Dissociative

Dissociatives are a class of psychoactive drugs which are said to reduce or block signals to the conscious mind from other parts of the brain.[1] Although many kinds of drugs are capable of such action, dissociatives are unique in that they do so in such a way that they produce hallucinogenic effects, which may include sensory deprivation, dissociation, hallucinations, and dream-like states or trances.[2] Some, which are nonselective in action and affect the dopamine [3] and/or opioid[4] systems, may be capable of inducing euphoria. Many dissociatives have general depressant effects and can produce sedation, respiratory depression[citation needed], analgesia, anesthesia, and ataxia, as well as cognitive and memory impairment and amnesia.[citation needed]

Contents

Classes of dissociatives

NMDA receptor antagonists

κ-opioid receptor agonists

Effects

The effects of dissociatives can include sensory dissociation, hallucinations, mania, catalepsy, analgesia and amnesia.[9][10][11] The characteristic features of dissociative anesthesia were described as catalepsy, amnesia and analgesia.[9] According to Pender (1972), "the state has been designated as dissociative anesthesia since the patient truly seems disassociated from his environment."[12] Bonta (2004) described dissociative anaesthesia as "... a peculiar anaesthetic state in which marked sensory loss and analgesia as well as amnesia is not accompanied by actual loss of consciousness."[13] Both Pender (1970) and Johnstone et al. (1959) reported that patients under anesthesia due to either ketamine or phencyclidine were prone to purposeless movements and had hallucinations (or "dreams"[14]) during and after anesthesia. Some patients found the hallucinations euphoric while others found them disturbing.

At sub-anesthetic doses, dissociatives alter many of the same cognitive and perceptual processes affected by other hallucinogenic drugs such as mescaline, LSD, and psilocybin; hence they are also considered hallucinogenic, psychotomimetic, and psychedelic.[15][16][17][18] Perhaps the most significant subjective differences between dissociatives and the classical hallucinogens (such as LSD and mescaline) are the dissociative effects, including: depersonalization, the feeling of being unreal, disconnected from one's self, or unable to control one's actions; and derealization, the feeling that the outside world is unreal or that one is dreaming.[19]

See also

References

  1. ^ Tamminga, C. A.; Tanimoto, K.; Kuo, S.; Chase, T. N.; Contreras, P. C.; Rice, K. C.; Jackson, A. E.; O'Donohue, T. L. (1987). "PCP-induced alterations in cerebral glucose utilization in rat brain: Blockade by metaphit, a PCP-receptor-acylating agent". Synapse 1 (5): 497–504. doi:10.1002/syn.890010514. PMID 2850626. 
  2. ^ Snyder, Solomon H. (1980). "Phencyclidine". Nature 285 (5764): 355–6. doi:10.1038/285355a0. PMID 7189825. 
  3. ^ Giannini, AJ; Eighan, MS; Loiselle, RH; Giannini, MC (1984). "Comparison of haloperidol and chlorpromazine in the treatment of phencyclidine psychosis". Journal of clinical pharmacology 24 (4): 202–4. PMID 6725621. 
  4. ^ Giannini, A. James; Nageotte, Catherine; Loiselle, Robert H.; Malone, Donald A.; Price, William A. (1984). "Comparison of Chlorpromazine, Haloperidol and Pimozide in the Treatment of Phencyclidine Psychosis: Da-2 Receptor Specificity". Clinical Toxicology 22 (6): 573–9. doi:10.3109/15563658408992586. PMID 6535849. 
  5. ^ Giannini, A. James; Underwood, Ned A.; Condon, Maggie (2000). "Acute Ketamine Intoxication Treated by Haloperidol". American Journal of Therapeutics 7 (6): 389–91. doi:10.1097/00045391-200007060-00008. PMID 11304647. 
  6. ^ Giannini, A. James; Giannini, Matthew C.; Price, William A. (1984). "Antidotal Strategies in Phencyclidine Intoxication". The International Journal of Psychiatry in Medicine 14 (4): 315–21. doi:10.2190/KKAW-PWGF-W7RQ-23GN. 
  7. ^ Giannini, A. James; Price, William A.; Loiselle, Robert H.; Malone, Donald W. (1985). "Treatment of Phenylcyclohexylpyrrolidine (Php) Psychosis with Haloperidol". Clinical Toxicology 23 (2-3): 185–9. doi:10.3109/15563658508990627. PMID 4057312. 
  8. ^ Tarter, RE; Ammerman, RT; Ott, PJ (1998). Handbook of Sustance Abuse: Neurobaehavioral Pharmacology. NY: Plenum Press. p. 265. ISBN 0-306-45884-5. 
  9. ^ a b Pender, John W. (1970). "Dissociative Anesthesia". California Medicine 113 (5): 73. PMC 1501800. PMID 18730444. http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=1501800. 
  10. ^ Johnstone, M.; Evans, V.; Baigel, S. (1959). "SERNYL (C1−395) IN CLINICAL ANAESTHESIA". BJA: British Journal of Anaesthesia 31: 433–9. doi:10.1093/bja/31.10.433. 
  11. ^ Oduntan, S. A.; Gool, R. Y. (1970). "Clinical trial of ketamine (ci-581): A preliminary report". Canadian Anaesthetists' Society Journal 17: 411–6. doi:10.1007/BF03004705. 
  12. ^ Pender, John W. (October 1972). "Dissociative Anesthesia". California Medicine 117 (4): 46–7. PMC 1518731. PMID 18730832. http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=1518731. 
  13. ^ Bonta, I (2004). "Schizophrenia, dissociative anaesthesia and near-death experience; three events meeting at the NMDA receptor". Medical Hypotheses 62 (1): 23–8. doi:10.1016/S0306-9877(03)00307-4. PMID 14729000. 
  14. ^ Virtue, RW; Alanis, JM; Mori, M; Lafargue, RT; Vogel, JH; Metcalf, DR (1967). "An anesthetic agent: 2-orthochlorophenyl, 2-methylamino cyclohexanone HCl (CI-581).". Anesthesiology 28 (5): 823–33. PMID 6035012. 
  15. ^ Mason, Oliver J.; Morgan, Celia J.M.; Stefanovic, Ana; Curran, H Valerie (2008). "The Psychotomimetic States Inventory (PSI): Measuring psychotic-type experiences from ketamine and cannabis". Schizophrenia Research 103 (1-3): 138–42. doi:10.1016/j.schres.2008.02.020. PMID 18387788. 
  16. ^ Lim, DK (2003). "Ketamine associated psychedelic effects and dependence.". Singapore medical journal 44 (1): 31–4. PMID 12762561. http://www.sma.org.sg/smj/4401/4401a5.pdf. 
  17. ^ Gouzoulis-Mayfrank, E.; Heekeren, K.; Neukirch, A.; Stoll, M.; Stock, C.; Obradovic, M.; Kovar, K.-A. (2005). "Psychological Effects of (S)-Ketamine and N,N-Dimethyltryptamine (DMT): A Double-Blind, Cross-Over Study in Healthy Volunteers". Pharmacopsychiatry 38 (6): 301–11. doi:10.1055/s-2005-916185. PMID 16342002. 
  18. ^ Krupitsky, EM; Grinenko, AY (1997). "Ketamine psychedelic therapy (KPT): a review of the results of ten years of research.". Journal of psychoactive drugs 29 (2): 165–83. PMID 9250944. http://www.eleusis.us/resource-center/references/kpt10yrs.php. 
  19. ^ Vollenweider, F; Geyer, MA (2001). "A systems model of altered consciousness: integrating natural and drug-induced psychoses". Brain Research Bulletin 56 (5): 495–507. doi:10.1016/S0361-9230(01)00646-3. PMID 11750795. 

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