110 film

: "For the unrelated roll-film format produced from 1898 to 1929, see 110 film (roll format)."

110 is a cartridge-based film format used in still photography. It was introduced by Kodak in 1972. 110 is a miniaturised version of Kodak's earlier, highly successful 126 format. The image is 13×17 millimetres, with one registration hole.

The film is fully housed in a plastic cartridge, which also registers the image when the film is advanced. There is a continuous backing paper, and the frame number and film type are visible through a window at the rear of the cartridge. The film does not need to be rewound and is very simple to load and unload. It is pre-exposed with frame lines and numbers, a feature intended to make it easier and more efficient for photofinishers to print.

Unlike later competing formats, such as disc and APS film, processed 110 negatives were returned in strips, without the original cartridge.

History

The 110 cartridge was introduced by Kodak in 1972 with Kodak Pocket Instamatic cameras. The new pocket-sized cameras became immediately popular, and soon displaced competing subminiature cameras, such as the Minolta 16 series, from the market.

Estes Industries has long marketed several model rockets, the most notable being the Astrocam, with a simple 110 camera in the nose; the shutter is triggered when the nose cone separates from the rocket body.

Design and technical issues

Although the format is most closely associated with cheaply-produced, low-cost cameras, Canon, Minolta, Minox, Pentax, Rollei, Voigtländer, and others, as well as Kodak, offered sophisticated, expensive 110 cameras, with excellent multi-element, focusing lenses and precise, electronically controlled exposure systems. Such cameras are capable of making high-quality images on 110 film. Some of these cameras are quite small and still hold appeal to subminiature-photography enthusiasts.

However, mostfact|date=August 2007 110 cameras have been cheaply made, with mediocre lenses and only rudimentary exposure control. The small negative size of 110 film makes it difficult to enlarge successfully. For these reasons, the 110 format is associated with prints that are often rather blurry and unsharp. This has led to the misconception that the cartridge itself is incapable of holding film flat enough for making high-quality negatives.

The 110 cartridge, as specified by Kodak, has a plastic tab on one end. Camera designers had the option of using this tab to sense film speed, enabling sophisticated cameras to switch between high- and low-speed film. A short tab indicated high-speed film, and a long tab indicated low-speed film. Kodak left it to the film manufacturer to decide which film speeds were high or low. Only a few expensive cameras took advantage of this feature.

The 110 film that Kodak currently produces is ISO 400 speed packed in a cartridge that senses as "low" speed. [ [http://www.frugalphotographer.com/cat110.htm Frugal Photographer] ] As shown in the photograph to the right, these cartridges can be modified by hand so that they signal the proper speed to the camera.

Film types

Although the format is commonly associated with print film, Kodak also produced Kodachrome 110 slide film until 1982.Marcus, Ted R., " [http://www.tedsimages.com/text/comment8.htm APS, 110, "Disc," and Formats du Jour] ", Ted Marcus' Virtual Light Table. Article copyright date 2006, retrieved 2006-11-09.] Marcus, Ted R., " [http://www.tedsimages.com/text/eurfd.htm Europe Through the Front Door] ", Ted Marcus' Virtual Light Table. Article copyright date 2004, retrieved 2006-11-09.] These slides required special "Pocket Carousel" projectors. The sub-miniature slides were mounted in small mounts. There were also mount adapters available that allowed the small mounts to be projected in a common projector. These adapters were not entirely satisfactory however, as to project the smaller slide at a size comparable to that from 35mm the projector had to be moved further from the screen, resulting in a dimmer image. The dedicated 110 projector overcame this by using a brighter lamp.
Fujifilm stopped manufacturing 110 in November 2004. As of 2005, 110 is still manufactured by Kodak and Ferrania, As of early 2008, the Walgreens brand was still manufacturing 110 film. As of late 2008, Walgreens stopped manufacturing 110 film.

See also

*126 film

References

#International standard: ISO 13450

External links

* [http://www.subclub.org/shop/110.htm 110 Cameras] at [http://www.subclub.org/ Sub Club] , a site on subminiature photography.


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