure method for selectively sharing supply chain events with trading partners. Theses standards for traceability have been used in successful deployments in many industries and there are now a wide range of [http://www.epcglobalinc.org/certification/sw_cert products that are certified as being compatible with these standards] .
Tracking and tracing.
materials, traceability refers to the capability to associate a finished part with destructive test results performed on material from the same ingot with the same heat treatment. Destructive tests typically include chemical composition and mechanical strength tests. A heat number is usually marked on the part or raw material which identifies the ingot it came from, and a lot number may identify the group of parts that experienced the same heat treatment. (i.e. were in the same oven at the same time.) Material traceability is important to the aerospace, nuclear, and process industry because they frequently make use of high strength materials that look identical to commercial low strength versions. In these industries, a part made of the wrong material is called "counterfeit," even if the substitution was accidental.
software development, the term traceability (or Requirements Traceability) refers to the ability to link requirements back to stakeholders' rationales and forward to corresponding design artifacts, code,and test cases. Traceability supports numerous software engineeringactivities such as change impact analysis, compliance verification of code, regression test selection, and requirements validation. It is usually accomplished in the form of a matrix created for the verification and validation of the project. Unfortunately the practice of constructing and maintaining a requirements trace matrix [RTM] can be very arduous and over time the traces tend to erode into an inaccurate state. Alternate automated approaches for generating traces using information retrievalmethods have been developed.
blood transfusionpractice, the term traceability relates to the requirement for a continuous audit trailaccounting for the whereabouts of a blood product and its current status in terms of processing, testing, storage, etc. at all points from initial collection from a donor right through to either transfusion to a recipient or disposal. This is particularly important with regards to prevention of transfusion-transmitted infection, and is a legal requirement in many countries including all member states of the European Union.
In transaction processing software, traceability implies use of a unique piece of data (e.g., order date/time or a serialized sequence number) which can be traced through the entire software flow of all relevant application programs. Messages and files at any point in the system can then be audited for correctness and completeness, using the traceability key to find the particular transaction. This is also sometimes referred to as the transaction footprint.
food processing( meat processing, fresh produce processing), the term traceability refers to the recording through means of barcodes & other tracking media, all movement of product and steps within the production process. One of the key reasons this is such a critical point is in instances where am issue of contamination arises, and a recall is required. Where traceability has been closely adhered to, it is possible to identify, by precice date & location which goods must be recalled, and which are safe, potentially saving millions of dollars in the recall process. Traceability within the food processing industry is also utilised to identify key high production & quality areas of a business, versus those of low return, and where points in the production process may be improved.
In "food processing software", traceability systems imply the use of a unique piece of data (e.g., order date/time or a serialized sequence number, generally through the use of a
barcode/ RFID) which can be traced through the entire production flow, linking all sections of the business, including suppliers & future sales through the supply chain. Messages and files at any point in the system can then be audited for correctness and completeness, using the traceability software to find the particular transaction and/or product within the supply chain.
India has started taking initiatives for setting up traceability systems at Government and Corporate levels. Grapenet, an initiative by Agriculture and Processed Food Products Export Development Authority (APEDA), Ministry of Commerce, Government of India is an example in this direction. GrapeNet is an internet based traceability software system, for monitoring fresh grapes exported from India to the European Union. GrapeNet is a first of its kind initiative in India that has put in place an end-to-end system for monitoring pesticide residue, achieve product standardization and facilitate tracing back from pallets to the farm of the Indian grower, through the various stages of sampling, testing, certification and packing. Grapenet won the National Award (Gold), in the winners announced for the best e-Governance initiatives undertaken in India in 2007. Grapenet was designed and developed by Logicsoft, award winning traceability solutions company, based in New Delhi, India.
* [http://www.nist.gov National Institute of Standards and Technology]
* [http://www.nist.gov/traceability/nist%20traceability%20policy-external.htm NIST Policy on Traceability]
* [http://www.agrifoodcert.com Agri Food Certification USDA Accredited Certifying Body for certified traceable food and feed]
* [http://www.traceability.de Active Traceability for discrete manufacturing: European Experts presents - Traceability optimized]
* [http://www.cedarcc.com.au/home/industry-solutions/traceability.aspx Traceability in the Food Industry]
* [http://www.apeda.com/grapenet Grapenet Intiative by APEDA, Ministry of Commerce, India]
* Traceability in software engineering:
** [http://www.traceabilitycenter.org/ Center of Excellence for Traceability]
** [http://www.cs.wayne.edu/%7Eamarcus/icsm2006/ ICSM 2006 panel on information retrieval in SE]
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