Shiga toxin


Shiga toxin

Shiga toxins are a family of related toxins with two major groups, Stx1 and Stx2, whose genes are considered to be part of the genome of lambdoid prophages.cite journal |author=Friedman D, Court D |title=Bacteriophage lambda: alive and well and still doing its thing |journal=Curr Opin Microbiol |volume=4 |issue=2 |pages=201–7 |year=2001 |pmid=11282477 |doi=10.1016/S1369-5274(00)00189-2] The toxins are named for Kiyoshi Shiga, who first described the bacterial origin of dysentery caused by "Shigella dysenteriae". The most common sources for Shiga toxin are the bacteria "S. dysenteriae" and the "Shigatoxigenic group" of "Escherichia coli" (STEC), which includes serotype and other enterohemorrhagic "E. coli".cite journal |author=Beutin L |title=Emerging enterohaemorrhagic Escherichia coli, causes and effects of the rise of a human pathogen |journal=J Vet Med B Infect Dis Vet Public Health |volume=53 |issue=7 |pages=299–305 |year=2006 |pmid=16930272]

Nomenclature

There are many terms that microbiologists use to describe Shiga toxin and differentiate between different forms of it. Many of these terms are used interchangeably.
* 1) Shiga toxin (Stx) - true Shiga toxin is produced by Shigella dysenteriae.
* 2) Shiga-like toxin 1 and 2 (SLT-1 and 2 or Stx-1 and 2) - the Shiga toxins produced by some E. coli strains. Stx-1 differs from Stx by only 1 amino acid. Stx-2 shares 56% sequence homology with Stx-1.
* 3) Cytotoxins - an archaic denotation for Stx, used in a broad sense.
* 4) Verocytotoxins - a seldom used denotation for Stx, from the hypersensitivity of Vero cells to Stx.

Mechanism

Shiga toxins act to inhibit protein synthesis within target cells by a mechanism similar to that of ricin toxin produced by "Ricinus communis".cite journal |author=Sandvig K, van Deurs B |title=Entry of ricin and Shiga toxin into cells: molecular mechanisms and medical perspectives |journal=EMBO J |volume=19 |issue=22 |pages=5943–50 |year=2000 |pmid=11080141 |doi=10.1093/emboj/19.22.5943] After entering a cell, the protein functions as an N-glycosidase, cleaving several nucleobases from the RNA that comprises the ribosome, thereby halting protein synthesis.cite journal |author=Donohue-Rolfe A, Acheson D, Keusch G |title=Shiga toxin: purification, structure, and function |journal=Rev Infect Dis |volume=13 Suppl 4 |issue= |pages=S293–7 |year=1991 |pmid=2047652]

tructure

The toxin has two subunits—designated A and B—and is one of the AB5 toxins. The B subunit is a pentamer that binds to specific glycolipids on the host cell, specifically globotriaosylceramide (Gb3). Following this, the A subunit is internalised and cleaved into two parts. The A1 component then binds to the ribosome, disrupting protein synthesis. Stx-2 has been found to be approximately 400 times more toxic (as quantified by LD50 in mice) than Stx-1.

Gb3 is, for unknown reasons, present in greater amounts in renal epithelial tissues, to which the renal toxicity of Shiga toxin may be attributed.

The toxin requires highly specific receptors on the cells' surface in order to attach and enter the cell; species such as cattle, swine, and deer which do not carry these receptors may harbor toxigenic bacteria without any ill effect, shedding them in their feces, from where they may be spread to humans.cite journal |author=Asakura H, Makino S, Kobori H, Watarai M, Shirahata T, Ikeda T, Takeshi K |title=Phylogenetic diversity and similarity of active sites of Shiga toxin (stx) in Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) isolates from humans and animals |journal=Epidemiol Infect |volume=127 |issue=1 |pages=27–36 |year=2001 |pmid=11561972 |doi=10.1017/S0950268801005635]

ee also

* Cholera toxin
* Enterotoxin
* Pertussis toxin

References

External links

*


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Look at other dictionaries:

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  • shiga toxin — (= verotoxin) Bacterial toxin from Shigella dysenteriae that blocks eukaryotic protein synthesis. See Shiga like toxins …   Dictionary of molecular biology

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  • Shiga Toxine Escherichia Coli — (STEC) est une bactérie responsable des colites hémorragiques et du syndrome hémolytique et urémique. Il s agit de la nouvelle définition internationale. Elle est également connue sous d autres noms, parmi lesquels enterohemorrhagic E. coli… …   Wikipédia en Français

  • Shiga-like toxin — is a AB5 type Shiga toxin produced by the bacteria Escherichia coli and also known as verotoxin. In 1977, researchers in Ottawa, Ontario rediscovered the Shiga toxin produced by Shigella dysenteriae in E. coli . [cite journal |author=Konowalchuk… …   Wikipedia

  • Shiga (disambiguation) — Shiga (志賀, 滋賀) is a Japanese name. It can refer to:People* Kiyoshi Shiga (志賀潔) a bacteriologist * Mariko Shiga (志賀真理子) a seiyu * Naoya Shiga (志賀直哉) a novelistPlaces* Shiga Prefecture (滋賀県) a prefecture ** Shiga District (滋賀郡) a former district of …   Wikipedia

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  • Shiga Kiyoshi — Kiyoshi Shiga (jap. 志賀 潔, Shiga Kiyoshi; * 7. Februar 1871 (Meiji 3/12/18) in Sendai; † 25. Januar 1957 in Tokio) war ein japanischer Arzt und Bakteriologe. Er entdeckte 1897 das später nach ihm benannte Bakterium Shigella dysenteriae, den… …   Deutsch Wikipedia

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