- Abc conjecture
The abc conjecture is a
conjecturein number theory. It was first proposed by Joseph Oesterléand David Masserin 1985. The conjecture is stated in terms of simple properties of three integers, one of which is the sum of the other two. Although there is no obvious attack on the problem, it has already become well known for the number of interesting consequences it entails.unsolved|mathematics
For every "ε" > 0, does there exist a "K" > 0 such that for every triple of
coprime positive integers "a" + "b" "c", with product "d" of their distinct prime factors, "a"+"b"+"c" < "Kd"1 + "ε"?
positive integer"n", the radical of "n", denoted
is the square-free product of the
distinct prime factors of "n", that is, the product of the prime factors of "n", never raising a factor to a power greater than 1. For example, rad(600) = rad(23·3·52) = 2·3·5 = 30.
The abc conjecture states that, for any "ε" > 0, there exists a finite "Kε" such that, for all triples of
coprimepositive integers "a", "b", and "c" satisfying "a" + "b" = "c",
The conjecture has not been proven, but it has a large number of interesting consequences. These include both known results, and conjectures for which it gives a
Thue–Siegel–Roth theorem(proven by Klaus Roth)
Fermat's Last Theoremfor all sufficiently large exponents (proven in general by Andrew Wiles)
Mordell conjecture(proven by Gerd Faltings)
* The Erdős–Woods conjecture except for a finite number of counterexamples
* The existence of infinitely many non-Wieferich primes
* The weak form of
* The L function "L"("s",(−"d"/.)) formed with the
Legendre symbol, has no Siegel zero(this consequence actually requires a uniform version of the abc conjecture in number fields, not only the abc conjecture as formulated above for rational integers)
* "P"("x") has only finitely many perfect powers for integral "x" for "P" a
polynomialwith at least three simple zeros. [http://www.math.uu.nl/people/beukers/ABCpresentation.pdf]
* A generalization of
* It is equivalent to the Granville-Langevin conjecture
* It is equivalent to the
modified Szpiro conjecture.
While the first group of these have now been proven, the abc conjecture itself remains of interest, because of its numerous links with deep questions in
A stronger inequality proposed in 1996 by
Alan Bakerstates that in the inequality, one can replace rad("abc") by
where ω is the total number of distinct primes dividing "a", "b" and "c". A related conjecture of
Andrew Granvillestates that on the RHS we could also put
where Θ("n") is the number of integers up to "n" divisible only by primes dividing "n".
1986, C.L. Stewart and R. Tijdeman:
1991, C.L. Stewart and Kunrui Yu:
1996, C.L. Stewart and Kunrui Yu:
where c is larger than 2, "K"1 is an absolute constant, and "K"2 and "K"3 are positive effectively computable constants in terms of ε.
Triples with small radical
The condition that ε > 0 is necessary for the truth of the conjecture, as there exist infinitely many triples "a", "b", "c" with rad("abc") < "c". For instance, such a triple may be taken as:"a" = 1:"b" = 26"n" - 1:"c" = 26"n".As "a" and "c" together contribute only a factor of two to the radical, while "b" is divisible by 9, rad("abc") < 2"c"/3 for these examples. By replacing the exponent 6"n" by other exponents forcing "c" to have larger square factors, the ratio between the radical and "c" may be made arbitrarily large. Another triple with a particularly small radical was found by Eric Reyssat: [Lando and Zvonkin, p.137] :"a" = 2::"b" = 310 109 = 6436341:"c" = 235 = 6436343:rad("abc") = 15042.
In 2006, the Mathematics Department of
Leiden Universityin the Netherlands, together with the Dutch Kennislinkscience institute, launched the ABC@Homeproject, a grid computingsystem which aims to discover additional triples "a", "b", "c" with rad("abc") < "c". Although no finite set of examples or counterexamples can resolve the abc conjecture, it is hoped that patterns in the triples discovered by this project will lead to insights about the conjecture and about number theory more generally.
* [http://abcathome.com/ ABC@home]
Distributed Computingproject called ABC@Home.
* [http://bit-player.org/2007/easy-as-abc Easy as ABC] : Easy to follow, detailed explanation by Brian Hayes.
* Abderrahmane Nitaj's [http://www.math.unicaen.fr/~nitaj/abc.html ABC conjecture home page]
* Bart de Smit's [http://www.math.leidenuniv.nl/~desmit/abc/ ABC Triples webpage]
* [http://www.maa.org/mathland/mathtrek_12_8.html The amazing ABC conjecture]
* [http://www.hcs.harvard.edu/hcmr/issue1/elkies.pdf The ABC's of Number Theory] by Noam D. Elkies
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