Robert T. Craig (scholar)

Robert T. Craig (scholar)
Robert T. Craig

Robert T. Craig
Full name Robert T. Craig
Born May 10, 1947
Rochester, New York
Era 20th-21st century
Region Midwest United States
School/tradition Communication
Main interests Communication theory, Pragmatism, Social Constructionism,
Notable ideas Grounded practical theory, Metacommunicative model of communication, practical discipline of communication
Major works Communication Theory as a Field, Theorizing Communication:Readings across traditions, Grounded practical theory: the case of intellectual discussion, Communication as a practice

Robert T. Craig is a communication theorist from the University of Colorado, Boulder who received his B.A. in Speech at the University of Wisconsin–Madison, and his M.A and PhD. in communication from Michigan State University.[1][2] Craig was on the 1988 founding board of the journal "Research on Language and Social Interaction,"[3] a position he continues to hold.[4][5] From 1991-1993 Craig was the founding editor of the International Communication Association journal "Communication Theory" which has been in continuous publication since 1991.[1] He is currently the editor for the ICA Handbook series.[1][6] In 2009 Craig was elected as a Lifetime Fellow for the International Communication Association,[7] an organization he was president for in 2004-2005.[8][9]

Craig's work "Communication Theory as a Field"[10] received the Best Article Award from the International Communication Association[11] as well as the Golden Anniversary Monograph Award from the National Communication Association.[12] That work has since been translated into French [13] and Russian.[1] The theory presented in "Communication Theory as a Field" has become the basis of the book "Theorizing Communication" which Craig co-edited with Heidi Muller,[14] as well as being adopted by several other communication theory textbooks as a new framework for understanding the field of communication theory.[15][16][17][18]

Contents

Grounded Practical Theory

In 1995 Robert T. Craig and Karen Tracy published "Grounded Practical Theory: The case of Intellectual Discussion".[19] This was an attempt by Craig and Tracy to create a methodological model using discourse analysis which will "guide the development and assessment of normative theories."[20] Craig and Tracy argue that the communication discipline has been dominated by scientific theory which is concerned with what is, while normative theories are centrally concerned with what ought to be.[21] This neglect of normative theories "limits the practical usefulness of communication studies."[21]

Grounded practical theory (GPT) is a metatheoretical approach based on Craig's (1989) notion of communication as a practical, rather than scientific, discipline.[22][23] The goal of communication as a practical discipline is to develop normative theories to guide practice.[24] Based on this argument, GPT was developed as a methodologically grounded means of theorizing communication practices.[25] GPT involves (1) reconstructing communicative practices, (2) redescribing those practices in less context-specific terms, and (3) identifying implicit principles which guide the practice. Generally a GPT study begins by looking for troubles or dilemmas endemic to situated interaction and observable in discourse. This constitutes the “problem level”[26] and the “grounded” component of the GPT approach.[27] Then, problems are reconstructed concretely and abstractly and matched with the techniques which participants employ for dealing with those problems. This constitutes the “technical level”[26] and is an important part of the theorizing process. Finally, the ideals and standards shaping the practice and how to manage its problems and techniques constitute the “philosophical level.”[26] This situates the practice both locally and generally for the purpose of normative critique. A methodological approach which is explicitly guided by GPT is action implicative discourse analysis (AIDA).[28][29][30]

Communication Theory as a Field

In 1999 Craig wrote a landmark article[31] "Communication Theory as a Field"[10] which expanded the conversation regarding disciplinary identity in the field of communication.[32][31][33][34][35][36][37] At that time, communication theory textbooks had little to no agreement on how to present the field or what theories to include in their textbooks.[38][39][40] This article has since become the foundational framework for four different textbooks to introduce the field of communication.[15][14][16][17][18] In this article Craig "proposes a vision for communication theory that takes a huge step toward unifying this rather disparate field and addressing its complexities."[16] To move toward this unifying vision Craig focused on communication theory as a practical discipline and shows how "various traditions of communication theory can be engaged in dialogue on the practice of communication."[41][42] In this deliberative process theorists would engage in dialog about the "practical implications of communication theories."[43] In the end Craig proposes seven different traditions of Communication Theory and outlines how each one of them would engage the others in dialogue.[44]

Craig argues that while the study of communication and communication theory has become a rich and flourishing field "Communication theory as an identifiable field of study does not yet exist" and the field of communication theory has become fragmented into separate domains which simply ignore each other.[45] This inability to engage in dialog with one another causes theorists to view communication from isolated viewpoints, and denies them the richness that is available when engaging different perspectives.[46] Craig argues that communication theorists are all engaging in the study of practical communication.[46] By doing so different traditions are able to have a common ground from which a dialog can form, albeit each taking a different perspective of communication.[46] Through this process of forming a dialog between theorists with different viewpoints on communication “communication theory can fully engage with the ongoing practical discourse (or metadiscourse) about communication in society."[46]

The communication discipline began not as a single discipline, but through many different disciplines independently researching communication.[46] This interdisciplinary beginning has separated theorists through their different conceptions of communication, rather than unifying them in the common topic of communication.[47] Craig argues that the solution to this incoherence in the field of communication is not a unified theory of communication, but to create a dialogue between these theorists which engages these differences with one another to create new understandings of communication.[48] [49]

To achieve this dialog Craig proposes what he calls “Dialogical-Dialectical coherence,” or a “common awareness of certain complementaries and tensions among different types of communication theory."[50] Craig believes that the different theories cannot develop in total isolation from one another, therefore this dialogical-dialectical coherence will provide a set of background assumptions from which different theories can engage each other in productive argumentation.[50] Craig argues for a metatheory, or "second level" theory which deals with "first level" theories about communication.[51] This second level metamodel of communication theory would help to understand the differences between first level communication traditions.[52] With this thesis in place, Craig proposes seven suggested traditions of communication that have emerged and each of which have their own way of understanding communication.[8][53]

  1. Rhetorical: views communication as the practical art of discourse.[54]
  2. Semiotic: views communication as the mediation by signs.[55]
  3. Phenomenological: communication is the experience of dialogue with others.[56]
  4. Cybernetic: communication is the flow of information.[57]
  5. Socio-psychological: communication is the interaction of individuals.[58]
  6. Socio-cultural: communication is the production and reproduction of the social order.[59]
  7. Critical: communication is the process in which all assumptions can be challenged.[60]

These proposed seven traditions of communication theory are then placed on a a table[61] first to show how each traditions different interpretation of communication defines the tradition's vocabulary, communication problems, and commonplaces,[62] and next to show what argumentation between the traditions would look like.[63]

Conclusion

Craig concluded with an open invitation to explore how the differences in these theories might shed light on key issues, show where new traditions could be created, and engaging communication theory with communication problems through metadiscourse. [64] Craig further proposes several future traditions that could possibly be fit into the metamodel.[65] A feminist tradition where communication is theorized as "connectedness to others", an aesthetic tradition theorizing communication as "embodied performance", an economic tradition theorizing communication as "exchange", and a spiritual tradition theorizing communication on a "nonmaterial or mystical plane of existence." [66]

Publications

Books and Chapters

Year Author Chapter Title Book Title Page numbers Editor Publisher ISBN
2010 Tracy, K.; Craig, R. T. Studying Interaction in order to Cultivate Communicative Practices: Action-Implicative Discourse Analysis New Adventures in Language and Interaction 145-166 Streech, J. John Benjamins Publishing Company ISBN 978-90-272-5600-3
2010 Tracy, K.; Craig, R. T Framing Discourse as Argument in Appellate Courtrooms: Three Cases on Same-Sex Marriage The Functions of Argument and Social Context, 2009 46-53 Gouran D. S. National Communication Association
2009 Craig, R. T. Metatheory Encyclopedia of Communication Theory, Vol. 2 657-661 Littlejohn, S. W.; Foss, K. A. SAGE Publications ISBN 978-1-4129-5937-7
2009 Craig, R. T.; Robles, J. S. Pragmatics Encyclopedia of Communication Theory, Vol. 2 790-794 Littlejohn, S. W.; Foss, K. A. SAGE Publications ISBN 978-1-4129-5937-7
2009 Craig, R. T. Traditions of Communication Theory Encyclopedia of Communication Theory, Vol. 2 958-963 Littlejohn, S. W.; Foss, K. A. SAGE Publications ISBN 978-1-4129-5937-7
2009 Barge, J. K.; Craig, R. T. Practical Theory in Applied Communication Scholarship Routledge Handbook of Applied Communication Research 55-78 Frey, R.; Cissna, K. N. Routledge ISBN 0-203-87164-2
2008 Craig, R. T. Communication as a Field and Discipline The International Encyclopedia of Communication Vol. II 675-688 Donsbach, W. Blackwell Publishing ISBN 1405131993
2008 Craig, R. T. Meta-discourse The International Encyclopedia of Communication Vol. II 3707-3709 Donsbach, W. Blackwell Publishing ISBN 1405131993
2007 Craig, R. T.' and Muller, H. L. Theorizing Communication: Readings Across Traditions Craig, R. T.; and Muller, H. L. SAGE Publications ISBN 978-1-4129-5237-8
2006 Craig, R. T. Communication as a Practice Communication as...: Perspectives on Theory 38-47 Shepherd, G. J.; John, J. ST.; and Striphas, T. SAGE Publications ISBN 978-1412906586
2005 Craig, R. T.; Tracy, K. "The Issue" in Argumentation Practice and Theory Argumentation in Practice 11-28 Eemeren, F. H; Houtlosser, P. John Benjamins Publishing Company ISBN 90-272-1882-x
1990 Craig, R. T. Multiple Goals in Discourse: An Epilogue (Reprint of Journal Article) Multiple Goals in Discourse 163-170 Tracy, K.; Coupland, N. Multilingual Matters Ltd. ISBN 1-85359-099-1
1989 Craig R. T. Communication as a Practical Discipline Rethinking Communication; Volume 1: Paradigm Issues 97-122 Dervin B.; Grossberg L.; O'Keefe B., Wartella E. SAGE Publications ISBN 9780803930292
1993 Craig, R. T.; Tracy, K; Spisak, F. The Discourse of Requests: Assessment of a Politeness Approach (Reprint of journal article) Contemporary Perspectives on Interpersonal Communication 264-284 Petronio, S.; Alberts, J. K.; Hecht, M. L.; Buley, J. Brown & Benchmark ISBN 978-0697133564
1983 Craig, R. T.; Tracy, K. Conversational Coherence: Form, Structure, and Strategy Craig, R. T.; and Tracy, K. SAGE Publications ISBN 0803921225

Journal Articles

Year Author Title Journal Volume/Issue Pages Publisher DOI
2010 Garcia-Jimenez, L.; Craig, R. T. What Kind Of Difference do we Want to Make? Communication Monographs 77(4) 429-431 Taylor and Francis; Routledge; National Communication Association 10.1080/03637751.2010.523591
2009 Craig, R. T. Reflections on "Communication Theory as a Field" Ravue internationale de communication sociale et publique 2009(2) 7-12 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.; Université du Québec à Montréal
2009 Craig, R. T.; Saint-Charles, J. (Trans.), Mongeau, P. (Trans.) La Communication en Tant Que Champ D'etudes (French translation of Communication Theory as a field) Ravue internationale de communication sociale et publique 2009(1) 1-42 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.; Université du Québec à Montréal
2008 Craig, R. T. Communication in the Conversation of Disciplines Russian Journal of Communication 1(1) 7-24 Russian Communication Association (RCA)
2007 Craig, R. T. Pragmatism in the Field of Communication Theory Communication Theory 17(2) 125-145 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.; International Communication Association 10.1111/j.1468-2885.2007.00292.x
2006 Craig, R. T. A Path Through the Methodolgical Divides KEIO Communication Review 28 9-17 EBSCO Industries; Blackwell Publishing Ltd.
2005 Craig, R. T. How We Talk About How We Talk: Communication Theory in the Public Interest. ICA presidential address 2004 Journal of Communication 44(4) 659-667 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.; International Communication Association 10.1111/j.1460-2466.2005.tb03015.x
2003 Craig, R. T. Ethnomethodology's Program and Practical Inquiry (HTML) Research on Language and Social Interaction 36(4) 471-479 Routledge; Taylor and Francis 10.1207/S15327973RLSI3604_6
2001 Craig, R. T. Minding my Metamodel, Mending Myers Communication Theory 11(2) 231-240 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.; International Communication Association 10.1111/j.1468-2885.2001.tb00241.x
2000 Craig, R. T.; Sanusi, A.L. "I'm just saying": Discourse Markers of Standpoint Continuity Argumentation 14(4) 425-445 Springer 10.1023/A:1007880826834
1999 Craig, R. T. Communication Theory as a Field Communication Theory 9(2) 119-161 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.; International Communication Association 10.1111/j.1468-2885.1999.tb00355
1999 Craig, R. T. Metadiscourse, Theory, and Practice Research on Language and Social Interaction 32(1) 21-29 Routledge; Taylor and Francis; National Communication Association 10.1207/S15327973RLSI321&2_4
1998 Craig, R. T.; Carlone, D. A. Growth and Transformation of communication Studies in U. S. Higher Education: Towards Reinterpretation Communication Education 47(1) 67-81 Routledge; Taylor and Francis; National Communication Association 10.1080/03634529809379111
1996 Craig, R. T. Practical-Theoretical Argumentation Argumentation 10(4) 461-474 Kluwer Academic Publishers 10.1007/BF00142979
1996 Craig, R. T. Practical Theory: A Reply to Sandelands Journal for The Theory of Social Behavior 26(1) 65-79 Blackwell Publishing Ltd. 10.1111/j.1468-5914.1996.tb00286.x
1995 Craig, R. T.; Tracy, K. Grounded Practical Theory: The Case Of Intellectual Discussion Communication Theory 5(3) 248-272 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.; International Communication Association 10.1111/j.1468-2885.1995.tb00108.x
1993 Craig, R. T. Why Are There so Many Communication Theories Journal of Communication 43(3) 26-33 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.; International Communication Association 10.1111/j.1460-2466.1993.tb01273.x
1990 Craig, R. T. The Speech Tradition Communication Monographs 57 309-314 Routledge; National Communication Association 10.1080/03637759009376205
1990 Craig, R. T. Multiple Goals in Discourse: An Epilogue Journal of Language and Social Psychology 9(1-2) 163-170 SAGE Publications 10.1177/0261927X9091009
1988 Craig, R. T. The Handbook of Communication Science: A Review Quarterly Journal of Speech 74(4) 487-497 Routledge, National Communication Association 10.1080/00335638809383855
1986 Craig, R. T.; Tracy, K; Spisak, F. The Discourse of Requests: Assessment of a Politeness Approach Human Communication Research 12(4) 437-468 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.; International Communication Association 10.1111/j.1468-2958.1986.tb00087.x
1984 Tracy, K.; Craig, R. T.; Smith, M.; Spisak, F. The discourse of requests: Assessment of a compliance-gaining approach Human Communication Research 10(4) 513-538 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.; International Communication Association 10.1111/j.1468-2958.1984.tb00030.x
1984 Craig, R. T. Practical Criticism of the Art of Conversation: A Methodological Critique Communication Quarterly 32(3) 178-187 Routledge; Taylor and Francis 10.1080/01463378409369550
1983 Craig, R. T. Galilean Rhetoric and Practical Theory Communication Monographs 50(4) 395-412 Routledge; National Communication Association 10.1080/03637758309390177

See also

References

  1. ^ a b c d Craig, Robert (Feb. 3, 2011). "Robert Craig Vita". University of Colorado. http://spot.colorado.edu/~craigr/Vitae.pdf. Retrieved Feb. 21, 2011. 
  2. ^ Craig, Robert (2006). "A Path Through the Methodological Divides". KEIO Communication Review (EBSCO Industries; Blackwell Publishing Ltd.) 28: 9–17. http://www.mediacom.keio.ac.jp/publication/pdf2006/review28/01_Brenda%20DERVIN.pdf. Retrieved Jan. 8, 2011. 
  3. ^ "Editorial Board" (PDF). Research on Language and Social Interaction (Taylor and Francis) 22 (1). January 1988. doi:10.1080/0835181880938929. http://rolsi.lboro.ac.uk/1stROLSIedboard1988.pdf. Retrieved Feb. 5, 2011. 
  4. ^ "ROLSI Editorial Board" (http). Taylor and Francis. 2011. http://rolsi.lboro.ac.uk/board.html. Retrieved Feb. 5, 2011. 
  5. ^ "ROLSI Brief history" (http). Taylor and Francis. 2011. http://rolsi.lboro.ac.uk/history.html. Retrieved Feb. 5, 2011. 
  6. ^ "International Communication Association Handbook series". International Communication Association. 2011. http://www.icahdq.org/publications/commhandbooks.asp. Retrieved Feb. 10, 2011. 
  7. ^ "International Communication Association Fellows" (http). International Communication Association. 2010. http://www.icahdq.org/leadership/fellows.asp. Retrieved Jan. 8, 2011. 
  8. ^ a b Anderson & Baym 2004, pp. 440.
  9. ^ "International Communication Association past presidents" (http). International Communication Association. 2010. http://www.icahdq.org/leadership/pastpresidents.asp. Retrieved Jan. 8, 2011. 
  10. ^ a b Craig, Robert T. (May 1999). "Communication Theory as a Field" (PDF). Communication Theory (Blackwell Publishing Ltd.; International Communication Association) 9 (2): 119–161. doi:10.1111/j.1468-2885.1999.tb00355. http://web4.uwindsor.ca/users/w/winter/40-328.nsf/bab13a777f84009f85256ea600759a11/10ff8b04ff3a317885256d88005720f6/$FILE/comm.theory.Craig.pdf. Retrieved Jan. 8, 2011. 
  11. ^ "International Communication Association Awards" (PDF). International Communication Association. 2003. http://www.icahdq.org/publicpdf/awards_web.pdf. Retrieved Jan. 8, 2011. 
  12. ^ "National Communication Association Awards". National Communication Association. 2001. http://www.pitt.edu/~gordonm/Images/NCAawards2001.pdf. Retrieved Jan. 8, 2011. 
  13. ^ Craig, Robert; Trans. Johanne Saint-Charles, Trans. Pierre Mongea (2009). "La communication en tant que champ d’études". Ravue internationale de communication sociale et publique (Blackwell Publishing Ltd.; Université du Québec à Montréal) 1: 1–42. http://www.revuecsp.uqam.ca/numero/n1/pdf/RICSP_Craig_2009.pdf. Retrieved Jan. 8, 2011. 
  14. ^ a b Craig, Robert; Muller, Heidi, eds (April 2007). Theorizing Communication: Readings Across the Traditions. SAGE Publications. ISBN 9781412952378. http://books.google.com/books?id=L-jAeC5F3v8C&printsec=frontcover&dq=Theorizing+communication&hl=en&ei=-zpGTcKSPJSCsQPF_YnJCg&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=1&ved=0CC4Q6AEwAA#v=onepage&q&f=false. Retrieved Jan. 29, 2011. 
  15. ^ a b Craig 2007, pp. 125.
  16. ^ a b c Littlejohn, Stephen; Foss, Karen (2008). Theories of Human Communication (9 ed.). Thomson and Wadsworth. http://www.cengagebrain.com/shop/content/littlejohn95877_0495095877_02.01_chapter01.pdf. Retrieved Jan. 23, 2011. 
  17. ^ a b Griffin, Emory A. (2006). An First Look at Communication Theory (6 ed.). McGraw-Hill. http://books.google.com/books?id=wMdFAAAAYAAJ&q=A+first+look+at+communication+theory&dq=A+first+look+at+communication+theory&hl=en&ei=nAFGTfS3I4GosQOSv9CHCg&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=2&ved=0CC8Q6AEwAQ. Retrieved Jan. 29, 2011. 
  18. ^ a b Miller, Katherine (2005). Communication Theories:Perspectives, Processes, and Contexts (2 ed.). McGraw-Hill. http://books.google.com/books?id=uQgcAQAAIAAJ&q=communication+theories:+perspectives&dq=communication+theories:+perspectives&hl=en&ei=JARGTcDrNY7WtQOv9cHTCg&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=1&ved=0CC8Q6AEwAA. Retrieved Jan. 29, 2011. 
  19. ^ Craig, Robert; Tracy, Karen (August 1995). "Grounded Practical Theory:The Case Of Intellectual Discussion". Communication Theory (Blackwell Publishing Ltd.; International Communication Association) 5 (3): 248–272. doi:10.1111/j.1468-2885.1995.tb00108.x. http://comm.colorado.edu/~craigr/Craig-Tracy-1995-GroundedPracticalTheory.pdf. Retrieved Feb. 5, 2011. 
  20. ^ Craig & Tracy 1995, p. 250.
  21. ^ a b Craig & Tracy 1995, p. 249.
  22. ^ Craig, Robert T. (March 1989). "Communication as a Practical discipline". In Dervin, Brenda. Rethinking Communication: Paradigm Issues. 1. SAGE Publications. pp. 97–122. ISBN 9780803930292. http://books.google.com/books?id=E9ZhAAAAMAAJ&q=Rethinking+communication;+Volume+1:+Paradigm+issues&dq=Rethinking+communication;+Volume+1:+Paradigm+issues&hl=en&ei=_DRGTd__NYTmsQOJvpGiCg&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=2&ved=0CCoQ6AEwAQ. Retrieved Jan. 29, 2011. 
  23. ^ Craig & Tracy 1995, p. 250-253.
  24. ^ Craig & Tracy 1995, p. 250, 264-265.
  25. ^ Craig & Tracy 1995, p. 250,253, 264.
  26. ^ a b c Craig & Tracy 1995, p. 253.
  27. ^ Craig & Tracy 1995, p. 266.
  28. ^ Tracy, Karen (2004). "Action-Implicative Discourse Analysis: A Communication Approach to Analyzing Talk" (PDF). Texas Linguistic Forum 47: 219–237. http://studentorgs.utexas.edu/salsa/proceedings/2003/tracy.pdf. Retrieved Feb. 2, 2011. 
  29. ^ Tracy, Karen (November 2007). "The Discourse of Crisis in Public Meetings: Case Study of a School District's Multimillion Dollar Error" (PDF). Journal of Applied Communication Research (Taylor and Francis; Routledge; National Communication Association) 35 (4): 418–441. doi:10.1080/00909880701617133. http://www.sjsu.edu/people/richard.webb/courses/c9/s1/Tracy%20article.pdf. Retrieved Feb. 2, 2011. 
  30. ^ Tracy, Karen; Craig, Craig T. (2010). "Studying Interaction in Order to Cultivate communicative Practices: Action-Implicative Discourse Analysis". In Streech, Jürgen. New Adventures in Language and Interaction. John Benjamins Publishing Company. pp. 145–166. ISBN 978-90-272-5600-3. http://comm.colorado.edu/~tracy/Tracy-craig2010AIDA.pdf. Retrieved Feb. 2, 2011. 
  31. ^ a b Littlejohn & Foss 2008, pp. 6.
  32. ^ Donsback, Wolfgang (September 2006). "The Identity of Communication Research". Journal of Communication (Blackwell Publishing Ltd.; International Communication Association) 54 (4): 589–615. doi:10.1111/j.1460-2466.2006.00294.x. http://www.um.es/tic/Documentos/lecturas%20FCI-I/FCI-I%20Tema%202%20texto%201.pdf. Retrieved Jan. 28, 2011. 
  33. ^ Penman, Robyn (2000). Reconstructing Communicating: looking to a Future. Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, Inc. http://books.google.com/books?hl=en&lr=&id=bV_dR8OhudAC&oi=fnd&pg=PR7&ots=efzBSzD_Rj&sig=ZWqmXCIARV-I9D_YFko_RvdtSUM#v=onepage&q&f=false. Retrieved Jan. 28, 2011. 
  34. ^ Anderson, James A.; Baym, Geoffrey (December 2004). "Philosophies and Philosophic Issues in Communication, 1995-2004". Journal of Communication (Blackwell Publishing Ltd.; International Communication Association) 55: 437–448. doi:10.1111/j.1460-2466.2004.tb02647.x. 
  35. ^ Lindlof, Thomas R.; Taylor, Bryan C. (2002). Qualitative Communication Research Methods (2 ed.). Sage Publications Ltd.. http://books.google.com/books?hl=en&lr=&id=Op-GRnkSCGgC&oi=fnd&pg=PR11&ots=IzoPS78Tu8&sig=AfWB81iEcUhCuGnTn8ZPTGSkUXo#v=onepage&q&f=false. Retrieved Jan. 28, 2011. 
  36. ^ D'Angelo, Paul (December 2002). "News Framing as a Multiparadigmatic Research Program:A Response to Entman". Journal of Communication (Blackwell Publishing Ltd.; International Communication Association) 52 (4): 870–888. doi:10.1111/j.1460-2466.2002.tb02578.x. 
  37. ^ Jimenez, Leonarda; Guillem, Susana (August 2009). "Does Communication Studies Have an Identity? Setting the Bases for Contemporary Research". Catalan Journal of Communication And Cultural Studies (Intellect Ltd.) 1 (1): 15–27. doi:10.1386/cjcs.1.1.15_1. http://www.atypon-link.com/INT/doi/pdf/10.1386/cjcs.1.1.15_1?cookieSet=1. Retrieved Jan. 28, 2011. 
  38. ^ Anderson, John Arthur (1996). Communication Theory: Epistemological Foundations. Guilford Press. ISBN 1-57230-083-3. http://books.google.com/books?hl=en&lr=&id=ly8WBwYzE2QC&oi=fnd&pg=PA1&dq=Anderson,+J.+A.+(1996).+Communication+theory:+Epistemological+foundations.&ots=vYGnX0_5Kw&sig=NYBXS-6ff9HU6pmmVpiG1Qj3b28. Retrieved Feb. 2, 2011. 
  39. ^ Anderson 1996, pp. 200-201.
  40. ^ Craig 1999, pp. 120.
  41. ^ Craig 2006, pp. 13.
  42. ^ Penman 2000, pp. 6.
  43. ^ Craig, Robert (May 2001). "Minding My Metamodel, Mending Myers". Communication Theory (Blackwell Publishing Ltd.; International Communication Association) 11 (2): 231–240. doi:10.1111/j.1468-2885.2001.tb00241.x. 
  44. ^ Craig 1999, pp. 132-146.
  45. ^ Craig 1999, pp. 119-120.
  46. ^ a b c d e Craig 1999, p. 121.
  47. ^ Craig 1999, pp. 120-123.
  48. ^ Craig 1999, pp. 123-125.
  49. ^ Penman 2000, pp. 76.
  50. ^ a b Craig 1999, pp. 124.
  51. ^ Craig 1999, pp. 126-127.
  52. ^ Craig 1999, pp. 123-132.
  53. ^ Craig 1999, pp. 132-134.
  54. ^ Craig 1999, pp. 135-136.
  55. ^ Craig 1999, pp. 136-138.
  56. ^ Craig 1999, pp. 138-140.
  57. ^ Craig 1999, pp. 141-142.
  58. ^ Craig 1999, pp. 142-144.
  59. ^ Craig 1999, pp. 144-146.
  60. ^ Craig 1999, pp. 146-149.
  61. ^ Craig 1999, pp. 133-134.
  62. ^ Craig 1999, pp. 132,133.
  63. ^ Craig 1999, pp. 132,134.
  64. ^ Craig 1999, pp. 149.
  65. ^ Craig 1999, pp. 149,151.
  66. ^ Craig 1999, pp. 151.

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