- Saitō Makoto
Prime Minister of Japan In office
May 26, 1932 – July 8, 1934
Monarch Shōwa Preceded by Korekiyo Takahashi (Acting) Succeeded by Keisuke Okada Governor-General of Korea In office
August 17, 1929 – June 17, 1931
Monarch Shōwa Preceded by Hanzō Yamanashi Succeeded by Kazushige Ugaki In office
December 1, 1927 – December 10, 1927
Monarch Shōwa Preceded by Kazushige Ugaki (Acting) Succeeded by Hanzō Yamanashi In office
August 12, 1919 – April 14, 1927
Preceded by Yoshimichi Hasegawa Succeeded by Kazushige Ugaki (Acting) Personal details Born October 27, 1858
Mizusawa Domain, Mutsu Province, Japan
Died February 26, 1936(aged 77)
Political party Independent Alma mater Imperial Japanese Naval Academy Signature Military service Allegiance Empire of Japan Service/branch Imperial Japanese Navy Years of service 1879–1928 Rank Admiral Commands Akitsushima
Battles/wars First Sino-Japanese War
World War I
Awards Order of the Chrysanthemum
Order of the Bath (Honorary Knight Grand Cross)
Viscount Saitō Makoto, GCB (斎藤 実, October 27, 1858 – February 26, 1936) was an admiral in the Imperial Japanese Navy, two-time Governor-General of Korea from 1919 to 1927 and from 1929 to 1931, and the 30th Prime Minister of Japan from May 26, 1932 to July 8, 1934.
Saitō was born in Mizusawa Domain, Mutsu Province (part of present day Ōshū City Iwate Prefecture), as the son of a samurai of the Mizusawa Clan. In 1879, he graduated from the 6th class Imperial Japanese Naval Academy, ranking third out of a class of 17 cadets.
During the First Sino-Japanese War, Saitō served as captain of the cruisers Akitsushima and Itsukushima. On November 10, 1898, he became Vice Minister of the Navy, and was promoted to rear admiral on May 20, 1900
Saitō was again Vice Navy Minister at the start of the Russo-Japanese War of 1904-1905. He was promoted to Vice Admiral on June 6, 1904. He was awarded the Order of the Rising Sun (1st class) in 1906. After the end of the war, he served as Navy Minister for 6 years, from 1906–1914, during which time he continually strove for expansion of the navy.
On September 21, 1907, Saitō was ennobled with the title of danshaku (baron) under the kazoku peerage system. On October 16, 1912, he was promoted to full admiral. However, on April 16, 1914, Saitō was forced to resign from his post as Navy Minister due implications of his involvement in the Siemens scandal, and officially entered the reserves.
In 1919, Saitō was appointed as the third Japanese Governor-General of Korea, a post which he held for many years. He was appointed just after the Samil Independence Movement, and implemented a series of measures to moderate the policies of Japanese rule. He served as governor-general of Korea twice (from 1919–27, and again from 1929–31). He was awarded the Order of the Paulownia Flowers in 1924. On April 29, 1925, his title was elevated to that of shishaku (viscount).
In 1927, Saitō was a member of the Japanese delegation at the Geneva Naval Conference on Disarmament, and he later became a privy councillor.
Following the assassination of Prime Minister Inukai Tsuyoshi on May 15, 1932 by fanatical navy officers who thought Inukai far too conciliatory (the May 15 Incident), Prince Saionji Kinmochi, one of the Emperor's closest and strongest advisors, attempted to stop the slide towards a military take-over of the government. In a compromise move, Saitō was chosen to be Inukai's successor. Sadao Araki remained as War Minister and immediately began making demands on the new government. During Saitō tenure, Japan recognized the independence of Manchukuo, and withdrew from the League of Nations.
Saitō's administration was one of the longer-serving ones of the inter-war period, and it continued until July 8, 1934; when the cabinet resigned en masse because of the Teijin Incident bribery scandal. Keisuke Okada succeeded as prime minister.
Saitō continued to be an important figure in politics as Lord Keeper of the Privy Seal from December 26, 1935 but was assassinated during the February 26 Incident of 1936 at his home in Yotsuya, Tokyo.
Saitō was posthumously awarded Supreme Order of the Chrysanthemum.
- Bix, Herbert B. (2001). Hirohito and the Making of Modern Japan. Harper Perennial. ISBN 0-06-093130-2.
- Brendon, Piers (2002). The Dark Valley: A Panorama of the 1930s. Vintage; Reprint edition. ISBN 0-375-70808-1.
- Gordon, Andrew (2003). A Modern History of Japan: From Tokugawa Times to the Present. Oxford University Press. 10-ISBN 0195110609/13-ISBN 9780195110609; 10-ISBN 0195110617/13-ISBN 9780195110616; OCLC 49704795
- Jansen, Marius B. (2002). The Making of Modern Japan. Harvard University Press. 10-ISBN 0674003349/13-ISBN 9780674003347; OCLC 44090600
- Sims, Richard (2001). Japanese Political History Since the Meiji Renovation 1868-2000. Palgrave Macmillan. ISBN-10 0312239149/12-ISBN 9780312239145; 10-ISBN 0312239157/13-ISBN 9780312239152; OCLC 45172740
- Nishida, Hiroshi. "Materials of IJN: Saito Makoto". Imperial Japanese Navy. http://homepage2.nifty.com/nishidah/e/px06.htm#a001. Retrieved 2007-08-03.
- Republic of Korea
Political offices Preceded by
Minister of the Navy
Jan 1906–Apr 1914
Japanese Governor-General of Korea
Aug 1919– Dec 1927
Japanese Governor-General of Korea
Aug 1929–Jun 1931
Prime Minister of Japan
May 1932– Jul 1934
Minister of Foreign Affairs
May 1932 - Jul 1932
Minister of Education
May 1934 - Jul 1934
Lord Keeper of the Privy Seal
Dec 1935 - Feb 1936
Prime Ministers of Japan (List)
H. Itō · Kuroda · Sanjō · Yamagata · Matsukata · H. Itō · Kuroda · Matsukata · H. Itō · Ōkuma · Yamagata · H. Itō · Saionji · Katsura · Saionji · Katsura · Saionji · Katsura · Yamamoto · Ōkuma · Terauchi · Hara · Uchida · Takahashi · To. Katō · Uchida · Yamamoto · Kiyoura · Ta. Katō · Wakatsuki · G. Tanaka · Hamaguchi · Shidehara · Hamaguchi · Wakatsuki · Inukai · Takahashi · Saitō · Okada · Gotō · Okada · Hirota · Hayashi · Konoe · Hiranuma · N. Abe · Yonai · Konoe · Tōjō · Koiso · K. Suzuki · Higashikuni · Shidehara · Yoshida · Katayama · Ashida · Yoshida · I. Hatoyama · Ishibashi · Kishi · Ikeda · Satō · K. Tanaka · Miki · T. Fukuda · Ōhira · M. Itō · Z. Suzuki · Nakasone · Takeshita · Uno · Kaifu · Miyazawa · Hosokawa · Hata · Murayama · Hashimoto · Obuchi · Aoki · Mori · Koizumi · S. Abe · Y. Fukuda · Aso · Y. Hatoyama · Kan · NodaItalics denote acting Prime Ministers
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