Voiceless palato-alveolar affricate


Voiceless palato-alveolar affricate
Voiceless palato-alveolar affricate
t͡ʃ
IPA number 103 (134)
Encoding
Entity (decimal) t​͡​ʃ
Unicode (hex) U+0074 U+0361 U+0283
X-SAMPA tS
Kirshenbaum tS
Sound

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The voiceless palato-alveolar affricate or domed postalveolar affricate is a type of consonantal sound used in some spoken languages. The sound is transcribed in the International Phonetic Alphabet with ⟨t͡ʃ⟩ or ⟨t͜ʃ⟩ (formerly ⟨ʧ⟩). It is familiar to English speakers as the "ch" sound in "chip".

Historically, this sound often derives from a former voiceless velar plosive /k/ (as in English, Slavic languages and Romance languages), or a voiceless dental plosive by way of palatalization, especially next to a front vowel.

Contents

Features

Features of the voiceless domed postalveolar affricate:

  • Its manner of articulation is sibilant affricate, which means it is produced by first stopping the air flow entirely, then directing it with the tongue to the sharp edge of the teeth, causing high-frequency turbulence.
  • Its place of articulation is palato-alveolar, that is, domed (partially palatalized) postalveolar, which means it is articulated with the blade of the tongue behind the alveolar ridge, and the front of the tongue bunched up ("domed") at the palate.
  • Its phonation is voiceless, which means it is produced without vibrations of the vocal cords. In some languages the vocal cords are actively separated, so it is always voiceless; in others the cords are lax, so that it may take on the voicing of adjacent sounds.
  • It is an oral consonant, which means air is allowed to escape through the mouth only.
  • It is a central consonant, which means it is produced by directing the airstream along the center of the tongue, rather than to the sides.
  • The airstream mechanism is pulmonic, which means it is articulated by pushing air solely with the lungs and diaphragm, as in most sounds.

Transcription

The International Phonetic Alphabet uses two symbols together to represent this sound: . They may be joined with a tiebar (t͡ʃ), and the t may sometimes be given the "retracted" diacritic (t̠ʃ). Formerly a ligature (ʧ) was used. Other phonetic transcriptions used include:[citation needed]

  • c
  • č
  • ch
  • cs
  • cz
  • tc (older Americanist transcription)
  • tsch
  • tx

Occurrence

Language Word IPA Meaning Notes
Albanian çelur [t͡ʃɛluɾ] 'open'
Aleut Atkan dialect chamĝul [t͡ʃɑmʁul] 'to wash'
Amharic አንቺ [ant͡ʃi] 'you' f. sg.
Arabic[1] Central Palestinian مكتبة [ˈmat͡ʃt̪abɐ] 'library' corresponds to [k] in Standard Arabic and other varieties. See Arabic phonology
Jordanian كتاب [t͡ʃiˈt̪aːb] 'book'
Iraqi
Armenian ճնճղուկ About this sound [tʃəntʃʁuk] 'sparrow' See Armenian phonology
Azeri Əkinçi [ækint͡ʃi] 'the ploughman'
Bengali চশমা [t͡ʃɔʃma] 'spectacles' Contrasts with aspirated form. See Bengali phonology
Basque txalupa [t͡ʃalupa] 'boat'
Choctaw hakchioma [hakt͡ʃioma] 'tobacco'
Coptic Bohairic dialect ϭⲟϩ [t͡ʃoh] 'touch'
Czech morče [mo̞rt͡ʃɛ] 'guinea pig' See Czech phonology
English bleach [bliːt͡ʃ] 'bleach' See English phonology
Esperanto ĉar [t͡ʃar] 'because' See Esperanto phonology
Faroese tjørn [t͡ʃɶtn] 'lake'
French caoutchouc [kaut͡ʃu] 'rubber' Relatively rare; occurs mostly in loanwords
Georgian[2] ჩიხი [t͡ʃixi] 'impasse'
German Tschinelle [t͡ʃiˈnɛlə] 'cymbal' See German phonology
Hebrew צ'כיה [t͡ʃɛxja] 'Czech Republic' See Modern Hebrew phonology
Hindi चाय [t͡ʃɑːj] 'tea' Contrasts with aspirated form. See Hindi-Urdu phonology
Haitian Creole match [mat͡ʃ] 'sports match'
Hungarian gyümölcs [ɟymølt͡ʃleː] '(fruit) juice' See Hungarian phonology
Italian[3] ciao [t͡ʃao] 'ciao' See Italian phonology
K'iche' K'iche' [kʼit͡ʃeʔ] K'iche'' Contrasts with ejective form
Malay cuci [t͡ʃut͡ʃi] 'wash'
Maltese bliċ [blit͡ʃ] 'bleach'
Norwegian kjøkken [t͡ʃøkːen] 'kitchen' Only in some dialects, see Norwegian phonology
Nunggubuyu[4] [t͡ʃaɾo] 'needle'
Persian چوب [t͡ʃʰuːb] 'wood' See Persian phonology
Portuguese Brazilian[5] presidente [pɾeziˈdẽt͡ʃi] 'president' Allophone of /t/. See Portuguese phonology
Romanian cer [t͡ʃe̞r] 'sky' See Romanian phonology
Rotuman[6] joni [ˈt͡ʃɔni] 'to flee'
Scottish Gaelic slàinte [slaːnt͡ʃə] 'health' See Scottish Gaelic phonology
Serbo-Croatian чоколада/čokoláda [t͡ʃɔkɔˈlaːda][tone?] 'chocolate' See Serbo-Croatian phonology
Spanish[7] chafar [t͡ʃaˈfaɾ] 'to flatten' See Spanish phonology
Swahili jicho [ʄit͡ʃo] 'eye'
Tlingit jinkaat [ˈt͡ʃinkʰaːtʰ] 'ten'
Turkish uçak [ut͡ʃak] 'airplane' See Turkish phonology
Ubykh [t͡ʃəbʒəja] 'pepper' See Ubykh phonology
Ukrainian чотири [t͡ʃo̞ˈtɪrɪ] 'four' See Ukrainian phonology
Urdu چاۓ [t͡ʃɑːj] 'tea' Contrasts with aspirated form. See Hindi-Urdu phonology
West Frisian tsjerke [t͡ʃɛrkǝ] 'church'
Central Alaskan Yup'ik nacaq [ˈnat͡ʃaq] 'parka hood'
Zapotec Tilquiapan[8] chane [t͡ʃanɘ]

Mandarin Chinese, Russian, Japanese, Polish, Catalan, and Thai have a voiceless alveolo-palatal affricate /t͡ɕ/; this is technically postalveolar but it is less precise to use /t͡ʃ/.

Notes

Bibliography

  • Barbosa, Plínio A.; Albano, Eleonora C. (2004), "Brazilian Portuguese", Journal of the International Phonetic Association 34 (2): 227–232, doi:10.1017/S0025100304001756 
  • Blevin, Juliette (1994), "The Bimoraic Foot in Rotuman Phonology and Morphology", Oceanic Linguistics 33 (2): 491–516, doi:10.2307/3623138, JSTOR 3623138 
  • Ladefoged, Peter (2005), Vowels and Consonants (Second ed.), Blackwell 
  • Martínez-Celdrán, Eugenio; Fernández-Planas, Ana Ma.; Carrera-Sabaté, Josefina (2003), "Castilian Spanish", Journal of the International Phonetic Association 33 (2): 255–259, doi:10.1017/S0025100303001373 
  • Merrill, Elizabeth (2008), "Tilquiapan Zapotec", Journal of the International Phonetic Association 38 (1): 107–114 
  • Rogers, Derek; d'Arcangeli, Luciana (2004), "Italian", Journal of the International Phonetic Association 34 (1): 117–121, doi:10.1017/S0025100304001628 
  • Shosted, Ryan K.; Vakhtang, Chikovani (2006), "Standard Georgian", Journal of the International Phonetic Association 36 (2): 255–264, doi:10.1017/S0025100306002659 
  • Watson, Janet (2002), The Phonology and Morphology of Arabic, New York: Oxford University Press 

See also


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