- Voiceless palato-alveolar affricate
Voiceless palato-alveolar affricate t͡ʃ Image IPA number 103 (134) Encoding Entity (decimal)
Unicode (hex) U+0074 U+0361 U+0283 X-SAMPA
The voiceless palato-alveolar affricate or domed postalveolar affricate is a type of consonantal sound used in some spoken languages. The sound is transcribed in the International Phonetic Alphabet with ⟨t͡ʃ⟩ or ⟨t͜ʃ⟩ (formerly ⟨ʧ⟩). It is familiar to English speakers as the "ch" sound in "chip".
Historically, this sound often derives from a former voiceless velar plosive /k/ (as in English, Slavic languages and Romance languages), or a voiceless dental plosive by way of palatalization, especially next to a front vowel.
Features of the voiceless domed postalveolar affricate:
- Its manner of articulation is sibilant affricate, which means it is produced by first stopping the air flow entirely, then directing it with the tongue to the sharp edge of the teeth, causing high-frequency turbulence.
- Its place of articulation is palato-alveolar, that is, domed (partially palatalized) postalveolar, which means it is articulated with the blade of the tongue behind the alveolar ridge, and the front of the tongue bunched up ("domed") at the palate.
- Its phonation is voiceless, which means it is produced without vibrations of the vocal cords. In some languages the vocal cords are actively separated, so it is always voiceless; in others the cords are lax, so that it may take on the voicing of adjacent sounds.
- It is an oral consonant, which means air is allowed to escape through the mouth only.
- It is a central consonant, which means it is produced by directing the airstream along the center of the tongue, rather than to the sides.
- The airstream mechanism is pulmonic, which means it is articulated by pushing air solely with the lungs and diaphragm, as in most sounds.
The International Phonetic Alphabet uses two symbols together to represent this sound: tʃ. They may be joined with a tiebar (t͡ʃ), and the t may sometimes be given the "retracted" diacritic (t̠ʃ). Formerly a ligature (ʧ) was used. Other phonetic transcriptions used include:
- tc (older Americanist transcription)
Language Word IPA Meaning Notes Albanian çelur [t͡ʃɛluɾ] 'open' Aleut Atkan dialect chamĝul [t͡ʃɑmʁul] 'to wash' Amharic አንቺ [ant͡ʃi] 'you' f. sg. Arabic Central Palestinian مكتبة [ˈmat͡ʃt̪abɐ] 'library' corresponds to [k] in Standard Arabic and other varieties. See Arabic phonology Jordanian كتاب [t͡ʃiˈt̪aːb] 'book' Iraqi Armenian ճնճղուկ [tʃəntʃʁuk] (help·info) 'sparrow' See Armenian phonology Azeri Əkinçi [ækint͡ʃi] 'the ploughman' Bengali চশমা [t͡ʃɔʃma] 'spectacles' Contrasts with aspirated form. See Bengali phonology Basque txalupa [t͡ʃalupa] 'boat' Choctaw hakchioma [hakt͡ʃioma] 'tobacco' Coptic Bohairic dialect ϭⲟϩ [t͡ʃoh] 'touch' Czech morče [mo̞rt͡ʃɛ] 'guinea pig' See Czech phonology English bleach [bliːt͡ʃ] 'bleach' See English phonology Esperanto ĉar [t͡ʃar] 'because' See Esperanto phonology Faroese tjørn [t͡ʃɶtn] 'lake' French caoutchouc [kaut͡ʃu] 'rubber' Relatively rare; occurs mostly in loanwords Georgian ჩიხი [t͡ʃixi] 'impasse' German Tschinelle [t͡ʃiˈnɛlə] 'cymbal' See German phonology Hebrew צ'כיה [t͡ʃɛxja] 'Czech Republic' See Modern Hebrew phonology Hindi चाय [t͡ʃɑːj] 'tea' Contrasts with aspirated form. See Hindi-Urdu phonology Haitian Creole match [mat͡ʃ] 'sports match' Hungarian gyümölcslé [ɟymølt͡ʃleː] '(fruit) juice' See Hungarian phonology Italian ciao [t͡ʃao] 'ciao' See Italian phonology K'iche' K'iche' [kʼit͡ʃeʔ] K'iche'' Contrasts with ejective form Malay cuci [t͡ʃut͡ʃi] 'wash' Maltese bliċ [blit͡ʃ] 'bleach' Norwegian kjøkken [t͡ʃøkːen] 'kitchen' Only in some dialects, see Norwegian phonology Nunggubuyu [t͡ʃaɾo] 'needle' Persian چوب [t͡ʃʰuːb] 'wood' See Persian phonology Portuguese Brazilian presidente [pɾeziˈdẽt͡ʃi] 'president' Allophone of /t/. See Portuguese phonology Romanian cer [t͡ʃe̞r] 'sky' See Romanian phonology Rotuman joni [ˈt͡ʃɔni] 'to flee' Scottish Gaelic slàinte [slaːnt͡ʃə] 'health' See Scottish Gaelic phonology Serbo-Croatian чоколада/čokoláda [t͡ʃɔkɔˈlaːda][tone?] 'chocolate' See Serbo-Croatian phonology Spanish chafar [t͡ʃaˈfaɾ] 'to flatten' See Spanish phonology Swahili jicho [ʄit͡ʃo] 'eye' Tlingit jinkaat [ˈt͡ʃinkʰaːtʰ] 'ten' Turkish uçak [ut͡ʃak] 'airplane' See Turkish phonology Ubykh [t͡ʃəbʒəja] 'pepper' See Ubykh phonology Ukrainian чотири [t͡ʃo̞ˈtɪrɪ] 'four' See Ukrainian phonology Urdu چاۓ [t͡ʃɑːj] 'tea' Contrasts with aspirated form. See Hindi-Urdu phonology West Frisian tsjerke [t͡ʃɛrkǝ] 'church' Central Alaskan Yup'ik nacaq [ˈnat͡ʃaq] 'parka hood' Zapotec Tilquiapan chane [t͡ʃanɘ]
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International Phonetic Alphabet IPA topics IPA Phonetics Special topics Encodings Consonants IPA pulmonic consonants chartchart image • audio Place → Labial Coronal Dorsal Radical Glottal ↓ Manner Bilabial Labiodental Dental Alveolar Postalv. Retroflex Palatal Velar Uvular Pharyngeal Epiglottal Glottal Nasal m ɱ n̪ n ɳ ɲ ŋ ɴ Plosive p b p̪ b̪ t̪ d̪ t d ʈ ɖ c ɟ k ɡ q ɢ ʡ ʔ Fricative ɸ β f v θ ð s z ʃ ʒ ʂ ʐ ç ʝ x ɣ χ ʁ ħ ʕ ʜ ʢ h ɦ Approximant ʋ ɹ ɻ j ɰ Trill ʙ r ɽ͡r ʀ я * Flap or tap ⱱ̟ ⱱ ɾ ɽ ɢ̆ ʡ̯ Lateral Fric. ɬ ɮ ɭ˔̊ ʎ̥˔ ʟ̝̊ Lateral Appr. l ɭ ʎ ʟ Lateral flap ɺ ɺ̠ ʎ̯ Non-pulmonic consonants Clicks ʘ ǀ ǃ ǂ ǁ Implosives ɓ ɗ ʄ ᶑ ɠ ʛ Ejectives pʼ tʼ cʼ ʈʼ kʼ qʼ fʼ θʼ sʼ ɬʼ xʼ χʼ tsʼ tɬʼ cʎ̝̥ʼ tʃʼ ʈʂʼ kxʼ kʟ̝̊ʼ Affricates p̪f ts dz tʃ dʒ tɕ dʑ ʈʂ ɖʐ tɬ dɮ cç ɟʝ Co-articulated consonants Fricatives ɕ ʑ ɧ Approximants ʍ w ɥ ɫ Stops k͡p ɡ͡b ŋ͡m These tables contain phonetic symbols, which may not display correctly in some browsers. [Help] Where symbols appear in pairs, left—right represent the voiceless—voiced consonants. Shaded areas denote pulmonic articulations judged to be impossible. * Symbol not defined in IPA. Chart image Vowels
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