Mae West


Mae West
Mae West

Publicity photo for Night After Night (1932)
Born Mary Jane West
August 17, 1893(1893-08-17)
Bushwick, New York, U.S.
Died November 22, 1980(1980-11-22) (aged 87)
Los Angeles, California, U.S.
Occupation Actress, playwright, screenwriter, comedienne
Years active 1907–1978
Height ~ 5'0" (152 cm)
Weight ~ 121 lbs (54 kg)
Spouse Frank Szatkus, stage name Frank Wallace
(1911–1942)
Guido Deiro
(1914–1920)
Partner Paul Novak (1954–1980)
Website
http://www.allaboutmae.com/

Mae West (born Mary Jane West on August 17, 1893[1] – November 22, 1980) was an American actress, playwright, screenwriter and sex symbol whose entertainment career spanned seven decades.

Known for her bawdy double entendres, West made a name for herself in Vaudeville and on the stage in New York before moving to Hollywood to become a comedienne, actress and writer in the motion picture industry. In consideration of her contributions to American cinema, the American Film Institute named West 15th among the greatest female stars of all time. One of the more controversial movie stars of her day, West encountered many problems including censorship. When her cinematic career ended, she continued to perform on stage, in Las Vegas, in the United Kingdom, on radio and television, and recorded rock and roll albums. She used the alias Jane Mast early in her career.

Contents

Early life and career

West was born Mary Jane West in Bushwick, Brooklyn, New York, delivered at home by an aunt who was a midwife. She was the eldest surviving child of[2][3][4] John Patrick West and Matilda "Tillie" Doelger (also known as Matilda Delker Doelger), who had emigrated with her family from Bavaria to the United States in 1886.[5] West's parents married on January 18, 1889, in Brooklyn.

Her father was a prizefighter known as "Battlin' Jack West" who later worked as a "special policeman" and then as a private investigator who ran his own agency.[6] Her mother was a former corset and fashion model.[7] The family was Protestant, although by some accounts West's mother was of partial Jewish descent.[8][9] Her paternal grandmother was an Irish Catholic,[10] and West's paternal grandfather, John Edwin, may have been an African American.[11]

Her eldest sibling, Katie, died in infancy. The other siblings were Mildred Katherine West (December 8, 1898 – March 12, 1982), known as Beverly, and John Edwin West, II (sometimes inaccurately referred to as "John Edwin West, Jr."; February 11, 1900 – October 12, 1964).[12] During her childhood, West's family moved to various parts of Woodhaven, Queens, as well as Williamsburg and Greenpoint in Brooklyn. She may have[clarification needed] attended Erasmus Hall High School.[13]

At five years old, West first entertained a crowd, at a church social, and she started appearing in amateur shows at the age of seven. She often won prizes at local talent contests.[14] She began performing professionally in vaudeville in the Hal Clarendon Stock Company in 1907 at the age of fourteen.[15] West first performed under the stage name Baby Mae,[16] and tried various personas including a male impersonator,[17] Sis Hopkins, and a blackface coon shouter.[18] Her trademark walk was said[by whom?] to have been inspired or influenced by female impersonators Bert Savoy and Julian Eltinge, who were famous during the Pansy Craze.[19] Her first appearance in a legitimate Broadway show was in a 1911 revue A La Broadway put on by her former dancing teacher, Ned Wayburn. The show folded after just eight performances,[20] but at 18, West had then been singled out and discovered by the New York Times.[21] She next appeared in a show called Vera Violetta, whose cast featured Al Jolson. In 1912 she also appeared in the opening performance of "A Winsome Widow" as a 'baby vamp' named La Petite Daffy.[22]

"Ev'rybody Shimmies Now" sheet music cover with portrait, 1918

Her photograph appeared on an edition of the sheet music for the popular number "Ev'rybody Shimmies Now" in 1918. She was encouraged as a performer by her mother, who, according to West, always thought that whatever her daughter did was fantastic.[23] However, other members of her family were less encouraging, including the aunt who delivered her, as well as her paternal grandmother. Along with certain other relatives, they are all reported as having disapproved of her career and her choices.[10]

In 1918, after exiting several high-profile revues, West finally got her break in the Shubert Brothers revue Sometime, opposite Ed Wynn.[24] Her character Mayme danced the shimmy.[25] Eventually, she began writing her own risqué plays using the pen name Jane Mast.[26] Her first starring role on Broadway was in a play she titled Sex, which she also wrote, produced, and directed. Though critics hated the show, ticket sales were good. The notorious production did not go over well with city officials and the theater was raided with West arrested along with the cast.[27]

She was prosecuted on morals charges and, on April 19, 1927, was sentenced to ten days for "corrupting the morals of youth."[28] While incarcerated on Welfare Island (now known as Roosevelt Island), she dined with the warden and his wife and told reporters that she wore her silk underpants while serving time.[29] She served eight days with two days off for good behavior. Media attention about the case enhanced her career.[28] Her next play, The Drag, dealt with homosexuality and was what West called one of her "comedy-dramas of life".[30] After a series of try-outs in Connecticut and New Jersey, West announced she would open the play in New York.[31] However, The Drag never opened on Broadway due to the Society for the Prevention of Vice vows to ban it if West attempted to stage it.[32] West was an early supporter of the women's liberation movement, but stated she was not a feminist. She was also a supporter of gay rights.[33]

West continued to write plays, including The Wicked Age, Pleasure Man and The Constant Sinner. Her productions were plagued by controversy and other problems, although the controversy ensured that West stayed in the news and most of the time this resulted in packed performances.[34] Her 1928 play, Diamond Lil, about a racy, easygoing lady of the 1890s, became a Broadway hit.[35] This show enjoyed an enduring popularity and West would successfully revive it many times throughout the course of her career.[36]

Motion pictures

"Diamond Lil" returning to New York from Hollywood, 1933

In 1932, West was offered a motion picture contract by Paramount Pictures, when she was 38 years old (although she kept her age ambiguous for several more years). She made her film debut in Night After Night starring George Raft. At first, she did not like her small role in Night After Night, but was appeased when she was allowed to rewrite her scenes.[37] In West's first scene, a hat check girl exclaims, "Goodness, what beautiful diamonds." West replies, "Goodness had nothing to do with it, dearie."[38] Reflecting on the overall result of her rewritten scenes, Raft is said to have remarked, "She stole everything but the cameras."[38]

She brought her Diamond Lil character, now renamed Lady Lou, to the screen in She Done Him Wrong (1933).[39] The film is also notable as one of Cary Grant's first major roles, which boosted his career. West claimed she spotted Grant at the studio and insisted that he be cast as the male lead.[40] The film was a box office hit and earned an Academy Award nomination for Best Picture.[39][41] The success of the film most likely saved Paramount from bankruptcy.[42]

Cary Grant and Mae West in I'm No Angel (1933)

Her next release, I'm No Angel (1933), paired her with Grant again. I'm No Angel was also a financial success.[43] By 1933, West was the eighth-largest U.S. box office draw in the United States[44] and, by 1935, the second-highest paid person in the United States (after William Randolph Hearst).[45] On July 1, 1934, the censorship of the Production Code began to be seriously and meticulously enforced, and her screenplays were heavily edited.

West's next film was Belle of the Nineties (1934). Originally titled It Ain't No Sin, the title was changed due to the censors' objections.[46] Her next film, Goin' to Town (1935), received mixed reviews.[47]

Screenshot of Mae West performing her burlesque dance in I'm No Angel (1933)

Her following effort, Klondike Annie (1936) dealt, as best it could given the heavy censorship, with religion and hypocrisy.[48] Some critics called the film her screen masterpiece.[49] That same year, West played opposite Randolph Scott in Go West, Young Man. In this film, she adapted Lawrence Riley's Broadway hit Personal Appearance into a screenplay.[3][50] Directed by Henry Hathaway, Go West, Young Man is considered one of West's weaker films of the era.[51] After this film, West starred in Every Day's a Holiday (1937) for Paramount before their association came to an end.

In 1939, Universal Pictures approached West to star in a film opposite W. C. Fields. The studio was eager to duplicate the success of Destry Rides Again starring Marlene Dietrich and James Stewart with a vehicle starring West and Fields.[52] Having left Paramount eighteen months earlier and looking for a comeback film, West accepted the role of Flower Belle Lee in the film My Little Chickadee (1940).[52][53] Despite their intense mutual dislike,[54] and fights over the screenplay,[52] My Little Chickadee was a box office success, outgrossing Fields' previous films You Can't Cheat an Honest Man (1939) and The Bank Dick (1940).[55]

West's next film was The Heat's On (1943) for Columbia Pictures. She initially didn't want to do the film but after producer and director Gregory Ratoff pleaded with her and claimed he would go bankrupt if she didn't, West relented.[56] The film opened to bad reviews and failed at the box office. West would not return to films until 1970.[57]

Radio

On December 12, 1937, West appeared in two separate sketches on ventriloquist Edgar Bergen's radio show The Chase and Sanborn Hour.[58] By this point in her career, West's fame was fading and she was on the show hoping to promote her latest film, Every Day's a Holiday [59] Appearing as herself, West flirted with Charlie McCarthy, Bergen's dummy, using her usual brand of wit and risqué sexual references. West referred to Charlie as "all wood and a yard long" and commented that his kisses gave her splinters.[60]

Even more outrageous was a sketch written by Arch Oboler that starred West and Don Ameche as Adam and Eve in the Garden of Eden. She told Ameche in the show to "get me a big one... I feel like doin' a big apple!"[60] Days after the broadcast, NBC received letters calling the show "immoral" and "obscene".[61] Women's clubs and Catholic groups admonished the show's sponsor, Chase & Sanborn Coffee Company, for "prostituting" their services for allowing "impurity [to] invade the air".[58] The Federal Communications Commission (FCC) later deemed the broadcast "vulgar and indecent" and "far below even the minimum standard which should control in the selection and production of broadcast programs".[62] There is some debate regarding the reaction to the skit, however. Mainstream reaction was not as swift as that of Catholics. Some claim that Catholic groups already had it in for Mae West; they despised her sexual image and warned the sponsor of the program they were planning to protest. [63] Nevertheless, the incident is known as one of the first cases where radio programming faced claims of indecency from the FCC.

NBC personally blamed West for the incident and banned her (and the mention of her name) from their stations.[64] They claimed it was not the content of the skit, but West's tonal inflections that gave it the controversial context. [59] West would not perform in radio for another twelve years until January 1950, in an episode of The Chesterfield Supper Club hosted by Perry Como.[65]

Middle years

Mae West in 1953

After appearing in The Heat's On in 1943, West remained active during the ensuing years. Among her stage performances was the title role in Catherine was Great (1944) on Broadway, in which she spoofed the story of Catherine the Great of Russia, surrounding herself with an "imperial guard" of tall, muscular young actors.[66] The play was produced by Mike Todd and ran for 191 performances.[67] In the 1950s, she also starred in her own Las Vegas stage show, singing while surrounded by bodybuilders.[68] Jayne Mansfield met and later married one of West's muscle men, a former Mr. Universe, Mickey Hargitay.[69]

When casting the role of Norma Desmond for the 1950 film Sunset Boulevard, Billy Wilder offered West, then nearing 60, the role. West turned down the part. Wilder later said, "The idea of [casting] Mae West was idiotic because we only had to talk to her to find out that she thought she was as great, as desirable, as sexy as she had ever been."[70] Gloria Swanson was eventually cast in the role.[71]

In 1958, West appeared at the Academy Awards and performed the song "Baby, It's Cold Outside" with Rock Hudson.[72] In 1959, she released her autobiography entitled Goodness Had Nothing to Do with It, which went on to become a best seller.[73]

Later career and final years

West made some rare appearances on television, including The Red Skelton Show in 1960. In 1964, she guest starred on the sitcom Mister Ed.[74] In order to keep her appeal fresh with younger generations, she recorded two rock and roll albums, Way Out West and Wild Christmas in the late 1960s.[75] She also recorded a number of parody songs including "Santa, Come Up to See Me"[76] on the album Wild Christmas.[77]

West arriving to the 1978 opening of Sextette, her last film

After a 26-year absence from motion pictures, West appeared as Leticia Van Allen in Gore Vidal's Myra Breckinridge (1970) with Raquel Welch, Rex Reed, Farrah Fawcett, and Tom Selleck in a small part. The movie was a deliberately campy sex change comedy that was both a box office and critical failure. Vidal later called the film "an awful joke".[78] Despite Myra Breckinridge's mainstream failure, it did find an audience on the cult film circuit where West's films were regularly screened and West herself was dubbed "the queen of camp".[79]

West recorded another album in the 1970s on MGM Records titled Great Balls of Fire, which covered songs by The Doors among others.[80] Her autobiography, Goodness Had Nothing to Do with It, was also updated and republished.[81]

In 1976, she appeared on The Dick Cavett Show[82] and that same year began work on her final film, Sextette (1978). Adapted from a script written by West, daily revisions and disagreements hampered production from the beginning.[83] Due to the numerous changes, West agreed to have her lines fed to her through a speaker concealed in her wig.[84] Despite the daily problems, West was, according to Sextette director Ken Hughes, determined to see the film through.[84] In spite of her determination, Hughes noted that West sometimes appeared disoriented and forgetful and found it difficult to follow his directions.[84] Her now failing eyesight also made navigating around the set difficult.[84] Hughes eventually began shooting her from the waist up to hide the out-of-shot production assistant crawling on the floor, guiding her around the set.[85] Upon its release, Sextette was a critical and commercial failure.[86]

West family crypt at Cypress Hills Cemetery, with Mae at top

In August 1980, West tripped while getting out of bed. After the fall, West was unable to speak and was taken to the Good Samaritan Hospital in Los Angeles where tests revealed that she had suffered a stroke.[87] She remained in the hospital where, seven days later, she had a diabetic reaction to the formula in her feeding tube. On September 18, she suffered a second stroke which left her right side paralyzed and developed pneumonia. By November, her condition had improved, but the prognosis was not good and she was sent home.[87]

She died there on November 22, 1980, at age 87.[88]

A private service was held in the Old North Church replica, in Forest Lawn, Hollywood Hills, on November 25, 1980.[89][90] Bishop Andre Penachio, who was also a friend, officiated at the entombment in the family room at Cypress Hills Abbey, Brooklyn, purchased in 1930 when her mother died. Her father and brother were also entombed there before her, and her younger sister was laid to rest in the last of the five crypts within 18 months after West's death.[86][91][92]

For her contribution to the film industry, she has a star on the Hollywood Walk of Fame at 1560 Vine Street in Hollywood.

Personal life

West was married on April 11, 1911, in Milwaukee, Wisconsin, to Frank Szatkus,[93] stage name Frank Wallace, a fellow vaudevillian whom she first met in 1909. She was 17, he was 21.[94] West kept the marriage a secret.[95] But in 1935, after West had made several hit movies, a filing clerk discovered West's marriage certificate and alerted the press.[96] An affidavit in which she had declared herself married, which she made during the Sex trial in 1927, was also uncovered.[97] At first, West denied ever marrying Wallace but finally admitted in July 1937, in reply to a legal interrogatory, that they had been married.[98] Even though the marriage was a reality, she never lived with Wallace as husband and wife. She insisted they have separate bedrooms and she soon sent him away in a show of his own in order to get rid of him. She obtained a legal divorce on July 21, 1942, during which Wallace withdrew his request for separate maintenance, and West testified that she and Wallace had lived together for only "several weeks."[99] The final divorce decree was granted on May 7, 1943.[100]

West may also have had another secret marriage. In August 1913, she met an Italian-born Vaudeville headliner and star of the piano-accordion, Guido Deiro. Her affair went "[v]ery deep, hittin' on all the emotions. You can't get too hot over anybody unless there's somethin' that goes along with the sex act, can you?"[101] Deiro fell in love with West and arranged his bookings so that the two traveled together. They became engaged in either late 1913 or early 1914.[102][103] Some sources reported the pair were married.[104][105][106] During a 1935 radio broadcast Walter Winchell incorrectly reported that Mae West had been married to Guido's brother, Pietro. Walter Wincher, a writer for Accordion News magazine, corrected the error: "In a recent radio broadcast, Walter Winchell conveyed the information that Pietro Deiro had been married to Mae West for four years. As one Walter to another, I must set him right. Pietro was never married to the 'come up and see me sometime' girl. Guido Deiro, his brother, was supposed to be the fortunate accordionist."[107]

West made no public statements indicating that she had been married to Deiro. She referred to him simply as "D" in her autobiography. West's biographers state that the two never married.[108][109][110][111][112][113] If they were married, this would have constituted bigamy as West was legally married to Frank Wallace at the time. West and Deiro split in 1916.[114][115][116]

Deiro's son claimed that years later Mae West privately revealed to him that she had become pregnant by Guido, and had an abortion without his knowledge, resulting in complications which left her sick for nearly a year and ultimately unable to bear children.[117]

According to Deiro's biographer, West filed for divorce on the grounds of adultery on July 14, 1920.[118] The divorce was granted by the Supreme Court of the State of New York on November 9 of that year.[119] West later said, "Marriage is a great institution. I'm not ready for an institution yet."[120]

West in 1973, by Allan Warren.

Mae West remained close to her family throughout her life and was devastated by her mother's death in 1930.[121] In that year, she moved to Hollywood and into the penthouse at the historic Ravenswood apartment building (where she would live until her death in 1980).[122] After she began her movie career, her sister, brother and father followed her there. West provided them with nearby homes and also jobs and sometimes financial support.[123]

Another person whom West spent her life with was attorney James Timony. She met Timony, who was fifteen years her senior, in 1916 when she was a vaudeville actress. They became romantically involved and he also began to act as her manager. By the mid-1930s when West was an established movie actress, they were no longer a couple. However, they remained extremely close, living in the same building, working together, and providing support for each other, until Timony's death in 1954.[124]

A year later, when she was 61, Mae West became romantically involved with one of the musclemen in her Las Vegas stage show, wrestler, former Mr. California, and former merchant marine Chester Rybonski[125] (1923–1999). He was thirty years younger than West, and later changed his name to Paul Novak. He soon moved in with her and their romance continued until West died at the age of 87 in 1980.[126][127] Novak once commented, "I believe I was put on this Earth to take care of Mae West."[128] West also had many other boyfriends throughout her life. One was boxing champion William Jones, nicknamed Gorilla Jones. When the management at her apartment building discriminated against the African-American boxer and barred his entry, West solved the problem by buying the building.[129]

In popular culture

  • During World War II, Allied aircrew called their yellow inflatable, vest-like life preserver jackets "Mae Wests" partly from rhyming slang for "breasts"[130] and "life vest" and partly because of the resemblance to her torso. A "Mae West" is also a type of round parachute malfunction (partial inversion) which contorts the shape of the canopy into the appearance of an extraordinarily large brassiere.[131]
  • When approached for permission to allow her likeness on the Beatles' Sgt. Pepper's Lonely Hearts Club Band album cover, West initially refused stating that she would never be in a "Lonely Heart's Club". The Beatles wrote her a personal letter declaring themselves great admirers of the star and persuaded her to change her mind. [134]

Broadway stage

Broadway stage
Date Production Role Notes
01911-09-22 September 22, 1911 – September 30, 1911 A La Broadway Maggie O'Hara
01911-11-20 November 20, 1911 – February 24, 1912 Vera Violetta West left show during previews
01912-04-11 April 11, 1912 – September 7, 1912 Winsome Widow, AA Winsome Widow Le Petite Daffy West left show after opening night
01918-10-04 October 4, 1918 – June 1919 Sometime
01921-08-17 August 17, 1921 – September 10, 1921 Mimic World of 1921, TheThe Mimic World of 1921
01926-04-26 April 26, 1926 – March 1927 Sex Margie LaMont Written by Jane Mast (West)
01927-01 January 1927 Drag, TheThe Drag closed during out-of-town tryouts (Bridgeport, Connecticut)
credited only as writer
01927-11 November 1927 Wicked Age, TheThe Wicked Age Evelyn ("Babe") Carson
01928-04-09 April 9, 1928 – September 1928 Diamond Lil Diamond Lil
01928-10-01 October 1, 1928 –October 2, 1928 Pleasure Man, TheThe Pleasure Man credited only as writer
01931-09-14 September 14, 1931 – November 1931 Constant Sinner, TheThe Constant Sinner Babe Gordon
01944-08-02 August 2, 1944 – January 13, 1945 Catherine Was Great Catherine II
01945 1945–1946 Come On Up Tour
01947-09 September 1947 – May 1948 Diamond Lil Diamond Lil (Revival) United Kingdom
01949-02-05 February 5, 1949 – February 26, 1949 Diamond Lil Diamond Lil (2nd Revival) until West broke her ankle on the latter date.
The play resumed as a "return engagement"
01949-09-07 September 7, 1949 – January 21, 1950 Diamond Lil Diamond Lil (2nd Revival) as "return engagement"
01951-09-14 September 14, 1951 – November 10, 1951 Diamond Lil Diamond Lil (3rd Revival)
01961-07-07 July 7, 1961 – closing date unknown Sextette Edgewater Beach Playhouse
Other plays as writer
Other plays as writer
Year Title Notes
1921 Ruby Ring, TheThe Ruby Ring Vaudeville playlet
1922 Hussy, TheThe Hussy Unproduced
1930 Frisco Kate Unproduced, later produced as the 1936 film Klondike Annie
1933 Loose Women Performed in 1935 under title Ladies By Request
1936 Clean Beds Sold treatment to George S. George, who produced
an unsuccessful Broadway play of West's treatment

Filmography

Feature films
Year Film Role Studio
1932 Night After Night Maudie Triplett Paramount Pictures
1933 She Done Him Wrong Lady Lou Paramount Pictures
1933 I'm No Angel Tira Paramount Pictures
1934 Belle of the Nineties Ruby Carter Paramount Pictures
1935 Goin' to Town Cleo Borden Paramount Pictures
1936 Klondike Annie The Frisco Doll/Rose Carlton/Sister Annie Alden Paramount Pictures
1936 Go West, Young Man Mavis Arden Paramount Pictures
1937 Every Day's a Holiday Peaches O'Day Paramount Pictures
1940 My Little Chickadee Flower Belle Lee Universal Pictures
1943 The Heat's On Fay Lawrence Columbia Pictures
1970 Myra Breckinridge Leticia Van Allen 20th Century Fox
1978 Sextette Marlo Manners/Lady Barrington Crown International Pictures
Documentary films
Year Film Role
1933 Hollywood on Parade No. A-9 herself
1933 Hollywood on Parade No. B-5 herself
1935 The Fashion Side of Hollywood herself

Discography

Albums:

  • 1956: The Fabulous Mae West; Decca D/DL-79016 (several reissues up to 2006)
  • 1960: W.C. Fields His Only Recording Plus 8 Songs by Mae West; Proscenium PR 22
  • 1966: Way Out West; Tower T/ST-5028
  • 1966: Wild Christmas; Dragonet LPDG-48
  • 1970: The Original Voice Tracks from Her Greatest Movies; Decca D/DL-791/76
  • 1970: Mae West & W.C. Fields Side by Side; Harmony HS 11374/HS 11405
  • 1972: Great Balls of Fire; MGM SE 4869
  • 1974: Original Radio Broadcasts; Mark 56 Records 643
  • 1987/1995: Sixteen Sultry Songs Sung by Mae West Queen of Sex; Rosetta RR 1315
  • 1996: I'm No Angel; Jasmine CD 04980 102
  • 2006: The Fabulous: Rev-Ola CR Rev 181

At least 21 singles (78 rpm and 45 rpm) also were released from 1933 to 1973.

Bibliography

  • West, Mae (1930). Babe Gordon. The Macaulay Company.  (the novel on which The Constant Sinner was based)
  • West, Mae (1932). Diamond Lil. Caxton House.  (novelization of play)
  • West, Mae (1959, revised 1970). Goodness Had Nothing to Do with It. Prentice-Hall. 
  • West, Mae (1975). Mae West On Sex, Health and ESP. W. H. Allen. ISBN 0491016131. 
  • West, Mae (1975). Pleasure Man. Dell Pub. Co. 
  • West, Mae; Joseph Weintraub (1967). The Wit and Wisdom of Mae West. G. P. Putnam. 

References

  1. ^ Cullen, Frank; Hackman, Florence; McNeilly, Donald (2007). Vaudeville, Old & New: An Encyclopedia of Variety Performers in America. Routledge. p. 1183. ISBN 0-415-93853-8. 
  2. ^ Wortis Leider, Emily (2000). Becoming Mae West. Da Capo Press. p. 20. ISBN 0-306-80951-6. 
  3. ^ a b Watts, Jill (2003). Mae West: An Icon in Black and White. Oxford University Press US. p. 10. ISBN 0-195-16112-2. 
  4. ^ West, Mae (1959). Goodness Had Nothing to Do With it. Prentice-Hall. p. 1. 
  5. ^ Wortis Leider, Emily (2000). Becoming Mae West. Da Capo Press. p. 23. ISBN 0-306-80951-6. 
  6. ^ Watts, Jill (2003). Mae West: An Icon in Black and White. Oxford University Press US. p. 12. ISBN 0-195-16112-2. 
  7. ^ Wortis Leider, Emily (2000). Becoming Mae West. Da Capo Press. p. 21. ISBN 0-306-80951-6. 
  8. ^ Wortis Leider, Emily (2000). Becoming Mae West. Da Capo Press. pp. 23–24. ISBN 0-306-80951-6. 
  9. ^ Gross, Max (2004-02-06). "Playwright Examines Mae West's Legal Dramas". forward.com. http://www.forward.com/articles/6244. Retrieved 2008-11-22. 
  10. ^ a b Musgrove, Stanley (1982). Mae West. William Morrow & Co.. p. 20. ISBN 0-688-00816-X. 
  11. ^ Louvish, Simon (2006). Mae West: It Ain't No Sin. Macmillan. p. 18. ISBN 0-312-34878-9. 
  12. ^ Watts, Jill (2003). Mae West: An Icon in Black and White. Oxford University Press US. pp. 12, 289. ISBN 0-195-16112-2. 
  13. ^ "The Rumble: An Off-the-Ball Look at Your Favorite Sports Celebrities". New York Post. 2006-12-31. Archived from the original on 2008-01-11. http://web.archive.org/web/20080111063057/http://www.nypost.com/seven/12312006/sports/the_rumble_sports_.htm?page=3. Retrieved 2007-12-13. 
  14. ^ Watts, Jill (2003). Mae West: An Icon in Black and White. Oxford University Press US. pp. 16, 18. ISBN 0-195-16112-2. 
  15. ^ Louvish, Simon (2005). Mae West: It Ain't No Sin. St. Martin's Press. pp. 9–10. ISBN 0-312-34878-9. 
  16. ^ Eells, George; Musgrove, Stanley (1982). Mae West: A Biography. Morrow. pp. 23, 170. ISBN 0-688-00816-X. 
  17. ^ Eells, George; Musgrove, Stanley (1982). Mae West: A Biography. Morrow. pp. 38, 170. ISBN 0-688-00816-X. 
  18. ^ Watts, Jill (2003). Mae West: An Icon in Black and White. Oxford University Press US. pp. 23, 28, 194. ISBN 0-195-16112-2. 
  19. ^ Wortis Leider, Emily (2000). Becoming Mae West. Da Capo Press. pp. 122–3. ISBN 0-306-80951-6. ,Louvish, Simon (2006). Mae West: It Ain't No Sin. Macmillan. p. 18. ISBN 0-312-34878-9. 
  20. ^ Watts, Jill (2003). Mae West: An Icon in Black and White. Oxford University Press US. pp. 32–33. ISBN 0-195-16112-2. 
  21. ^ Maurice Leonard in Mae West Empress of Sex ISBN: 0 00 637471 9 pp. 33-34 Times quote: "A girl named Mae West, hitherto unknown, pleased by her grotesquerie and snappy way of singing and dancing."
  22. ^ Louvish, Simon (2006). Mae West: It Ain't No Sin. Macmillan. pp. 50, 452. ISBN 0-312-34878-9. 
  23. ^ Biery, Ruth, "The Private Life of Mae West: Part One", Movie Classic, January 1934, pp. 106–108
  24. ^ Tuska, Jon (1992). The Complete Films of Mae West. Citadel Press. pp. 25–26. ISBN 0-806-51359-4. 
  25. ^ Louvish, Simon (2006). Mae West: It Ain't No Sin. Macmillan. pp. 78, 79, 452. ISBN 0-312-34878-9. 
  26. ^ Yeatts, Tabatha (2000). The Legendary Mae West. Lulu.com. p. 77. ISBN 0-967-91581-3. 
  27. ^ Watts, Jill (2003). Mae West: An Icon in Black and White. Oxford University Press US. pp. 88–89. ISBN 0-195-16112-2. 
  28. ^ a b Bunyan, Patrick (1999). All Around the Town: Amazing Manhattan Facts and Curiosities. Fordham University Press. p. 317. ISBN 0-823-21941-0. 
  29. ^ Schlissel, Lillian; West, Mae (1997). Three Plays by Mae West: Sex, The Drag and Pleasure Man. Routledge. p. 16. ISBN 0-415-90933-3. 
  30. ^ Hamilton, Marybeth (1997). When I'm Bad, I'm Better: Mae West, Sex, and American Entertainment. University of California Press. pp. 57, 67. ISBN 0-520-21094-8. 
  31. ^ Chauncey, George (1995). Gay New York: Gender, Urban Culture, and the Making of the Gay Male World, 1890–1940. Basic Books. p. 312. ISBN 0-465-02621-4. 
  32. ^ Eells, George; Musgrove, Stanley (1982). Mae West: A Biography. Morrow. pp. 66–68. ISBN 0-688-00816-X. 
  33. ^ Watts, Jill (2003). Mae West: An Icon in Black and White. Oxford University Press US. p. 299. ISBN 0-195-16112-2. 
  34. ^ Cullen, Frank; Hackman, Florence; McNeilly, Donald (2007). Vaudeville, Old & New: An Encyclopedia of Variety Performers in America. Routledge. p. 1187. ISBN 0-415-93853-8. 
  35. ^ Eells, George; Musgrove, Stanley (1982). Mae West: A Biography. Morrow. pp. 78, 79, 81. ISBN 0-688-00816-X. 
  36. ^ Eells, George; Musgrove, Stanley (1982). Mae West: A Biography. Morrow. pp. 223, 228, 229. ISBN 0-688-00816-X. 
  37. ^ Eells, George; Musgrove, Stanley (1982). Mae West: A Biography. Morrow. pp. 105–106. ISBN 0-688-00816-X. 
  38. ^ a b Ashby, LeRoy (2006). With Amusement for All: A History of American Popular Culture Since 1830. University Press of Kentucky. p. 224. ISBN 0-813-12397-6. 
  39. ^ a b Smith, Sarah (2005). Children, Cinema and Censorship: From Dracula to the Dead End Kids. I.B.Tauris. p. 55. ISBN 1-850-43813-7. 
  40. ^ McCann, Graham (1998). Cary Grant: A Class Apart. Columbia University Press. p. 73. ISBN 0-231-10885-0. 
  41. ^ Vogel, Frederick G. (2003). Hollywood Musicals Nominated for Best Picture. McFarland & Co.. p. 54. ISBN 0-786-41290-9. 
  42. ^ Starr, Kevin (2002). The Dream Endures: California Enters the 1940s. Oxford University Press US. p. 256. ISBN 0-195-15797-4. 
  43. ^ Eells, George; Musgrove, Stanley (1982). Mae West: A Biography. Morrow. p. 127. ISBN 0-688-00816-X. 
  44. ^ Pendergast, Tom (2000). St. James Encyclopedia of Popular Culture. St. James Press. p. 116. ISBN 1-558-62405-8. 
  45. ^ West, Mae; Schlissel, Lillian (1997). Three Plays by Mae West: Sex, the Drag, the Pleasure Man. Routledge. p. 24. ISBN 0-415-90933-3. 
  46. ^ Doherty, Thomas Patrick (1999). Pre-Code Hollywood: Sex, Immorality, and Insurrection in American cinema, 1930–1934. Columbia University Press. p. 338. ISBN 0-231-11095-2. 
  47. ^ Louvish, Simon (2006). Mae West: It Ain't No Sin. Macmillan. p. 279. ISBN 0-312-34878-9. 
  48. ^ Black, Gregory D. (1996). Hollywood Censored: Morality Codes, Catholics, and the Movies. Cambridge University Press. pp. 228, 229. ISBN 0-521-56592-8. 
  49. ^ Bavar, Michael (1975). Mae West. Pyramid Communications. p. 87. ISBN 0-515-03868-7. 
  50. ^ Wortis Leider, Emily (2000). Becoming Mae West. Da Capo Press. p. 402. ISBN 0-306-80951-6. 
  51. ^ Louvish, Simon (2006). Mae West: It Ain't No Sin. Macmillan. p. 308. ISBN 0-312-34878-9. 
  52. ^ a b c Louvish, Simon (1999). Man on the Flying Trapeze: The Life and Times of W. C. Fields. W. W. Norton & Company. p. 435. ISBN 0-393-31840-0. 
  53. ^ Deschner, Donald (1989). The Complete Films of W.C. Fields. Citadel Press. p. 140. ISBN 0-806-51136-2. 
  54. ^ Curtis, James (2003). W.C. Fields: A Biography. A.A. Knopf. p. 399. ISBN 0-375-40217-9. 
  55. ^ Gehring, Wes D. (1999). Parody as Film Genre: "Never Give a Saga an Even Break". Greenwood Publishing Group. p. 39. ISBN 0-313-26186-5. 
  56. ^ Tuska, Jon (1992). The Complete Films of Mae West. Citadel Press. p. 153. ISBN 0-806-51359-4. 
  57. ^ Dick, Bernard F. (1993). The Merchant Prince of Poverty Row: Harry Cohn of Columbia Pictures. University Press of Kentucky. p. 130. ISBN 0-813-11841-7. 
  58. ^ a b Hilmes, Michele; Loviglio, Jason (2002). Radio Reader: Essays in the Cultural History of Radio. Routledge. p. 137. ISBN 0-415-92821-4. 
  59. ^ a b 7
  60. ^ a b Pendergrast, Mark (2000). Uncommon Grounds: The History of Coffee and How It Transformed Our World. Basic Books. p. 200. ISBN 0-465-05467-6. 
  61. ^ Dunning, John (1998). On the Air: The Encyclopedia of Old-time Radio. Oxford University Press US. p. 229. ISBN 0-195-07678-8. 
  62. ^ Ohmart, Ben (2007). Don Ameche: The Kenosha Comeback Kid. BearManor Media. p. 50. ISBN 1-593-93045-3. 
  63. ^ Craig, Steve. "Out of Eden: The Legion of Decency, the FCC, and Mae West's 1937 Appearance on The Chase and Sanborn Hour". Journal of Radio Studies Nov. 2006. 
  64. ^ Hilmes, Michele; Loviglio, Jason (2002). Radio Reader: Essays in the Cultural History of Radio. Routledge. p. 138. ISBN 0-415-92821-4. 
  65. ^ Curry, Ramona (1996). Too Much of a Good Thing: Mae West as Cultural Icon. U of Minnesota Press. p. 81. ISBN 0-816-62791-6. 
  66. ^ Shafer, Yvonne (1995). American Women Playwrights, 1900–1950. Peter Lang Publishing Inc.. p. 419. ISBN 0-820-42142-1. 
  67. ^ Bloom, Ken (2004). Broadway: An Encyclopedia. Taylor & Francis. p. 480. ISBN 0-415-93704-3. 
  68. ^ Robertson, Pamela (1996). Guilty Pleasures: Feminist Camp from Mae West to Madonna. I.B.Tauris. p. 27. ISBN 1-860-64088-5. 
  69. ^ Strodder, Chris (2000). Swingin' Chicks of the '60s: A Tribute to 101 of the Decade's Defining Women. Cedco Publishing Company. p. 83. ISBN 0-768-32232-4. 
  70. ^ Staggs, Sam (2003). Close-up on Sunset Boulevard: Billy Wilder, Norma Desmond, and the Dark Hollywood Dream. Macmillan. p. 8. ISBN 0-312-30254-1. 
  71. ^ Meade, Marion (1997). Buster Keaton: Cut to the Chase. Da Capo Press. p. 245. ISBN 0-306-80802-1. 
  72. ^ Robertson, Pamela (1996). Guilty Pleasures: Feminist Camp from Mae West to Madonna. Duke University Press. p. 25. ISBN 0-822-31748-6. 
  73. ^ Yeatts, Tabatha (2000). The Legendary Mae West. Lulu.com. p. 71. ISBN 0-967-91581-3. 
  74. ^ Cullen, Frank; Florence Hackman and Donald McNeilly (2007). Vaudeville, Old & New: An Encyclopedia of Variety Performers in America. Routledge. p. 1188. ISBN 0-415-93853-8. 
  75. ^ Yeatts, Tabatha (2000). The Legendary Mae West. Lulu.com. p. 73. ISBN 0-967-91581-3. 
  76. ^ album cover
  77. ^ Kashner, Sam; Macnair, Jennifer (2003). The Bad & the Beautiful: Hollywood in the Fifties. W. W. Norton & Company. p. 335. ISBN 0-393-32436-2. 
  78. ^ Hoberman, J.; Jonathan Rosenbaum (1991). Midnight Movies. Da Capo Press. p. 268. ISBN 0-306-80433-6. 
  79. ^ Hamilton, Marybeth (1997). When I'm Bad, I'm Better: Mae West, Sex, and American Entertainment. University of California Press. p. 263. ISBN 0-520-21094-8. 
  80. ^ Louvish, Simon (2006). Mae West: It Ain't No Sin. Macmillan. p. 463. ISBN 0-312-34878-9. 
  81. ^ Wortis Leider, Emily (2000). Becoming Mae West. Da Capo Press. p. 401. ISBN 0-306-80951-6. 
  82. ^ Yeatts, Tabatha (2000). The Legendary Mae West. Lulu.com. p. 74. ISBN 0-967-91581-3. 
  83. ^ Watts, Jill (2003). Mae West: An Icon in Black and White. Oxford University Press US. p. 309. ISBN 0-195-16112-2. 
  84. ^ a b c d Watts, Jill (2003). Mae West: An Icon in Black and White. Oxford University Press US. p. 310. ISBN 0-195-16112-2. 
  85. ^ Clarke, Gerald (1978-05-22). "At 84 Mae West Is Still Mae West". Time. http://www.time.com/time/magazine/article/0,9171,919666,00.html. Retrieved 2008-11-15. 
  86. ^ a b Kashner, Sam; MacNair, Jennifer (2003). The Bad & the Beautiful: Hollywood in the Fifties. W. W. Norton & Company. p. 336. ISBN 0-393-32436-2. 
  87. ^ a b Watts, Jill (2003). Mae West: An Icon in Black and White. Oxford University Press US. p. 313. ISBN 0-195-16112-2. 
  88. ^ "Mae West, Stage and Movie Star Who Burlesqued Sex, Dies at 87". The New York Times. 1980-11-23. Archived from the original on April 7, 2008. http://web.archive.org/web/20080407064502/http://www.nytimes.com/specials/magazine4/articles/west1.html. Retrieved 2008-11-15. 
  89. ^ "Former Boxing Champ Managed by Mae West Succumbs at Age 75". Jet (Johnson Publishing Company) 61 (17): 52–53. 1982-01-28. ISSN 0021-5996. http://books.google.com/?id=t0EDAAAAMBAJ&pg=PA52. 
  90. ^ Leonard, Maurice (1991). Mae West: empress of sex. p. 406. ISBN 0002151979. 
  91. ^ Witchel, Alex (2000-05-08). "Blown Sideways, but Landing on Broadway". New York Times. http://www.nytimes.com/2000/05/08/theater/blown-sideways-but-landing-on-broadway.html. 
  92. ^ Kirby, David (1998-01-25). "Neighborhood report: Upper east side; The Lady Is a Stamp?". New York Times. http://www.nytimes.com/1998/01/25/nyregion/neighborhood-report-upper-east-side-the-lady-is-a-stamp.html. 
  93. ^ Maurice Leonard in Mae West, Empress of Sex ISBN 0 00 637471 9, pp. 29–30
  94. ^ Hamilton, Marybeth (1997). When I'm Bad, I'm Better: Mae West, Sex, and American Entertainment. University of California Press. p. 15. ISBN 0-520-21094-8. 
  95. ^ Hamilton, Marybeth (1995). The Queen of Camp: Mae West, sex and popular culture. HarperCollins. pp. 13–14. 
  96. ^ Watts, Jill. Mae West: An Icon in Black and White. Oxford University Press. pp. 201–2. 
  97. ^ Louvish, Simon (2006). Mae West: It Ain't No Sin. Macmillan. p. 283. 
  98. ^ Watts, Jill. Mae West: An Icon in Black and White. Oxford University Press. p. 224. 
  99. ^ Louvish, Simon (2006). Mae West: It Ain't No Sin. Macmillan. pp. 350–1. ISBN 0-312-34878-9. 
  100. ^ Louvish, Simon (2006). Mae West: It Ain't No Sin. Macmillan. p. 351. ISBN 0-312-34878-9. 
  101. ^ West, Mae (1959). Goodness Had Nothing to Do With It. Prentice-Hall. 
  102. ^ . Columbus Ledger. 1914-03-19. 
  103. ^ . Columbus Journal. 1914-03-20. 
  104. ^ Granlund, Nils Thor; Sid Fedder and Ralph Hancock (1957). Blondes, Brunettes, and Bullets. David McKay Company, Inc.. p. 43. "One of the first big acts Loew ever booked was a girl named Mae West. She had an act with an accordion player named Deiro. She later married him." 
  105. ^ Variety magazine printed a notice stating that "Mr. and Mrs. Deiro" were playing at Shea's in Toronto, Canada, for the week beginning November 29th, 1913.
  106. ^ Laurie, Joe Jr. (1953). Vaudeville: From the Honky-Tonks to the Palace. Henry Holt & Co.. p. 69. "Among the fine accordionists was... Deiro (Mae West's ex-hubby)." 
  107. ^ Winchell, Walter (February 1935). "Truly Yours". Accordion News. p. 13. 
  108. ^ Watts, Jill (2003). Mae West: An Icon in Black and White. Oxford University Press US. pp. 43–46. ISBN 0-195-16112-2. 
  109. ^ Wortis Leider, Emily (2000). Becoming Mae West. Da Capo Press. pp. 79–81. ISBN 0-306-80951-6. 
  110. ^ Louvish, Simon (2006). Mae West: It Ain't No Sin. Macmillan. pp. 59–61. ISBN 0-312-34878-9. 
  111. ^ Eels, Stanley (1982). Mae West. William Morrow & Co.. pp. 53 to 57. ISBN 0-688-00816-X.  Spelled Diero in this book.
  112. ^ Bergman, Carol (1988). Mae West. Chelsea House. ISBN 1-555546-681-8.  Deiro unmentioned.
  113. ^ Hamilton, Marybeth (1995). The Queen of Camp: Mae West, sex and popular culture. HarperCollins. ISBN 0-04-440960-5.  Deiro unmentioned.
  114. ^ Watts, Jill (2003). Mae West: An Icon in Black and White. Oxford University Press US. pp. 46–47. ISBN 0-195-16112-2. 
  115. ^ Wortis Leider, Emily (2000). Becoming Mae West. Da Capo Press. p. 81. ISBN 0-306-80951-6. 
  116. ^ Louvish, Simon (2006). Mae West: It Ain't No Sin. Macmillan. pp. 60–61. ISBN 0-312-34878-9. 
  117. ^ Count Guido Roberto Deiro, "Guido & Mae West: The Untold Story", Guido Deiro: Complete Recorded Works, Vol. 2 (Archeophone 5014: 2009), p. 13
  118. ^ ENVELOPE 7. Misc. Letters & Legal Documents, "The Guido Deiro Archive: Part II. Printed Items" Center for the Study of Free-Reed Instruments at the City University of New York Graduate Center [1]
  119. ^ The divorce certificate can be found in the Deiro Archive at the Center for the Study of Free-Reed Instruments at the Graduate Center of the City University of New York. See also Doktorski, The Brothers Deiro.
  120. ^ Swainson, Bill (2000). Encarta Book of Quotations. Macmillan. p. 980. ISBN 0-312-23000-1. 
  121. ^ Eels, Stanley (1982). Mae West. William Morrow & Co.. pp. 90, 91. ISBN 0-688-00816-X. 
  122. ^ Lord, Rosemary (2003). Hollywood Then and Now. San Diego, California: Thunder Bay Press. p. 77. ISBN 1-59223-104-7. 
  123. ^ Watts, Jill (2003). Mae West: An Icon in Black and White. Oxford University Press US. pp. 168, 187, 188, 207, 288. ISBN 0-195-16112-2. 
  124. ^ Eels, Stanley (1982). Mae West. William Morrow & Co.. pp. 55–61, 39–146, 188–191, 241. ISBN 0-688-00816-X. 
  125. ^ Eels, Stanley (1982). Mae West. William Morrow & Co.. pp. 249, 250. ISBN 0-688-00816-X. 
  126. ^ Kevin Thomas (July 15, 1999). "Paul Novak, 76; 26-Year Companion of Actress Mae West". LA Times. http://articles.latimes.com/1999/jul/15/news/mn-56251. 
  127. ^ Tom Vallance (20 July 1999). "Obituary: Paul Novak". The Independent. http://www.independent.co.uk/arts-entertainment/obituary-paul-novak-1107530.html. 
  128. ^ Eels, Stanley (1982). Mae West. William Morrow & Co.. p. 293. ISBN 0-688-00816-X. 
  129. ^ Watts, Jill (2003). Mae West: An Icon in Black and White. Oxford University Press US. p. 207. ISBN 0-195-16112-2. 
  130. ^ Elster, Charles Harrington (2006). What in the Word?: Wordplay, Word Lore, and Answers to Your Peskiest Questions about Language. Harcourt Trade. p. 246. ISBN 0-156-03197-3. 
  131. ^ "Mae West". Mae West. encarta.msn.com. http://encarta.msn.com/dictionary_1861627693/Mae_West.html. 
  132. ^ Wortis Leider, Emily (2000). Becoming Mae West. Da Capo Press. p. 349. ISBN 0-306-80951-6. 
  133. ^ Gleadell, Colin (2003-10-06). "Object of the week: the 'Mae West' lip sofa". London: telegraph.co.uk. http://www.telegraph.co.uk/arts/main.jhtml?xml=/arts/2003/10/06/baobj06.xml. Retrieved 2008-11-22. 
  134. ^ Martin, George (1995). Summer of Love: the Making of Sgt. Pepper. MacMillan. p. 139. 

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