Northwestern University

Northwestern University
Northwestern University
Motto

Quaecumque sunt vera (Latin)

Ὁ Λόγος πλήρης χάριτος καὶ ἀληθείας- Ho logos pleres charitos kai aletheias (Greek)
Motto in English

Whatsoever things are true (Philippians 4:8 AV)

The word full of grace and truth (Gospel of John 1:14)
Established 1851
Type Private
Endowment US $6.3 billion[1]
President Morton O. Schapiro
Provost Daniel I. Linzer
Academic staff approximately 3,108 full-time faculty[2]
Undergraduates 8,425 (10–11)[2]
Postgraduates 10,759 (10–11)[2]
Location Evanston and Chicago, Illinois, U.S.A.
Campus Evanston main campus, Suburban, 240 acres (97 ha);
Chicago campus, Urban, 25 acres (10 ha)
Colors      Purple [3]
Athletics NCAA Division I, Big Ten
Wildcats
Mascot Willie the Wildcat
Affiliations Association of American Universities, COFHE
Website northwestern.edu
Northwestern University Wordmark.svg

Northwestern University is a private research university in Evanston and Chicago, Illinois, USA. Northwestern has eleven undergraduate, graduate, and professional schools offering 124 undergraduate degrees and 145 graduate and professional degrees.[4][5]

Northwestern was founded in 1851 by John Evans, for whom Evanston is named, and eight other lawyers, businessmen and Methodist leaders to serve the people of a region that had once been known as the Northwest Territory. Instruction began in 1855; women were admitted in 1869. Today, the main campus is a 240-acre (97 ha) parcel in Evanston, along the shores of Lake Michigan. The university's law and medical schools are located on a 25-acre (10 ha) campus in Chicago's Streeterville neighborhood. In 2008, the University opened a campus in Education City, Doha, Qatar with programs in journalism and communication. In academic year 2010-11, Northwestern enrolled 8,397 undergraduate and 7,870 graduate and professional students.[6]

Northwestern has one of the top ten university endowments in the United States.[1][7] One of only 62 institutions elected to the Association of American Universities (1917), Northwestern was awarded more than $500 million in research grants in 2010–2011, placing it in the first tier of the top research universities in the United States by the Center for Measuring University Performance.[8][9] Its schools of management, engineering, and communication, for example, are among the most academically productive in the nation.[10] Northwestern is a founding member of the Big Ten Conference and remains the only private university in the conference. The Northwestern Wildcats compete in 19 intercollegiate sports in the NCAA's Division I.

Contents

History

The history of Northwestern University is traceable to a meeting on May 31, 1850, of nine prominent Chicago businessmen, Methodist leaders and attorneys who had formed the idea of establishing a university to serve what had once been known as the Northwest Territory. On January 28, 1851, the Illinois General Assembly granted a charter to the Trustees of the North-Western University, making it the first chartered university in Illinois.[11][12][a] The school’s nine founders, all of whom were Methodists (three of them ministers), knelt in prayer and worship before launching their first organizational meeting.[13] Although they affiliated the university with the Methodist Episcopal Church, they were committed to non-sectarian admissions, believing that Northwestern should serve all people in the newly developing territory.[14]

John Evans, for whom Evanston is named, bought 379 acres (153 ha) of land along Lake Michigan in 1853, and Philo Judson developed plans for what would become the city of Evanston. The first building, Old College, opened on November 5, 1855.[15] To raise funds for construction, Northwestern sold $100 "perpetual scholarships" entitling the purchaser and his heirs to free tuition.[16][17] In 1873 the Evanston College for Ladies merged with Northwestern, and Frances Willard, who later gained fame as a suffragette and as one of the founders of the Woman's Christian Temperance Union (WCTU), became the school's first dean of women. Northwestern admitted its first women students in 1869, and the first woman was graduated in 1874.[18] Willard Residential College (1938) is named in her honor.

Northwestern fielded its first intercollegiate football team in 1882, later becoming a founding member of the Big Ten Conference. In the 1870s and 1880s, Northwestern affiliated itself with already existing schools of law, medicine, and dentistry in Chicago. As the university increased in wealth and distinction, and enrollments grew, these professional schools were integrated with the undergraduate college in Evanston; the result was a modern research university combining professional, graduate, and undergraduate programs, which gave equal weight to teaching and research.[19][20] The Association of American Universities invited Northwestern to become a member in 1917.

Deering Library (1933)

Under Walter Dill Scott's presidency from 1920 to 1939, Northwestern began construction of an integrated campus in Chicago designed by James Gamble Rogers to house the professional schools; established the Kellogg School of Management; and built several prominent buildings on the Evanston campus, Dyche Stadium (now named Ryan Field) and Deering Library among others. In 1933, a proposal to merge Northwestern with the University of Chicago was considered but rejected.[21][22] Northwestern hosted the first-ever NCAA Men's Division I Basketball Championship game in 1939 in the original Patten Gymnasium, later demolished and relocated farther north to make room for the Technological Institute.

University Hall (1869), the second building constructed on campus, and the oldest building still standing.

Like other American research universities, Northwestern was transformed by World War II. Franklyn B. Snyder led the university from 1939 to 1949, when nearly 50,000 military officers and personnel were trained on the Evanston and Chicago campuses. After the war, surging enrollments under the G.I. Bill drove drastic expansion of both campuses. In 1948 prominent anthropologist Melville J. Herskovits founded the Program of African Studies at Northwestern, the first center of its kind at an American academic institution.[23] J. Roscoe Miller's tenure as president from 1949–1970 was responsible for the expansion of the Evanston campus, with the construction of the lakefill on Lake Michigan, growth of the faculty and new academic programs, as well as polarizing Vietnam-era student protests. In 1978, the first and second Unabomber attacks occurred at Northwestern University.[24] Relations between Evanston and Northwestern were strained throughout much of the post-war era because of episodes of disruptive student activism,[25] disputes over municipal zoning, building codes, and law enforcement,[26] as well as restrictions on the sale of alcohol near campus until 1972.[27][28] Northwestern's exemption from state and municipal property tax obligations under its original charter has historically been a source of town and gown tension.

Though government support for universities declined in the 1970s and 1980s, President Arnold R. Weber was able to stabilize university finances, leading to a revitalization of the campuses. As admissions to colleges and universities grew increasingly competitive in the 1990s and 2000s, President Henry S. Bienen's tenure saw a notable increase in the number and quality of undergraduate applicants, continued expansion of the facilities and faculty, and renewed athletic competitiveness. In 1999, Northwestern student journalists uncovered information exonerating Illinois death row inmate Anthony Porter two days before his scheduled execution, and the Innocence Project has since exonerated 10 more men.[29][30] On January 11, 2003, in a speech at Northwestern School of Law's Lincoln Hall, then Governor of Illinois George Ryan announced that he would commute the sentences of more than 150 death row inmates.[31]

The Latin phrase on Northwestern's seal, Quaecumque sunt vera (Whatsoever things are true) is drawn from the Epistle of Paul to the Philippians 4:8, while the Greek phrase inscribed on the pages of an open book is taken from the Gospel of John 1:14: ο λόγος πλήρης χάριτος και αληθείας (The Word full of grace and truth).[32][33] Purple became Northwestern's official color in 1892,[34] replacing black and gold after a university committee concluded that too many other universities had used these colors. Today, Northwestern's official color is purple, although white is something of an official color as well, being mentioned in both the university's earliest song, Alma Mater (1907) ("Hail to purple, hail to white") and in many university guidelines.[3][35]

Campuses

Evanston

Northwestern's Evanston campus is located on Lake Michigan.

Northwestern's Evanston campus, where the undergraduate schools, the Graduate School, and the Kellogg School of Management are located, runs north-south from Lincoln Avenue to Clark Street west of Lake Michigan along Sheridan Road. North and South Campuses have noticeably different atmospheres, owing to the predominance of Science and Athletics in the one and Humanities and Arts in the other. North Campus is home to the fraternity quads, the Henry Crown Sports Pavilion and Norris Aquatics Center and other athletic facilities, the Technological Institute, Dearborn Observatory, and other science-related buildings including Patrick G. and Shirley W. Ryan Hall for Nanofabrication and Molecular Self-Assembly, and the Ford Motor Company Engineering Design Center. South Campus is home to the University's humanities buildings, Pick-Staiger Concert Hall and other music buildings, the Mary and Leigh Block Museum of Art, and the sorority quads. In the 1960s, the University created an additional 84 acres (34.0 ha) by means of a lakefill in Lake Michigan. Among some of the buildings located on these broad new acres are University Library, Norris University Center (the student union), and Pick-Staiger Concert Hall.

The Chicago Transit Authority's elevated train running through Evanston is called the Purple Line, taking its name from Northwestern's school color. The Foster and Davis stations are within walking distance of the southern end of the campus, while the Noyes station is close to the northern end of the campus. The Central station is close to Ryan Field, Northwestern's football stadium. The Evanston Davis Street Metra station serves the Northwestern campus in downtown Evanston and the Evanston Central Street Metra station is near Ryan Field. Pace Suburban Bus Service and the CTA have several bus routes that run through or near the Evanston campus.

Panorama of Northwestern University in Evanston

Chicago

The Montgomery Ward Memorial Building (1927) at Northwestern's Feinberg School of Medicine in Chicago, America's first academic skyscraper.[36]

Northwestern's Chicago campus is located in the city's Streeterville neighborhood. The Chicago campus is home to the medical school and affiliated hospitals, the law school, the part-time MBA program, and the School of Continuing Studies, which offers evening and weekend courses for working adults. Northwestern's professional schools and affiliated hospitals are about four blocks east of the Chicago station on the CTA Red Line. The Chicago campus is also served by CTA bus routes.

Founded at various times in the university's history, the professional schools originally were scattered throughout Chicago.[37] In connection with a 1917 master plan for a central Chicago campus and President Walter D. Scott's capital campaign, 8.5 acres (3.44 ha) of land were purchased at the corner of Chicago Avenue and Lake Shore Drive for $1.5 million in 1920.[37][37][38] The architect James Gamble Rogers was commissioned to create a master plan for the principal buildings on the new campus which he designed in collegiate gothic style. In 1923, Mrs. Montgomery Ward donated $8 million to the campaign to finance the construction of the Montgomery Ward Memorial Building which would house the medical and dental schools and to create endowments for faculty chairs, research grants, scholarships, and building maintenance.[39] The building would become the first skyscraper housing academic facilities in the United States.[36] In addition to the Ward Building, Rogers designed Wieboldt Hall to house facilities for the School of Commerce[40] and Levy Mayer Hall to house the School of Law.[41] The new campus comprising these three new buildings was dedicated during a two-day ceremony in June 1927. The Chicago campus continued to expand with the addition of Thorn Hall in 1931 and Abbott Hall in 1939.[37][42]

Satellite Campus in Qatar

In Fall 2008, Northwestern opened a campus in Education City, Doha, Qatar, joining five other American universities: Carnegie Mellon University, Cornell University, Georgetown University, Texas A&M University, and Virginia Commonwealth University.[43] Through the Medill School of Journalism and School of Communication, Qatar offers bachelors degrees in journalism and communication respectively.[44] The Qatar Foundation for Education, Science and Community Development provided funding for construction and administrative costs as well as support to hire 50 to 60 faculty and staff, some of whom rotate between the Evanston and Qatar campuses.[45][46]

Sustainability

In January 2009, the Green Power Partnership (GPP, sponsored by the EPA) listed Northwestern as one of the top 10 universities in the country in purchasing energy from renewable sources. The university matches 74 million kilowatt hours (kWh) of its annual energy use with Green-e Certified Renewable Energy Certificates (RECs). This green power commitment represents 30 percent of the university's total annual electricity use and places Northwestern in the EPA's Green Power Leadership Club. The 2010 Report by The Sustainable Endowments Institute awarded Northwestern a “B-” on its College Sustainability Report Card.[47] The Initiative for Sustainability and Energy at Northwestern (ISEN), supporting research, teaching and outreach in these themes, was launched in 2008.[48]

Northwestern requires that all new buildings be LEED-certified. Silverman Hall on the Evanston campus was awarded Gold LEED Certification in 2010; Wieboldt Hall on the Chicago campus was awarded Gold LEED Certification in 2007, and the Ford Motor Company Engineering Design Center on the Evanston campus was awarded Silver LEED Certification in 2006. New construction and renovation projects will be designed to provide at least a 20% improvement over energy code requirements where technically feasible.[49] The university also released at the beginning of the 2008-09 academic year the Evanston Campus Framework Plan, which outlines plans for future development of the Evanston Campus. The plan not only emphasizes the sustainable construction of buildings, but also discusses improving transportation by optimizing pedestrian and bicycle access.[50] Northwestern has had a comprehensive recycling program in place since 1990. Annually more than 1,500 tons are recycled at Northwestern, which represents 30% of the waste produced on campus. Additionally, all landscape waste at the university is composted.[51]

Organization and administration

Northwestern is privately owned and governed by an appointed board of trustees. The board, composed of 70 members and as of 2011 chaired by William A. Osborn, delegates its power to an elected president to serve as the chief executive officer of the university.[52] Northwestern has had sixteen presidents in its history (excluding interim presidents), the current president, Morton O. Schapiro, an economist, having succeeded Henry Bienen whose 14-year tenure ended on August 31, 2009.[53][54][55] The president has a staff of vice presidents, directors, and other assistants for administrative, financial, faculty, and student matters.[56] Daniel I. Linzer, provost since September 2007, serves under the president as the chief academic officer of the university to whom the deans of every academic school, leaders of cross-disciplinary units, and chairs of the standing faculty committee report.[57]

The Associated Student Government consists of the elected representatives of the undergraduate students and the Graduate Student Association represents graduate students.[58][59]

Northwestern University is composed of 11 schools and colleges. The faculty for each school consists of the dean of the school and the instructional faculty. Faculty are responsible for teaching, research, advising students, and serving on committees. Each school's admission requirements, degree requirements, courses of study, and disciplinary and degree recommendations are determined by the voting members of that school's faculty (assistant professor and above).[60]

Northwestern's endowment was $5.9 billion in mid 2010, estimated as ninth among US and Canadian universities.[7] By August 2010 it had grown to $6.3 billion, with an estimated rank of eighth.[1] In 2003, Northwestern finished a five-year capital campaign that raised $1.55 billion, $150 million more than its goal. In 2007, the university sold its royalty interest in the pain relief drug Lyrica for $700 million, a drug developed at Northwestern by Richard Bruce Silverman, the John Evans Professor of Chemistry. This was the largest such sale in history,[61] the proceeds of which were added to the endowment.[62]

Undergraduate and Graduate Programs Graduate and Professional
Evanston Campus Evanston Campus

Chicago Campus

Chicago Campus

Academics

University rankings (overall)
National
Forbes[63] 11
U.S. News & World Report[64] 12
Global
ARWU[65] 29
QS[66] 24
Times[67] 25

Northwestern is a large, residential research university.[8] Accredited by the North Central Association of Colleges and Schools and the respective national professional organizations for chemistry, psychology, business, education, journalism, music, engineering, law, and medicine,[68] the university offers 124 undergraduate programs and 145 graduate and professional programs.[4][5] NU conferred 2,219 bachelors degrees, 2,971 masters degrees, 447 doctoral degrees, and 444 professional degrees in 2009–2010.[6]

The four-year, full-time undergraduate program comprises the majority of enrollments at the university and emphasizes instruction in the arts and sciences, plus the professions of engineering, journalism, communication, music, and education.[8] Although a foundation in the liberal arts and sciences is required in all majors, there is no required common core curriculum; individual degree requirements are set by the faculty of each school.[60] Northwestern's full-time undergraduate and graduate programs operate on an approximately 10-week academic quarter system with the academic year beginning in late September and ending in early June. Undergraduates typically take 4 courses each quarter and 12 courses in an academic year and[69] are required to complete at least 12 quarters on campus to graduate. Northwestern offers honors, accelerated, and joint degree programs in medicine, science, mathematics, engineering, and journalism.[70] The comprehensive doctoral graduate program has high coexistence with undergraduate programs.[8]

Undergraduates with grade point averages in the highest 3 percent of each graduating class are awarded degrees summa cum laude, the next 5 percent magna cum laude, and the next 8 percent cum laude.[71] Northwestern also has chapters of academic honor societies such as Phi Beta Kappa (Alpha of Illinois), Eta Kappa Nu, Tau Beta Pi, and Lambda Pi Eta.[71] Since 1951, Northwestern has awarded 520 honorary degrees.[72][73]

Undergraduate tuition for the 2010-2011 school year was $39,840.[74] Northwestern awards financial aid solely on the basis of need through loans, work-study, grants, and scholarships.[74][75] The University processed in excess of $472 million in financial aid for the 2009-2010 academic year. This included $265 million in institutional funds, with the remainder coming from federal and state governments and private organizations and individuals. Northwestern scholarship programs for undergraduate students support needy students from a variety of income and backgrounds. Approximately 44 percent of the June 2010 graduates had received federal and/or private loans for their undergraduate education, graduating with an average debt of $17,200.

Among the six undergraduate schools, 51.6% of undergraduate students are enrolled in the Weinberg College of Arts and Sciences, 17.4% in the McCormick School of Engineering and Applied Science, 13.7% in the School of Communication, 8.1% in the Medill School of Journalism, 4.3% in the Bienen School of Music, and 4.9% in the School of Education and Social Policy.[76] The five most commonly awarded underegraduate degrees are in economics, journalism, communication studies, psychology, and political science.[77] While professional students are affiliated with their respective schools, full-time graduate academic degrees are primarily administered by the Graduate School.[78][79] With 2,446 students enrolled in science, engineering, and health fields,[80] the largest graduate programs by enrollment include chemistry, integrated biology, material sciences, electrical and computer engineering, neuroscience, and economics.[81] The Kellogg School of Management's MBA, the School of Law's JD, and the Feinberg School of Medicine's MD are the three largest professional degree programs by enrollment.[76]

Libraries and Museums

University Library (1970) in Brutalist style.

The Northwestern library system consists of four libraries on the Evanston campus including the central University Library, three libraries on the Chicago campus, and the library affiliated with Garrett-Evangelical Theological Seminary.[82] University Library contains over 4.9 million volumes, 4.6 million microforms, and almost 99,000 periodicals making it (by volume) the 30th-largest university library in North America and the 10th-largest library among private universities.[82][83] Library expenditures totaled $26.3 million in 2006 and more than 100,000 volumes were added in the same year.[83] Notable collections in the library system include the Melville J. Herskovits Library of African Studies, one of the largest Africana collections in the world,[84] an extensive collection of early edition printed music and manuscripts as well as late-modern works, and an art collection noted for its 19th and 20th-century Western art and architecture periodicals.[85] The library system participates with 15 other universities in digitizing its collections as a part of the Google Book Search project.[85] The Mary and Leigh Block Museum of Art is a major art museum in Chicago, containing more than 4,000 works in its permanent collection as well as dedicating a third of its space to temporary and traveling exhibitions.[86]

In 2011, the Holocaust Educational Foundation, which had previously endowed the Theodore Zev Weiss – Holocaust Educational Foundation Professorship in Holocaust Studies, became part of Northwestern.[87][88]

Research

Ford Motor Company Engineering Design Center (2005)

Northwestern was elected to the Association of American Universities in 1917 and remains a research university with "very high" research activity.[8][9] Northwestern's schools of management, engineering, and communication are among the most academically productive in the nation.[10] Northwestern received $556.4 million in research funding in 2010, an increase of 17 percent over the previous year. In 2010, $451.9 million of the overall dollar volume of research originated from federal agencies, $39.8 million from industry, $11.2 million from state governments, and $53.5 million from other sources. Northwestern supports nearly 1,500 research laboratories across two campuses, predominately in the medical and biological sciences. In 2008, the most recent year for which data are available, Northwestern was 32nd among top-ranking US universities in total funds for research and development with $439.9 million. Northwestern researchers disclosed 165 inventions, filed 76 patents applications, received 58 patents, started 4 companies, and generated $824.4 million in license income in 200. The bulk of revenue has come from a patent on pregabalin, a synthesized organic molecule discovered by chemistry professor Richard Silverman, which ultimately was marketed as Lyrica, a drug sold by Pfizer, to combat epilepsy, neuropathic pain, and fibromyalgia. The Lyrica returns in 2008 pushed Northwestern into first place among universities in licensing income.

Northwestern is home to the Center for Interdisciplinary Exploration and Research in Astrophysics, Northwestern Institute for Complex Systems, Nanoscale Science and Engineering Center, Materials Research Center, Institute for Policy Research, International Institute for Nanotechnology, Center for Catalysis and Surface Science, Buffet Center for International and Comparative Studies, the Initiative for Sustainability and Energy at Northwestern [89] and the Argonne/Northwestern Solar Energy Research Center and other centers for interdisciplinary research.[90]

Campus life

Traditions

The Rock in front of University Hall

The undergraduates have a number of traditions: Painting The Rock (originally a fountain donated by the Class of 1902) is a way to advertise, for example, campus organizations, events in Greek life, student groups, and university-wide events.[91] Dance Marathon, a 30-hour philanthropic event, raises several hundred thousand dollars every winter. Primal Scream is held at 9 p.m. on the Sunday before finals week every quarter; students lean out of windows or gather in courtyards and scream.[92] Armadillo Day, or, more popularly, Dillo Day, is held on Northwestern's Lakefill every Spring on the weekend after Memorial Day.[92]

There are traditions long associated with football games. Students growl like wildcats when the opposing team controls the ball, while simulating a claw with their hands. They will also jingle keys at the beginning of each kickoff. In the past, before the tradition was discontinued, students would throw marshmallows during games.[93] The Clock Tower at the Rebecca Crown Center glows purple, instead of its usual white, after a winning game, thereby proclaiming the happy news. The Clock Tower remains purple until a loss or until the end of the sports season. Whereas formerly the Clock Tower was lighted only for football victories, wins for men's basketball and women's lacrosse now merit commemoration as well; important victories in other sports may also prompt an empurpling.

Corporal punishment for undergraduates was introduced in 1922, when it was announced that students of either sex could be spanked for a range of offenses in public, including swearing, smoking (if aged under 21), rollerskating in the downtown district, or being rowdy in an ice cream parlor.[94]

Media

The Daily Northwestern is the main student newspaper. Established in 1881, and published on weekdays during the academic year, it is directed entirely by undergraduates. Although it serves the Northwestern community, the Daily has no business ties to the university, being supported wholly by advertisers. It is owned by the Students Publishing Company. Current circulation is in excess of 7,500.[citation needed]

North by Northwestern is an online magazine founded and run by undergraduates. It was established in September 2006 by students at the Medill School and is published on weekdays, with updates on breaking news stories and special events throughout the day and on weekends. North by Northwestern also publishes a quarterly print magazine, which was recognized as the nation's best student magazine by the Society of Professional Journalists.[95]

WNUR (89.3 FM) is a 7,200 watt radio station that broadcasts to Chicago and its northern suburbs. WNUR's programming consists of music – jazz, classical, rock – varsity sports (football, men's and women's basketball, baseball, softball, and women's lacrosse), breaking news on weekdays, politics, current events, and literature.[citation needed]

Northwestern News Network, commonly known as NNN, is a student-produced television news report. It broadcasts news and sports programming three days a week during the academic year on NU Channel 1, online at nnntv.org, and weeknights at 10 p.m. on Evanston Public-access television cable TV channel 6.[citation needed]

Syllabus is the undergraduate yearbook. First published in 1885, the yearbook is an epitome of that year's events at Northwestern. Published by Students Publishing Company and edited by Northwestern students, it is distributed in late May.

Northwestern Flipside is an undergraduate satirical magazine. Founded in 2009, The Flipside publishes a weekly issue both in print and online.

Helicon is the university's undergraduate literary magazine. Started in 1979, it is published twice a year, a web issue in the Winter, and a print issue with a web complement in the Spring.

TriQuarterly Online (formerly TriQuarterly) is a literary magazine published twice a year featuring poetry, fiction, nonfiction, drama, literary essays, reviews, a blog, and graphic art. [2]

Performing Arts

Two annual productions are especially notable: the Waa-Mu show, and the Dolphin show. Waa-Mu is an original musical, written and produced almost entirely by students.[96] Children's theater is represented on campus by Griffin’s Tale and Purple Crayon Players.[citation needed] Its umbrella organization—the Student Theatre Coalition, or StuCo—organizes the 9 fully functioning student theatre companies, plus some other performance groups.[citation needed] Students produce over sixty independent productions each year.[citation needed] Many Northwestern alumni have used these productions as stepping stones to successful television and film careers. Chicago's Lookingglass Theatre was founded by several alumni, including David Schwimmer, and began in the Great Room in Jones Residential College.[citation needed]

Northwestern also has a variety of improv groups. The improv and sketch comedy group Mee-Ow created by Paul Warshauer and Josh Lazar in 1974 lists Julia Louis-Dreyfus, Ana Gasteyer, Dermot Mulroney, Seth Meyers, John Cameron Mitchell, and Kristen Schaal among its alumni. Mee-Ow, The Titanic Players, and Out da Box, a multicultural comedy show, along with Northwestern's theatre department, have brought attention to Northwestern's improv comedy training and performance.[citation needed]

There are ten a cappella groups and a variety of dance companies on campus. The dance companies include Fusion Dance Company, Northwestern's premiere Hip-Hop Dance Crew; Graffiti Dancers, a dance group that focuses on jazz and modern; and Boomshaka, Northwestern's premiere drum and dance ensemble, combining body rhythm, drumming, and dance.[97] Radio drama featuring student voice actors is a staple of WNUR's programming.[98]

Service

Many students are involved in community service in one form or another. Annual events include Dance Marathon, a thirty-hour event that raised more than a million dollars for charity in 2011;[99] and Project Pumpkin, a Halloween celebration hosted by the Northwestern Community Development Corps (NCDC) to which more than 800 local children are invited for an afternoon of games and sweets. NCDC's work is to connect hundreds of student volunteers to some twenty volunteer sites in Evanston and Chicago throughout the year.[citation needed] Many students have assisted with the Special Olympics and have taken alternative spring break trips to hundreds of service sites across the United States.[citation needed] Northwestern students also participate in the Freshman Urban Program, a program for students interested in community service.[citation needed] A large and growing number of students participate in the university's Global Engagement Summer Institute (GESI), a group service-learning expedition in Asia, Africa, or Latin America, in conjunction with the Foundation for Sustainable Development.[100] Several internationally recognized non-profit organizations have originated at Northwestern including the World Health Imaging, Informatics and Telemedicine Alliance, a spin-off from an engineering student's honors thesis.[101][102]

Undergraduate Housing

Northwestern has several housing options, including both traditional residence halls and residential colleges which gather together students who have a particular intellectual interest in common. Among the residential colleges are the Residential College of Cultural and Community Studies (CCS), Ayers College of Commerce and Industry, Jones Residential College (Arts), Slivka Residential College (Science and Engineering), the International Studies Residential College, Communications Residential College (CRC), and the Public Affairs Residential College (PARC). In Fall 2007, 27% of undergraduates were affiliated with a fraternity or sorority.[103] Northwestern recognizes 21 fraternities and 18 sororities.[104]

Athletics

Northwestern is a charter member of the Big Ten Conference and the only private institution in the conference. Northwestern fields 19 intercollegiate athletic teams (8 men's and 11 women's) in addition to numerous club sports.[105] The women's lacrosse team won five consecutive NCAA national championships between 2005 and 2009, went undefeated in 2005 and 2009, and holds several scoring records.[106][107] The men's basketball team is recognized by the Helms Athletic Foundation as the 1931 National Champion.[108] In the 2008–2009 school year, a total of 184 athletes received Academic All-Big Ten honors: 75 athletes in the fall season,[109] 41 in the winter season,[110] and 68 in the spring season.[111]

The football team plays at Ryan Field (formerly known as Dyche Stadium); the basketball and volleyball teams play at Welsh-Ryan Arena. Northwestern's athletic teams are nicknamed the Wildcats. Before 1924, they were known as "The Purple" and unofficially as "The Fighting Methodists." The name Wildcats was bestowed upon the university in 1924 by Wallace Abbey, a writer for the Chicago Daily Tribune who wrote that even in a loss to the University of Chicago, "Football players had not come down from Evanston; wildcats would be a name better suited to [Coach Glenn] Thistletwaite's boys." [112] The name was so popular that university board members made "wildcats" the official nickname just months later. In 1972, the student body voted to change the official nickname from "Wildcats" to "Purple Haze" but the new name never stuck.[113]

The mascot of Northwestern Athletics is Willie the Wildcat. The first mascot, however, was a live, caged bear cub from the Lincoln Park Zoo named Furpaw who was brought to the playing field on the day of a game to greet the fans. But after a losing season, the team, deciding that Furpaw was to blame for its misfortune, banished him from campus forever. Willie the Wildcat made his debut in 1933 first as a logo, and then in three dimensions in 1947, when members of the Alpha Delta fraternity dressed as wildcats during a Homecoming Parade. The Northwestern University Marching Band (NUMB) performs at all home football games and leads cheers in the student section and performs the Alma Mater at the end of the game.

Ryan Field (1926), Northwestern's 49,000 seat football stadium

Although Northwestern's football team has made 73 appearances in the top 10 of the AP poll since 1936 (including 5 at #1) and has won eight Big Ten conference championships since 1903,[114][115][116] its history is one of losses: its all-time record is 461-622-42 (0.428) giving it the all-time record for Division I-A losses.[116][117][118] Other dubious distinctions include being on the losing end of the greatest comeback in Division I-A history[119] and holding the record for the longest losing streak in Division I-A, losing 34 consecutive games between 1979 and 1982.[120][121] In 2004, Northwestern broke a 33-year losing streak (46 years at home) by defeating No. 7-ranked Ohio State 33-27.[122] After head coach Ara Parseghian left the program in 1964, the team did not appear in a bowl game until the 1996 Rose Bowl. Despite playing in the 1996 Rose Bowl, 1997 Citrus Bowl, 2000 Alamo Bowl, 2003 Motor City Bowl, 2005 Sun Bowl, 2009 Alamo Bowl, 2010 Outback Bowl and 2011 TicketCity Bowl, the last bowl game Northwestern won was the 1949 Rose Bowl.[123] Following the sudden death of football coach Randy Walker in 2006,[124] 31-year-old former All-American Northwestern linebacker Pat Fitzgerald assumed the position, becoming the youngest Division I FBS coach at the time.[125][126]

In 1998, two former Northwestern basketball players were charged and convicted for sports bribery as a result of being paid to shave points in games against three other Big 10 schools during the 1995 season.[127][128][129] The football team became embroiled in a different betting scandal later that year when federal prosecutors indicted four former players for perjury related to betting on their own games.[130] In August 2001, Rashidi Wheeler, a senior safety, collapsed and died during practice from an asthma attack.[131][132] An autopsy revealed that he had ephedrine, a stimulant banned by the NCAA, in his system, which prompted Northwestern to investigate the prevalence of stimulants and other banned substances across all of its athletic programs.[133][134] In 2006, the Northwestern women's soccer team was suspended and coach Jenny Haigh resigned following the release of images of alleged hazing.[135][136]

People

Student body

Demographics of student body[137][138]
Undergraduate Postgraduate U.S. Census
African American 3.0% 4.0% 12.1%
Asian American 16.6% 9.9% 4.3%
White American 59.2% 46.0% 65.8%
Hispanic American 6.7% 3.1% 14.5%
Native American 0.1% 0.2% 0.9%
International student 5.0% 20.0% N/A

Northwestern enrolled 8,284 undergraduate, 8,249 graduate, and 1,495 professional students in the 2006–2007 academic year.[6] The undergraduate population is drawn from the 50 states and from some 50 foreign countries.[6][139] Admissions are characterized as "more selective, lower transfer-in".[8] There were 30,975 applications for the undergraduate Class of 2015 (entering 2011): 18% were admitted.[140] The interquartile range on the SAT was 2010–2270 and 85% ranked in the top ten percent of their high school class.[141] In 2007, Northwestern enrolled 249 National Merit Scholars as freshmen, the third-largest total in the nation.[142] 86% of students were graduated after four years, 92% after five years, the university having several five-year programs.[6]

Faculty

The university employs 2,291 full-time faculty members across its eleven schools,[2] including 18 members of the National Academy of Sciences,[143] 65 members of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences,[144] 19 members of the National Academy of Engineering,[145] and 6 members of the Institute of Medicine.[146] Notable faculty include 2010 Nobel Prize- winning economist Dale T. Mortensen;[147] nano-scientist Chad Mirkin; Tony Award-winning director Mary Zimmerman; management expert Philip Kotler; King Faisal International Prize in Science recipient Sir Fraser Stoddart; Steppenwolf Theatre director Anna Shapiro; sexual psychologist J. Michael Bailey;[148] Holocaust denier Arthur Butz;[149] Federalist Society co-founder Steven Calabresi;[150] former Weatherman Bernardine Rae Dohrn;[151] ethnographer Gary Alan Fine;[152] Pulitzer Prize-winning historian Garry Wills;[153] and MacArthur Fellowship recipients Stuart Dybek, and Jennifer Richeson. Notable former faculty include political advisor David Axelrod,[154] artist Ed Paschke,[155] writer Charles Newman,[156] Nobel Prize-winning chemist John Pople,[157] and military sociologist and "don't ask, don't tell" author Charles Moskos.[158]

Alumni

Charlton Heston, Academy Award-winning actor, National Rifle Association President, B.S. '45

Northwestern has roughly 190,000 alumni in all branches of business, government, law, science, education, medicine, media, and the performing arts. Among Northwestern's more notable alumni are U.S. Senator and presidential candidate George McGovern, Nobel Prize-winning economist George J. Stigler, Nobel Prize-winning novelist Saul Bellow, Pulitzer Prize-winning composer and diarist Ned Rorem, the much-decorated composer Howard Hanson, Deputy Prime Minister of Turkey Ali Babacan, the historian and novelist Wilma Dykeman, and the founder of the presidential prayer breakfast Abraham Vereide. U.S. Supreme Court Associate Justice John Paul Stevens, Supreme Court Justice and Ambassador to the United Nations Arthur Joseph Goldberg, and Governor of Illinois and Democratic presidential candidate Adlai Stevenson are among the graduates of the Northwestern School of Law. Many Northwestern alumni play or have played important roles in Chicago and Illinois, such as former Illinois governor Rod Blagojevich, Chicago Bulls and Chicago White Sox owner Jerry Reinsdorf, and theater director Mary Zimmerman. Northwestern alumni David J. Skorton and Graham Spanier currently serve as president of Cornell University and Penn State University, respectively. Rahm Emanuel, the mayor of Chicago and former White House Chief of Staff, earned a Masters in Speech and Communication in 1985.

John Paul Stevens, Associate Justice of the United States Supreme Court, J.D. '47

Northwestern's School of Communication has been especially fruitful in the number of actors, actresses, playwrights, and film and television writers and directors it has produced. Alumni who have made their mark on film and television include Ann-Margret, Warren Beatty, Paul Lynde, David Schwimmer, Anne Dudek, Zach Braff, Zooey Deschanel, Marg Helgenberger, Julia Louis-Dreyfus, Jerry Orbach, Jennifer Jones, Jerry Springer, Megan Mullally, Dermot Mulroney, Charlton Heston, Richard Kind, Ana Gasteyer, Brad Hall, Shelley Long, William Daniels, Cloris Leachman, Bonnie Bartlett, Paula Prentiss, Richard Benjamin, Laura Innes, Charles Busch, Stephanie March, Tony Roberts, Jeri Ryan, Kimberly Williams-Paisley, McLean Stevenson, Tony Randall, Charlotte Rae, Patricia Neal, Nancy Dussault, Robert Reed, Mara Brock Akil, Greg Berlanti, Dan Shor, Seth Meyers, Frank DeCaro, Zach Gilford, Stephen Colbert and Garry Marshall. Directors who were graduated from Northwestern include Gerald Freedman, Stuart Hagmann, Marshall W. Mason, and Mary Zimmerman. Lee Phillip Bell hosted a talk show in Chicago from 1952–1986 and co-created the Daytime Emmy Award-winning soap operas The Young and the Restless in 1973 and The Bold and the Beautiful in 1987. Alumni such as Sheldon Harnick, Stephanie D'Abruzzo, Heather Headley, Kristen Schaal, Lily Rabe, and Walter Kerr have distinguished themselves on Broadway, as has designer Bob Mackie. Amsterdam-based comedy theater Boom Chicago was founded by Northwestern alumni, and the school has become a training ground for future The Second City, I.O., ComedySportz, Mad TV and Saturday Night Live talent.[159][160][161] Tam Spiva wrote scripts for The Brady Bunch and Gentle Ben. In New York, Los Angeles, and Chicago, the number of Northwestern alumni involved in theater, film, and television is so large that a perception has formed that there's such a thing as a "Northwestern mafia."[162][163]

The Medill School of Journalism has produced notable journalists and political activists including 38 Pulitzer Prize laureates. National correspondents, reporters and columnists such as The New York Times's Elisabeth Bumiller, David Barstow, Dean Murphy, and Vincent Laforet, USA Today's Gary Levin, Susan Page and Christine Brennan, NBC correspondent Kelly O'Donnell, CBS correspondent Richard Threlkeld, CNN correspondents Nicole Lapin and Joie Chen, and ESPN personalities Rachel Nichols, Michael Wilbon, Mike Greenberg, Steve Weissman, J. A. Adande, and Kevin Blackistone.

Northwestern alumni involved in music include Steve Albini, Thomas Tyra, Andrew Bird, Joshua Radin, members of Arcade Fire, The Lawrence Arms, Chavez, and OK Go. Lastly, Northwestern alumni involved in professional sports include Rick Sund (NBA), Billy McKinney (NBA), Mark Loretta (MLB), Joe Girardi (MLB), Luis Castillo (NFL), Ernie Adams (NFL), Otto Graham (NFL), three-time Olympic medalist Matt Grevers, and PGA Tour star Luke Donald.


Notes and references

  1. ^ a b c Claire Brown (October 7, 2010). "In Focus: Northwestern's endowment bounces back". Daily Northwestern. http://www.dailynorthwestern.com/in-focus-northwestern-s-endowment-bounces-back-1.2357836. Retrieved July 1, 2011. 
  2. ^ a b c d [1], Northwestern Data Book.
  3. ^ a b "Guidelines, Northwestern Identity System, Publications, Northwestern University". http://www.northwestern.edu/univ-relations/publications/logo/guidelines.html. Retrieved August 4, 2010. 
  4. ^ a b "Undergraduate Programs: A to Z Guide". Northwestern University. http://www.northwestern.edu/academics/undergraduate-a-to-z.html. Retrieved December 2, 2009. 
  5. ^ a b "Graduate and Professional Programs: A to Z Guide". Northwestern University. http://www.northwestern.edu/academics/graduate-a-to-z.html. Retrieved December 2, 2009. 
  6. ^ a b c d e "Common Data Set – Enrollment and persistence". Northwestern University. http://www.northwestern.edu/about/northwestern-at-a-glance/students.html. Retrieved September 18, 2008. 
  7. ^ a b "U.S. and Canadian Institutions Listed by Fiscal Year 2010 Endowment Market Value". National Association of College and University Business Officers. January 18, 2011. http://www.nacubo.org/Documents/research/2010NCSE_Public_Tables_Endowment_Market_Values_Final.pdf. Retrieved July 1, 2011. 
  8. ^ a b c d e f "Institutions: Northwestern University". The Carnegie Foundation for the Advancement of Teaching. http://classifications.carnegiefoundation.org/lookup_listings/view_institution.php?unit_id=147767. Retrieved September 18, 2008. 
  9. ^ a b "Member Institutions and Years of Admission". Association of American Universities. http://www.aau.edu/about/article.aspx?id=5476. Retrieved September 18, 2008. 
  10. ^ a b "Top Research Universities Faculty Scholarly Productivity Index". The Chronicle of Higher Education. http://chronicle.com/stats/productivity/page.php?year=2007&institution=1116&byinst=Go. Retrieved May 17, 2009. 
  11. ^ Williamson & Wild 1976, pp. 5–6
  12. ^ "The Northwestern University Charter and Amendments". Northwestern University. http://www.library.northwestern.edu/archives/nu_charter.pdf. Retrieved August 5, 2007. 
  13. ^ "Keeping the Faith". Northwestern. http://www.northwestern.edu/magazine/northwestern/summer2002/features/coverstory/index.htm. Retrieved 2007-07-20. "Northwestern’s own religious identity stretches back to its genesis. The University began with a prayer — the school’s nine founders (all of them Methodists, three of them ministers) knelt in worship before launching their first organizational meeting. During that meeting, they agreed to establish a university under the patronage of the Methodist Episcopal Church. Through most of its history, Northwestern kept a strong Methodist tie. Regional church conferences chose a member of the board of trustees, and until 1890 every University president was an ordained Methodist minister." 
  14. ^ "Planning a university to serve the Northwest Territory". Northwestern University. http://www.northwestern.edu/features/historic_moments/10_21_00_founders.html. Retrieved 2007-08-05. "Although the founders were strong Methodists — three of them were Methodist ministers and before the meeting all those in attendance joined in prayer — they also firmly believed that Northwestern should be institution that would serve all people. At that time in history, particularly in the Midwest, many religious denominations founded colleges aimed at educating only members of their religion." 
  15. ^ Williamson & Wild 1976, pp. 10–11
  16. ^ Williamson & Wild 1976, pp. 6
  17. ^ "Perpetual Scholarships provided early university funding". Northwestern University. Archived from the original on August 3, 2007. http://web.archive.org/web/20070803194448/http://www.northwestern.edu/features/historic_moments/11_5_00_scholarship.html. Retrieved August 5, 2007. 
  18. ^ Williamson & Wild 1976, pp. 23–28
  19. ^ Williamson & Wild 1976, pp. 83–84,110
  20. ^ Northwestern Undergraduate Catalog 2005–07. XXVIII, (3 ed.). 2005. 
  21. ^ Barnes, Sarah (August 1999). "A Lost Opportunity in American Education? The Proposal to Merge the University of Chicago and Northwestern University". American Journal of Education (University of Chicago Press) 107 (4): 289–320. doi:10.1086/444224. 
  22. ^ "The deal that almost was: 'The Universities of Chicago'". Northwestern University. http://www.northwestern.edu/about/historic-moments/academics/the-universities-of-chicago.html. Retrieved October 9, 2010. [dead link]
  23. ^ Secter, Bob (October 28, 1995). "Pioneering Scholar in African Studies Finally Gets His Due". Chicago Tribune. 
  24. ^ Gottlieb, Martin (August 2, 1995). "Pattern Emerges in Bomber's Tract". The New York Times. http://www.nytimes.com/1995/08/02/us/pattern-emerges-in-bomber-s-tract.html?sec=&spon=&pagewanted=all. 
  25. ^ Younger, Lucille (November 5, 1972). "N.U. Ignores Evanston Bill for Riot Expense Payment". Chicago Tribune. 
  26. ^ Schwanitz, Charles (November 23, 1952). "Future Expansion of N.U. to Bring Zoning Problems". Chicago Daily Tribune. 
  27. ^ Tatum, Christine (May 6, 2001). "When others see purple: NU's public offerings an antidote to tension". Chicago Tribune. 
  28. ^ "Dry for more than a century". Northwestern University. Archived from the original on June 8, 2007. http://web.archive.org/web/20070608053355/http://www.northwestern.edu/features/historic_moments/11_12_00_alcohol.html. Retrieved August 6, 2007. 
  29. ^ Jeter, Jon (February 17, 1999). "A New Ending To an Old Story; Journalism Students Rewrite the Case Of an Innocent Man Set to Die". The Washington Post. 
  30. ^ "Medill Innocence Project". http://www.medill.northwestern.edu/journalism/undergrad/page.aspx?id=59507. Retrieved August 26, 2008. 
  31. ^ Mills, Steve; Possley, Maurice (January 12, 2003). "Decision day for 156 inmates; Ryan poised to make history after 3 years of debate on death penalty". Chicago Tribune. 
  32. ^ "Keeping the Faith". Northwestern Magazine. http://www.northwestern.edu/magazine/northwestern/summer2002/features/coverstory/index.htm. Retrieved May 27, 2009. 
  33. ^ Quinn, Patrick M. (March 1980). "The Northwestern University seal... "It sure looks Greek to me"". Northwestern Memo: p. 4. http://www.library.northwestern.edu/archives/university_seal.pdf. Retrieved August 6, 2007. 
  34. ^ "Events in Northwestern History". Archived from the original on October 13, 2007. http://web.archive.org/web/20071013180957/http://northwestern.edu/about/history/timeline1899/index.html. Retrieved October 4, 2007. 
  35. ^ Quinn, Patrick M. (December 1979). "Hail to Black! Hail to Gold! Hail to thee, Northwestern!". Northwestern Memo: p. 8. http://www.library.northwestern.edu/archives/nu_colors.pdf. Retrieved August 6, 2007. 
  36. ^ a b Timeline 1900–1949, History, About, Northwestern University
  37. ^ a b c d "Northwestern Architecture, Chicago Campus". Northwestern University Archives. http://www.library.northwestern.edu/archives/exhibits/architecture/building.php?bid=7. Retrieved July 11, 2008. 
  38. ^ "Refund". Time (New York). November 29, 1937. http://www.time.com/time/magazine/article/0,9171,758505,00.html. Retrieved July 11, 2008. 
  39. ^ "Northwestern Architecture, Montgomery Ward". Northwestern University Archives. http://www.library.northwestern.edu/archives/exhibits/architecture/building.php?bid=13. Retrieved July 11, 2008. 
  40. ^ "Northwestern Architecture, Wieboldt Hall". Northwestern University Archives. http://www.library.northwestern.edu/archives/exhibits/architecture/building.php?bid=28. Retrieved July 11, 2008. 
  41. ^ "Northwestern Architecture, Levy Mayer Hall". Northwestern University Archives. http://www.library.northwestern.edu/archives/exhibits/architecture/building.php?bid=10. Retrieved July 11, 2008. 
  42. ^ "Northwestern Architecture, Abbott Hall". Northwestern University Archives. http://www.library.northwestern.edu/archives/exhibits/architecture/building.php?bid=2. Retrieved July 4, 2009. 
  43. ^ Lewin, Tamar (February 11, 2008). "Oil money cultivates a Mideast Ivy League". International Herald Tribune (Paris). http://www.iht.com/bin/printfriendly.php?id=9921842. Retrieved January 6, 2009. 
  44. ^ "Northwestern University in Qatar". Northwestern University. http://www.qatar.northwestern.edu/. Retrieved January 6, 2009. 
  45. ^ Choen, Jodi (April 6, 2007). "Qatar entices NU to expand east: School near deal to open a campus". Chicago Tribune. 
  46. ^ "Northwestern University expected to open journalism school in Qatar". International Herald Tribune. The Associated Press (Paris). April 6, 2007. http://www.iht.com/articles/ap/2007/04/06/america/NA-GEN-US-Qatar-Journalism-School.php. Retrieved January 6, 2009. 
  47. ^ "The College Sustainability Report Card 2009". Sustainable Endowments Institute. http://www.greenreportcard.org/report-card-2010/schools/northwestern-university/. Retrieved June 1, 2009. 
  48. ^ "ISEN". http://www.isen.northwestern.edu/. 
  49. ^ "Northwestern University Facilities Management: Environmental Sustainability". Northwestern University. http://www.northwestern.edu/fm/environmental_sustainability.htm. Retrieved June 1, 2009. 
  50. ^ "Northwestern University Evanston Campus Framework Plan" (PDF). Northwestern University. http://www.northwestern.edu/newscenter/observer/framework.pdf. Retrieved June 1, 2009. 
  51. ^ "Initiative for Sustainability and Energy at Northwestern University". Northwestern University. http://www.isen.northwestern.edu/sustainability/Recycling_Expansion_and_Other_Green_Efforts.html. Retrieved June 1, 2009. [dead link]
  52. ^ "Board of Trustees: Charter, National and Alumni Trustees". Northwestern University. http://www.adminplan.northwestern.edu/board-of-trustees/charter.htm. Retrieved July 14, 2011. 
  53. ^ "Henry Bienen to Retire as Northwestern University President" (Press release). Northwestern News Center. May 4, 2008. http://www.northwestern.edu/newscenter/stories/2008/03/bienenpresidency.html. 
  54. ^ "Morton O. Schapiro Named Northwestern University President" (Press release). Northwestern News Center. December 16, 2008. http://www.northwestern.edu/newpresident/newsrelease.html. 
  55. ^ "Executives' Compensation at Private Institutions". The Chronicle of Higher Education. http://chronicle.com/premium/stats/990/private/inst-detail.php?id=1116&year=2008. Retrieved May 17, 2009. [dead link]
  56. ^ "President's Staff". Northwestern University, Office of the President. Archived from the original on May 17, 2008. http://web.archive.org/web/20080517094310/http://www.northwestern.edu/president/PRESSTAF.html. Retrieved September 16, 2008. 
  57. ^ "Office of the Provost". Northwestern University. http://www.northwestern.edu/provost/. Retrieved September 18, 2008. 
  58. ^ "Northwestern Associated Student Government". Northwestern Associated Student Government. http://asg.northwestern.edu/index.php. Retrieved September 19, 2008. 
  59. ^ "Graduate Student Association: Mission Statement". Northwestern University Graduate Student Association. http://studentassociations.gsad.northwestern.edu/gsa/. Retrieved September 19, 2008. 
  60. ^ a b "Faculty Handbook". Northwestern University. http://www.northwestern.edu/provost/faculty/handbook.pdf. Retrieved September 19, 2008. 
  61. ^ "College Cashes In on Diabetes Pain Drug". ABC News. December 19, 2007. http://abcnews.go.com/Health/DiabetesResource/story?id=4025983&page=1. Retrieved January 4, 2009. 
  62. ^ "2007 Financial Report". Northwestern University. http://www.northwestern.edu/accounting-services/2007%20Financial%20Report.pdf. Retrieved January 3, 2009. [dead link]
  63. ^ "America's Best Colleges". Forbes. 2011. http://www.forbes.com/top-colleges/list/. Retrieved October 6, 2011. 
  64. ^ "National Universities Rankings". America's Best Colleges 2012. U.S. News & World Report. September 13, 2011. http://colleges.usnews.rankingsandreviews.com/best-colleges. Retrieved September 25, 2011. 
  65. ^ "Academic Ranking of World Universities: Global". Institute of Higher Education, Shanghai Jiao Tong University. 2011. http://www.shanghairanking.com/ARWU2011.html. Retrieved August 30, 2011. 
  66. ^ "QS World University Rankings". QS Quacquarelli Symonds Limited. 2011. http://www.topuniversities.com/university-rankings/world-university-rankings/2011. Retrieved September 30, 2011. 
  67. ^ "Top 400 - The Times Higher Education World University Rankings 2011-2012". The Times Higher Education. 2011. http://www.timeshighereducation.co.uk/world-university-rankings/2011-2012/top-400.html. Retrieved October 6, 2011. 
  68. ^ "University Accreditation". Northwestern University. http://www.registrar.northwestern.edu/consumer_info/accred.html. Retrieved September 18, 2008. [dead link]
  69. ^ (PDF) Undergraduate Course Catalog – Academic Calendar. Office of the Registrar, Northwestern University. 2009–2010. http://www.registrar.northwestern.edu/courses/archive/full_nucat2009_10.pdf. Retrieved December 2, 2009. 
  70. ^ (PDF) Undergraduate Course Catalog – Academic Options. Office of the Registrar, Northwestern University. 2008–2009. pp. 29–30. http://www.registrar.northwestern.edu/nucatalog/catalog0809/wcas_cat0809.pdf. Retrieved January 3, 2009. 
  71. ^ a b (PDF) Undergraduate Course Catalog – Honors and Prizes. Office of the Registrar, Northwestern University. 2008–2009. pp. 28–29. http://www.registrar.northwestern.edu/nucatalog/catalog0809/wcas_cat0809.pdf. Retrieved January 3, 2009. 
  72. ^ "Past Recipients, Honorary Degrees". Office of the Provost, Northwestern University. http://www.northwestern.edu/provost/awards/honorary/honrecip.html. Retrieved January 4, 2009. 
  73. ^ "Awards and Honors – Honorary Degrees". Office of the Provost, Northwestern University. http://www.northwestern.edu/provost/awards/honorary/. Retrieved January 4, 2009. 
  74. ^ a b (PDF) Undergraduate Course Catalog – Financial Aid & Financial Regulations. Office of the Registrar, Northwestern University. 2008–2009. pp. 20–21. http://www.registrar.northwestern.edu/nucatalog/catalog0809/wcas_cat0809.pdf. Retrieved January 3, 2009. 
  75. ^ "FAQ, Financial Aid". Northwestern University. http://www.ugadm.northwestern.edu/freshman/financing/faq.htm. Retrieved May 5, 2008. 
  76. ^ a b "Opening Fall Enrollments, 1996–2007" (XLS). Institutional Research, Northwestern University. http://www.adminplan.northwestern.edu/ir/databook/v40%2007-08/V40_T18-OPENENR.xls. Retrieved January 3, 2009. [dead link]
  77. ^ "Bachelors Degerees by Discipline – 2003–04 and 2007–08" (XLS). Institutional Research, Northwestern University. http://www.adminplan.northwestern.edu/ir/databook/v41/V41_T5.05-BACHDEGS.xls. Retrieved January 3, 2009. [dead link]
  78. ^ "About TGS". The Graduate School, Northwestern University. http://www.tgs.northwestern.edu/abouttgs/. Retrieved January 3, 2008. 
  79. ^ (PDF) Undergraduate Course Catalog – Campuses. Office of the Registrar, Northwestern University. 2008–2009. pp. 7–8. http://www.registrar.northwestern.edu/nucatalog/catalog0809/wcas_cat0809.pdf. Retrieved January 3, 2009. 
  80. ^ "Full-time graduate students in S&E and health in all institutions, ranked by 2005 total". National Science Foundation. 2005. http://www.nsf.gov/statistics/profiles/data/gss_ranking.cfm#G001739. Retrieved January 4, 2009. 
  81. ^ "Total Graduate School Enrollment by Department – Fall 1997 through Fall 2007" (XLS). Institutional Research, Northwestern University. http://www.adminplan.northwestern.edu/ir/databook/v40%2007-08/V40_T20-GRADENR-3.xls. Retrieved January 3, 2008. [dead link]
  82. ^ a b "Library Resources" (PDF). Northwestern University Library. http://www.library.northwestern.edu/help/library_resources.pdf. Retrieved January 3, 2009. 
  83. ^ a b "Selected Statistics for ARL University Libraries for 2005–06". Institutional Research, Northwestern University. http://www.adminplan.northwestern.edu/ir/databook/v40%2007-08/V40_T58-LIBSTATS.xls. Retrieved January 3, 2009. [dead link]
  84. ^ "Melville J. Herskovits Library of African Studies". Northwestern University Library. http://www.library.northwestern.edu/africana/about/welcome.html. Retrieved January 3, 2009. "the largest separate Africana collection in existence." 
  85. ^ a b "Google Project Will Create Digital Repository for Select University Library Collections". Northwestern University News Office. June 6, 2007. http://www.northwestern.edu/newscenter/stories/2007/06/google.html. Retrieved January 3, 2009. 
  86. ^ "History: Museum & Building". Mary and Leigh Block Museum of Art, Northwestern University. http://www.blockmuseum.northwestern.edu/about/history.html. Retrieved January 3, 2009. 
  87. ^ Alan K. Cubbage (January 17, 3022). "Holocaust Educational Foundation to Join Northwestern Northwestern will continue the Foundation’s efforts to support Holocaust research, outreach". http://www.northwestern.edu/newscenter/stories/2011/01/holocaust-educational-foundation.html. Retrieved January 18, 2011. 
  88. ^ "Holocaust Educational Foundation to Become Part of Northwestern U.". Chronicle of Higher Educaation. January 17, 2011. http://chronicle.com/blogs/ticker/holocaust-educational-foundation-to-become-part-of-northwestern-u/29763?sid=at&utm_source=at&utm_medium=en. Retrieved January 18, 2011. 
  89. ^ "The Initiative for Sustainability and Energy at Northwestern University (ISEN)". http://www.isen.northwestern.edu/. 
  90. ^ "University Research Centers". Office of Research, Northwestern University. Archived from the original on July 15, 2008. http://web.archive.org/web/20080715081259/http://www.research.northwestern.edu/centers/university-research-centers.html. Retrieved January 4, 2009. 
  91. ^ Northwestern University Wildcams: Troubleshooting
  92. ^ a b Northwestern traditions, Campus life, Freshman, Office of Undergraduate Admission – Northwestern University
  93. ^ "Keys, claws and nachos for breakfast: A beginners' guide to NU football games". September 20076. http://www.northbynorthwestern.com/2007/09/4005/nufootball/. Retrieved August 26, 2008. 
  94. ^ "Ten College "Don'ts.": Evanstan Judge Tells Northwestern Students What Not to Do." (PDF). The New York Times. February 14, 1922. http://query.nytimes.com/mem/archive-free/pdf?res=FB071EFA35541B7A93C6A81789D85F468285F9. 
  95. ^ http://www.spj.org/news.asp?REF=974#974
  96. ^ "What is Waa-Mu?"
  97. ^ http://www.boomshaka.org/about.html
  98. ^ "About Northwestern University Radio Drama"
  99. ^ "NU Dance Marathon". NUDM. http://www.nudm.org/about.html. Retrieved August 23, 2008. [dead link]
  100. ^ http://www.wcas.northwestern.edu/esep/career/ges.html
  101. ^ "McCormick students and faculty tackle health care challenge in the developing world". McCormick School of Engineering. http://magazine.mccormick.northwestern.edu/FA2007/Xray.html. Retrieved July 4, 2009. 
  102. ^ "World Health Imaging Alliance Partners For X-Rays in Developing World". McCormick School of Engineering. http://www.mccormick.northwestern.edu/news/articles/494. Retrieved July 4, 2009. 
  103. ^ "Fraternity and Sorority Community: Fall 2008 Synopsis". Office of Fraternity and Sorority Life, Northwestern University. http://www.northwestern.edu/gogreek/geninfo/overview.html. Retrieved May 15, 2009. [dead link]
  104. ^ "Fraternities and Sororities Recognized by Northwestern University". Office of Fraternity and Sorority Life, Northwestern University. http://www.northwestern.edu/gogreek/organizations/index.html. Retrieved May 15, 2009. [dead link]
  105. ^ "Northwestern University Facts". Northwestern University. http://www.northwestern.edu/about/facts/. Retrieved August 20, 2008. 
  106. ^ Lomonico, David (May 25, 2008). "Northwestern completes four-peat in women's lacrosse". ESPN. http://sports.espn.go.com/espn/print?id=3412373&type=Story&imagesPrint=off. 
  107. ^ "Northwestern wins 5th straight title". ESPN. Associated Press. May 24, 2009. http://sports.espn.go.com/ncaa/news/story?id=4203437. 
  108. ^ "100 Great Moments in Big Ten Men's Basketball History". Big Ten Official Athletic Site. http://www.bigten.org/sports/m-baskbl/spec-rel/120404aaa.html. Retrieved May 15, 2009. 
  109. ^ "NU Leads Conference With 75 Academic All-Big Ten Honors in Six Fall Sports". Northwestern University Athletics. December 3, 2008. http://nusports.cstv.com/genrel/120308aac.html. 
  110. ^ "Forty-One Wildcats Earn Academic All-Big Ten Award". Northwestern University Athletics. March 26, 2009. http://nusports.cstv.com/genrel/032609aae.html. 
  111. ^ "Sixty-Eight Wildcats Earn Academic All-Big Ten Distinction". Northwestern University Athletics. May 29, 2009. http://nusports.cstv.com/genrel/052909aab.html. 
  112. ^ Abbey, Wallace (November 16, 1924). "Maroons beat Purple by a Dropkick". Chicago Tribune: pp. A1. 
  113. ^ Damer, Roy (April 18, 1972). "Purple Haze Won't Go Away At N.U.". Chicago Tribune. 
  114. ^ "Appearances in AP Top 10". AP Poll Archive. http://www.appollarchive.com/football/ap/app_total.cfm?sort=top10app&decade=all&rows=all. Retrieved March 7, 2010. [dead link]
  115. ^ "Appearances in at #1 in AP Poll". AP Poll Archive. http://www.appollarchive.com/football/ap/app_total.cfm?sort=num1app&decade=all&rows=all. Retrieved March 7, 2010. [dead link]
  116. ^ a b "Northwestern Football History Database". NationalChamps.net. http://www.nationalchamps.net/NCAA/database/northwestern_database.htm. Retrieved May 2, 2009. 
  117. ^ "Worst college football teams of all time". ESPN. September 16, 2002. http://espn.go.com/page2/s/list/colfootball/teams/worst.html. 
  118. ^ "Division I-A Losses 1869–2009". Stassen.com College Football Information. http://football.stassen.com/cgi-bin/records/calc-wp.pl?start=1869&end=2009&rpct=30&min=5&se=on&c1a=on&by=Losses. Retrieved January 6, 2009. 
  119. ^ "Michigan State has biggest comeback in Division I-A history in defeat of Northwestern". USA Today. October 21, 2006. http://www.usatoday.com/sports/college/football/games/2006-10-21-michstate-nwestern_x.htm. Retrieved January 6, 2009. 
  120. ^ Bumiller, Elisabeth (November 9, 1981). "The Streak! Northwestern Sets Football Record, 29 Demoralizing Losses in a Row; Northwestern's Streak". The Washington Post: p. D1. 
  121. ^ Pomerantz, Gary (September 25, 1982). "Northwestern: Paradise Found After 34 Lost Weekends". The Washington Post: p. F1. 
  122. ^ "Ohio State Turns Purple After Loss to Northwestern". The New York Times. October 4, 2004. http://query.nytimes.com/gst/fullpage.html?res=9B06E0D91138F937A35753C1A9629C8B63. Retrieved January 6, 2009. 
  123. ^ "Taking stock of the early results from football's bowl season". USA Today. January 5, 2009. http://www.usatoday.com/sports/columnist/lopresti/2009-01-05-bowl-results_N.htm. Retrieved January 6, 2009. 
  124. ^ Sprow, Chris (July 1, 2006). "Randy Walker, Northwestern Head Football Coach, 52, Dies". The New York Times. http://www.nytimes.com/2006/07/01/sports/ncaafootball/01walker.html. Retrieved January 6, 2009. 
  125. ^ Eligon, John (August 9, 2006). "Northwestern’s Fitzgerald a Comforting Figure for a Familiar Pain". The New York Times. http://www.nytimes.com/2006/08/09/sports/ncaafootball/09north.html. Retrieved January 6, 2009. 
  126. ^ "Fitzgerald becomes youngest coach in Division I-A". ESPN. July 8, 2006. http://sports.espn.go.com/ncf/news/story?id=2512178. Retrieved January 6, 2009. 
  127. ^ "Sentences Issued in Gambling Case". The New York Times. November 25, 1998. http://query.nytimes.com/gst/fullpage.html?res=9502E0D81739F936A15752C1A96E958260. Retrieved July 13, 2008. 
  128. ^ Belluck, Pam (March 27, 1998). "Ex-Northwestern Players Charged in Point-Shaving". The New York Times. http://query.nytimes.com/gst/fullpage.html?res=9D07EFDA173BF934A15750C0A96E958260. Retrieved July 13, 2008. 
  129. ^ Berkow, Ira (April 20, 1998). "Caught in Gambling's Grip; A Promising Career Unravels at Northwestern". The New York Times. http://query.nytimes.com/gst/fullpage.html?res=9D07E4DA113CF933A15757C0A96E958260. Retrieved July 13, 2008. 
  130. ^ Dedman, Bill (December 4, 1998). "4 Are Indicted in Northwestern Football Scandal". The New York Times. http://query.nytimes.com/gst/fullpage.html?res=9C00E4D8103BF937A35751C1A96E958260. Retrieved July 13, 2008. 
  131. ^ "College Player Dies at Practice". The New York Times. August 4, 2001. http://query.nytimes.com/gst/fullpage.html?res=9402E4D9133CF937A3575BC0A9679C8B63. Retrieved July 13, 2008. 
  132. ^ Fountain, John (August 8, 2001). "Amid Questions, Northwestern Honors a 'Hero'". The New York Times. http://query.nytimes.com/gst/fullpage.html?res=9E02E5DD163FF93BA3575BC0A9679C8B63. Retrieved July 13, 2008. 
  133. ^ "Banned Substance in Wheeler's System". The New York Times. August 21, 2001. http://query.nytimes.com/gst/fullpage.html?res=9A00E2D61F3EF932A1575BC0A9679C8B63. Retrieved July 13, 2008. 
  134. ^ "University Examines Use of Supplements". The New York Times. August 13, 2001. http://query.nytimes.com/gst/fullpage.html?res=9403E0DE1E3FF930A2575BC0A9679C8B63. Retrieved July 13, 2008. 
  135. ^ Sprow, Chris (May 16, 2006). "Northwestern Women's Soccer Team Suspended After Hazing". The New York Times. http://www.nytimes.com/2006/05/16/sports/soccer/16hazing.html. 
  136. ^ "Northwestern women's soccer coach resigns". ESPN. June 21, 2006. http://sports.espn.go.com/ncaa/news/story?id=2493994. 
  137. ^ "Total Full and Part-time Enrollment by Ethnicity and Gender, Fall 2007" (XLS). Institutional Research, Northwestern University. http://www.adminplan.northwestern.edu/ir/databook/v40%2007-08/V40_T19-FTPT_RACE_GEND_CAMP.XLS. Retrieved January 23, 2009. [dead link]
  138. ^ See Demographics of the United States for references.
  139. ^ Undergraduate Course Catalog – Student Demographics. Office of the Registrar, Northwestern University. 2008–2009. p. 6. http://www.registrar.northwestern.edu/nucatalog/catalog0809/wcas_cat0809.pdf. Retrieved January 3, 2009. 
  140. ^ "Common Data Set – First-time, first-year (freshman) admission". , The Daily Northwestern. http://www.dailynorthwestern.com/northwestern-s-class-of-2014-s-acceptance-rate-drops-4-percent-to-record-low-1.2213641. Retrieved January 1, 2011. 
  141. ^ "Common Data Set – First-time, first-year (freshman) admission". Institutional Research, Northwestern University. http://www.ugadm.northwestern.edu/commondata/2007-08/c.htm. Retrieved January 3, 2009. 
  142. ^ "2007 Freshmen Merit Scholars". The Chronicle of Higher Education. http://chronicle.com/daily/2008/01/merit_table.htm. Retrieved May 17, 2009. [dead link]
  143. ^ "National Academy of Sciences Directory". National Academy of Sciences. http://www.nasonline.org/site/Dir/139832544?pg=rslts. Retrieved February 11, 2011. 
  144. ^ "American Academy of Arts and Sciences Directory" (PDF). American Academy of Arts and Sciences. http://www.amacad.org/members/classList.pdf. Retrieved February 11, 2011. 
  145. ^ "National Academy of Engineering Directory". National Academy of Engineering. http://www.nae.edu/default.aspx?id=20412. Retrieved February 11, 2011. 
  146. ^ "Institute of Medicine Directory". Institute of Medicine. http://www.iom.edu/Global/Directory.aspx?affiliationsearch=northwestern&type={A75AB05B-9C36-4917-8FE3-ACA7E5CC580C}. Retrieved February 11, 2011. 
  147. ^ "nobel prize in economics". http://www.northwestern.edu/newscenter/archives/special/nobel-prize-winner.html. Retrieved October 11, 2010. 
  148. ^ Carey, Benedict (August 21, 2007). "Criticism of a Gender Theory, and a Scientist Under Siege". The New York Times. http://www.nytimes.com/2007/08/21/health/psychology/21gender.html. Retrieved January 4, 2009. 
  149. ^ King, Seth S. (January 28, 1977). "Professor Causes Furor by Saying Nazi Slaying of Jews Is a Myth". The New York Times. http://select.nytimes.com/gst/abstract.html?res=F10A16FB3E5D167493CAAB178AD85F438785F9. Retrieved November 26, 2008. 
  150. ^ "Steven G. Calabresi – Biography". The Federalist Society. http://www.fed-soc.org/publications/id.91/author.asp. Retrieved March 7, 2010. 
  151. ^ Foundatin, John (November 4, 2001). "Northwestern Alumni to End Donations if Ex-Radical Stays". The New York Times. http://query.nytimes.com/gst/fullpage.html?res=9D01E0DA1739F937A35752C1A9679C8B63. Retrieved July 12, 2008. 
  152. ^ Sassatelli, Roberta (2010). "A Serial Ethnographer: An Interview with Gary Alan Fine". Qualitative Sociology 33 (1). 
  153. ^ "Pulitzer-Prize winning writer Garry Wills". National Public Radio. http://www.npr.org/templates/story/story.php?storyId=1109559. Retrieved January 4, 2009. 
  154. ^ "Senior Advisor David Axelrod". The White House. http://www.whitehouse.gov/administration/staff/david-axelrod/. Retrieved March 7, 2010. 
  155. ^ Smith, Roberta (December 1, 2004). "Ed Paschke, Painter, 65, Dies; Pop Artist With Dark Vision". The New York Times. http://www.nytimes.com/2004/12/01/arts/design/01paschke.html. Retrieved January 6, 2009. 
  156. ^ Fox, Margalit (March 22, 2006). "Charles Newman, 67, Writer and Literary Journal Editor, Dies". The New York Times. http://www.nytimes.com/2006/03/22/national/22newman.html. Retrieved January 6, 2009. 
  157. ^ Chang, Kenneth (March 18, 2004). "Sir John A. Pople, 78, Dies; Won Nobel Chemistry Prize". The New York Times. http://query.nytimes.com/gst/fullpage.html?res=980DE0D81531F93BA25750C0A9629C8B63. Retrieved January 6, 2009. 
  158. ^ Martin, Douglas (June 5, 2008). "Charles Moskos, Policy Adviser, Dies at 74". The New York Times. http://www.nytimes.com/2008/06/05/us/05moskos.html. Retrieved January 4, 2009. 
  159. ^ Leber, Holly Alumnus (March 8, 2007). "Coloring Hollywood Purple". ChiTown Daily News (Chicago). http://www.chitowndailynews.org/Culture/Coloring_Hollywood_purple,8882. Retrieved March 26, 2009. 
  160. ^ Jevens, Darel (July 23, 2002). "Chicago-trained brothers face off on late-night shows". Chicago Sun-Times: p. 38. 
  161. ^ Lavin, Cheryl (March 22, 1998). "Hollywood on the Lake: Chicagoans Are Making It Big Time in The Biz". Chicago Tribune: p. 10. 
  162. ^ Russo, Francine (September 3, 2002). "Rallying the Troupes: Young Directors Take Charge". Village Voice (New York). http://www.villagevoice.com/2002-09-03/nyc-life/rallying-the-troupes. Retrieved January 6, 2009. 
  163. ^ "Alum touts connections among NU grads in L.A.". The Daily Northwestern. April 30, 2002. http://media.www.dailynorthwestern.com/media/storage/paper853/news/2002/04/30/Campus/Alum-Touts.Connections.Among.Nu.Grads.In.L.a-1909784.shtml. Retrieved January 6, 2009. 

Further reading

External links

Coordinates: 42°03′17″N 87°40′26″W / 42.054853°N 87.673945°W / 42.054853; -87.673945


Wikimedia Foundation. 2010.

Look at other dictionaries:

  • Northwestern University — Vorlage:Infobox Hochschule/Professoren fehlt Northwestern University Motto Quaecumque sunt vera …   Deutsch Wikipedia

  • Northwestern University — Université Northwestern The Arch, entrée principale de l université du Northwestern, sur le campus d Evanston L’université du Northwestern (Northwestern University) est une université américaine située à Evanston en banlieue nord de Chicago, dans …   Wikipédia en Français

  • Northwestern University — Private university in Evanston, Illinois, U.S., founded in 1851. It is a comprehensive research institution that includes a college of arts and sciences and schools of music, education, social policy, graduate studies, law, medicine, and… …   Universalium

  • Northwestern University — …   Википедия

  • Northwestern University — Universidad privada con sede en Evanston, Ill. , EE.UU., fundada en 1851. Es una institución de investigación integral que incluye un college (colegio universitario) de artes y ciencias, además de escuelas de música, educación, política social,… …   Enciclopedia Universal

  • Northwestern University School of Law — Motto Quaecumque sunt vera (Latin) Ὁ Λόγος πλήρης χάριτος καὶ ἀληθείας Ho logos pleres charitos kai aletheias (Greek) Whatsoever things are true (Philippians 4:8 AV) The word full of grace and truth ( …   Wikipedia

  • Northwestern University Wildcat Marching Band — School Northwestern University Location Evanston, Illinois Conference …   Wikipedia

  • Northwestern University in Qatar — Established 2008 President Morton Schapiro Dean Everette E. Dennis Location Doha, Qatar Camp …   Wikipedia

  • Northwestern University Dance Marathon — Abbreviation NUDM Formation 1975 Purpose/focus Philanthropy Location Evanston, IL Executive Co Chairs Kunal Joshi Scott Ri …   Wikipedia

  • Northwestern University School of Continuing Studies — Established 1933[1] Type Private …   Wikipedia


Share the article and excerpts

Direct link
Do a right-click on the link above
and select “Copy Link”

We are using cookies for the best presentation of our site. Continuing to use this site, you agree with this.