List of cutaneous conditions

Many conditions affect the human integumentary system—the organ system covering the entire surface of the body and is composed of skin, hair, nails, and related muscle and glands.[1] The major function of this system is as a barrier against the external environment.[2] The skin weighs an average of four kilograms, covers an area of two square meters, and is made of three distinct layers: the epidermis, dermis, and subcutaneous tissue.[1] There are two main types of human skin: glabrous skin, the nonhairy skin on the palms and soles (also referred to as the "palmoplantar" surfaces), and hair-bearing skin.[3] Within the latter type, there are hairs in structures called pilosebaceous units, each with hair follicle, sebaceous gland, and associated arrector pili muscle.[4] In the embryo, the epidermis, hair, and glands form from the ectoderm, which is chemically influenced by the underlying mesoderm that forms the dermis and subcutaneous tissues.[5][6][7]

The epidermis is the most superficial layer of skin, a squamous epithelium with several strata: the stratum corneum, stratum lucidum, stratum granulosum, stratum spinosum, and stratum basale.[8] Nourishment is provided to these layers via diffusion from the dermis, since the epidermis is without direct blood supply. The epidermis contains four cell types: keratinocytes, melanocytes, Langerhans cells, and Merkel cells. Of these, keratinocytes are the major component, constituting roughly 95 percent of the epidermis.[3] This stratified squamous epithelium is maintained by cell division within the stratum basale, in which differentiating cells slowly displace outwards through the stratum spinosum to the stratum corneum, where cells are continually shed from the surface.[3] In normal skin, the rate of production equals the rate of loss; it takes about two weeks for a cell to migrate from the basal cell layer to the top of the granular cell layer, and an additional two weeks to cross the stratum corneum.[9]

The dermis is the layer of skin between the epidermis and subcutaneous tissue, and comprises two sections, the papillary dermis and the reticular dermis.[10] The superficial papillary dermis interdigitates with the overlying rete ridges of the epidermis, between which the two layers interact through the basement membrane zone.[10] Structural components of the dermis are collagen, elastic fibers, and extrafibrillar matrix (previously called ground substance).[10] Within these components are the pilosebaceous units, arrector pili muscles, and the eccrine and apocrine glands.[8] The dermis contains two vascular networks that run parallel to the skin surface—one superficial and one deep plexus—which are connected by vertical communicating vessels.[8][11] The function of blood vessels within the dermis is fourfold: to supply nutrition, to regulate temperature, to modulate inflammation, and to participate in wound healing.[12][13]

The subcutaneous tissue is a layer of fat between the dermis and underlying fascia.[14] This tissue may be further divided into two components, the actual fatty layer, or panniculus adiposus, and a deeper vestigial layer of muscle, the panniculus carnosus.[3] The main cellular component of this tissue is the adipocyte, or fat cell.[14] The structure of this tissue is composed of septal (i.e. linear strands) and lobular compartments, which differ in microscopic appearance.[8] Functionally, the subcutaneous fat insulates the body, absorbs trauma, and serves as a reserve energy source.[14]

Conditions of the human integumentary system constitute a broad spectrum of diseases, also known as dermatoses, as well as many nonpathologic states (like, in certain circumstances, melanonychia and racquet nails).[15][16] While only a small number of skin diseases account for most visits to the physician, thousands of skin conditions have been described.[14] Classification of these conditions often presents many nosological challenges, since underlying etiologies and pathogenetics are often not known.[17][18] Therefore, most current textbooks present a classification based on location (for example, conditions of the mucous membrane), morphology (chronic blistering conditions), etiology (skin conditions resulting from physical factors), and so on.[19][20] Clinically, the diagnosis of any particular skin condition is made by gathering pertinent information regarding the presenting skin lesion(s), including the location (such as arms, head, legs), symptoms (pruritus, pain), duration (acute or chronic), arrangement (solitary, generalized, annular, linear), morphology (macules, papules, vesicles), and color (red, blue, brown, black, white, yellow).[21] The diagnosis of a many conditions often also requires a skin biopsy which yields histologic information[22][23] that can be correlated with the clinical presentation and any laboratory data.[24][25]

Contents

Acneiform eruptions

Acneiform eruptions are caused by changes in the pilosebaceous unit.[26][27]

  • Acne aestivalis (Mallorca acne)[nb 1][nb 2][nb 3]
  • Acne conglobata
  • Acne cosmetica (Cosmetic acne)
  • Acne fulminans (Acute febrile ulcerative acne)
  • Acne keloidalis nuchae (Acne keloidalis, Dermatitis papillaris capillitii, Folliculitis keloidalis, Folliculitis keloidis nuchae, Nuchal keloid acne)
  • Acne mechanica
  • Acne medicamentosa
  • Acne miliaris necrotica (Acne varioliformis)
  • Acne vulgaris
  • Acne with facial edema (Solid facial edema)[nb 4]
  • Blepharophyma
  • Erythrotelangiectatic rosacea (Erythematotelangiectatic rosacea, Vascular rosacea)
  • Excoriated acne (Acne excoriée des jeunes filles, Picker's acne)[nb 5]
  • Glandular rosacea
  • Gnathophyma
  • Gram-negative rosacea
  • Granulomatous facial dermatitis
  • Granulomatous perioral dermatitis
  • Halogen acne
  • Hidradenitis suppurativa (Acne inversa, Pyoderma fistulans significa, Verneuil's disease)
  • Idiopathic facial aseptic granuloma
  • Infantile acne
  • Lupoid rosacea (Granulomatous rosacea, Micropapular tuberculid, Rosacea-like tuberculid of Lewandowsky)
  • Lupus miliaris disseminatus faciei
  • Metophyma
  • Neonatal acne (Acne infantum, Acne neonatorum, Neonatal cephalic pustulosis)
  • Occupational acne
  • Oil acne
  • Ocular rosacea (Ophthalmic rosacea, Ophthalmorosacea)
  • Otophyma
  • Periorificial dermatitis
  • Persistent edema of rosacea (Chronic upper facial erythematous edema, Morbihan's disease, Rosaceous lymphedema)
  • Phymatous rosacea
  • Pomade acne
  • Papulopustular rosacea (Inflammatory rosacea)
  • Perifolliculitis capitis abscedens et suffodiens (Dissecting cellulitis of the scalp, Dissecting folliculitis, Perifolliculitis capitis abscedens et suffodiens of Hoffman)
  • Perioral dermatitis
  • Periorbital dermatitis (Periocular dermatitis)
  • Pyoderma faciale (Rosacea fulminans)
  • Rhinophyma
  • Rosacea (Acne rosacea)
  • Rosacea conglobata
  • Synovitis–acne–pustulosis–hyperostosis–osteomyelitis syndrome (SAPHO syndrome)[nb 6]
  • Steroid rosacea
  • Tar acne
  • Tropical acne

Autoinflammatory syndromes

Autoinflammatory syndromes are a group of inherited disorders characterized by bouts of inflammatory skin lesions and periodic fevers.[28][29]

Chronic blistering

Chronic blistering cutaneous conditions have a prolonged course and present with vesicles and bullae.[30][31][32]

  • Adult linear IgA disease
  • Bullous pemphigoid
  • Childhood linear IgA disease (Chronic bullous disease of childhood)
  • Cicatricial pemphigoid (Benign mucosal pemphigoid, Benign mucous membrane pemphigoid, Ocular pemphigus, Scarring pemphigoid)
  • Dermatitis herpetiformis (Duhring disease)
  • Endemic pemphigus (Endemic pemphigus foliaceus, Fogo selvagem)
  • Epidermolysis bullosa acquisita
  • Grover's disease (Benign papular acantholytic dermatosis, Persistent acantholytic dermatosis, Transient acantholytic dermatosis)
  • IgA pemphigus
  • Intraepidermal neutrophilic IgA dermatosis
  • Localized cicatricial pemphigoid (Brunsting–Perry cicatricial pemphigoid)
  • Paraneoplastic pemphigus
  • Pemphigus erythematosus (Senear–Usher syndrome)
  • Pemphigus foliaceus
  • Pemphigus herpetiformis (Acantholytic herpetiform dermatitis, Herpetiform pemphigus, Mixed bullous disease, Pemphigus controlled by sulfapyridine)
  • Pemphigoid nodularis
  • Pemphigus vegetans
  • Pemphigus vegetans of Hallopeau
  • Pemphigus vegetans of Neumann
  • Pemphigus vulgaris
  • Vesicular pemphigoid
  • Vulvar childhood pemphigoid

Conditions of the mucous membranes

Conditions of the mucous membranes involve the moist linings of the eyes, nose, mouth, genitals, and anus.[33]

Conditions of the skin appendages

Conditions of the skin appendages are those affecting the glands of the skin, hair, nails, and arrector pili muscles.[1][34]

  • Acne necrotica
  • Acquired generalized hypertrichosis (Acquired hypertrichosis lanuginosa)
  • Acquired perforating dermatosis (Acquired perforating collagenosis)
  • Acrokeratosis paraneoplastica of Bazex (Acrokeratosis neoplastica, Bazex syndrome)
  • Acroosteolysis
  • Acute paronychia
  • Alopecia areata
  • Alopecia neoplastica
  • Anagen effluvium
  • Androgenic alopecia (Androgenetic alopecia)
  • Anhidrosis (Hypohidrosis)
  • Anonychia
  • Apparent leukonychia
  • Beau's lines
  • Blue nails
  • Bromidrosis (Apocrine bromhidrosis, Fetid sweat, Malodorous sweating, Osmidrosis)
  • Bubble hair deformity
  • Central centrifugal cicatricial alopecia (Follicular degeneration syndrome, Pseudopelade of the central scalp)
  • Chevron nail (Herringbone nail)
  • Chromhidrosis (Colored sweat)
  • Chronic paronychia
  • Cicatricial alopecia
  • Clubbing (Drumstick fingers, Hippocratic fingers, Watch-glass nails)
  • Congenital onychodysplasia of the index fingers
  • Disseminate and recurrent infundibulofolliculitis
  • Erosive pustular dermatitis of the scalp (Erosive pustular dermatosis of the scalp)
  • Erythromelanosis follicularis faciei et colli
  • Folliculitis decalvans
  • Folliculitis nares perforans
  • Fox–Fordyce disease
  • Frontal fibrosing alopecia
  • Generalized congenital hypertrichosis (Congenital hypertrichosis lanuginosa)
  • Generalized hyperhidrosis
  • Graham-Little syndrome
  • Granulosis rubra nasi
  • Green nails
  • Gustatory hyperhidrosis
  • Hair casts (Pseudonits)
  • Hair follicle nevus (Vellus hamartoma)
  • Hairy palms and soles
  • Half and half nails (Lindsay's nails)
  • Hangnail
  • Hapalonychia
  • Hematidrosis
  • Hirsutism
  • Hook nail
  • Hot comb alopecia
  • Hypertrichosis cubiti (Hairy elbow syndrome)
  • Hypertrichosis simplex of the scalp
  • Intermittent hair–follicle dystrophy
  • Keratosis pilaris atropicans
  • Kinking hair (Acquired progressive kinking)
  • Koenen's tumor (Koenen's periungual fibroma, Periungual fibroma)
  • Koilonychia (Spoon nails)
  • Kyrle disease
  • Leukonychia (White nails)
  • Lichen planopilaris (Acuminatus, Follicular lichen planus, Lichen planus follicularis, Peripilaris)
  • Lichen planus of the nails
  • Lichen spinulosus (Keratosis spinulosa)
  • Lipedematous alopecia (Lipedematous scalp)
  • Localized acquired hypertrichosis
  • Localized congenital hypertrichosis
  • Longitudinal erythronychia
  • Longitudinal melanonychia
  • Loose anagen syndrome (Loose anagen hair syndrome)
  • Lupus erythematosus
  • Madarosis
  • Malalignment of the nail plate
  • Male-pattern baldness
  • Marie–Unna hereditary hypotrichosis (Marie–Unna hypotrichosis)
  • Median nail dystrophy (Dystrophia unguis mediana canaliformis, Median canaliform dystrophy of Heller, Solenonychia)
  • Mees' lines
  • Melanonychia
  • Menkes kinky hair syndrome (Kinky hair disease, Menkes disease)
  • Monilethrix (Beaded hair)
  • Muehrcke's nails (Muehrcke's lines)
  • Nail–patella syndrome (Fong syndrome, Hereditary osteoonychodysplasia)
  • Neoplasms of the nailbed
  • Nevoid hypertrichosis
  • Noncicatricial alopecia
  • Onychauxis
  • Onychoatrophy
  • Onychocryptosis (Ingrown nail, Unguis incarnatus)
  • Onychogryphosis (Ram's horn nails)
  • Onycholysis
  • Onychomadesis
  • Onychomatricoma
  • Onychophagia (Nail biting)
  • Onychophosis
  • Onychoptosis defluvium (Alopecia unguium)
  • Onychorrhexis (Brittle nails)
  • Onychoschizia
  • Onychotillomania
  • Ophiasis
  • Palmoplantar hyperhidrosis (Emotional hyperhidrosis)
  • Parakeratosis pustulosa
  • Patterned acquired hypertrichosis
  • Perforating folliculitis
  • Pili annulati (Ringed hair)
  • Pili bifurcati
  • Pili multigemini
  • Pili pseudoannulati (Pseudo pili annulati)
  • Pili torti (Twisted hairs)
  • Pincer nails (Omega nails, Trumpet nails)
  • Pityriasis amiantacea (Tinea amiantacea)
  • Platonychia
  • Plica neuropathica (Felted hair)
  • Plummer's nail
  • Prepubertal hypertrichosis
  • Pressure alopecia (Postoperative alopecia, Pressure-induced alopecia)
  • Pseudofolliculitis barbae (Barber's itch, Folliculitis barbae traumatica, Razor bumps, Scarring pseudofolliculitis of the beard, Shave bumps)
  • Pseudopelade of Brocq (Alopecia cicatrisata)
  • Psoriatic nails
  • Pterygium inversum unguis (Pterygium inversus unguis, Ventral pterygium)
  • Pterygium unguis (Dorsal pterygium)
  • Purpura of the nail bed
  • Racquet nail (Brachyonychia, Nail en raquette, Racquet thumb)
  • Recurrent palmoplantar hidradenitis (Idiopathic palmoplantar hidradenitis, Idiopathic plantar hidradenitis, Painful plantar erythema, Palmoplantar eccrine hidradenitis, Plantar panniculitis)
  • Red lunulae
  • Ross' syndrome
  • Rubinstein–Taybi syndrome
  • Setleis syndrome
  • Shell nail syndrome
  • Short anagen syndrome
  • Splinter hemorrhage
  • Spotted lunulae
  • Staining of the nail plate
  • Stippled nails
  • Subungual hematoma
  • Telogen effluvium
  • Terry's nails
  • Traction alopecia
  • Traumatic alopecia
  • Traumatic anserine folliculosis
  • Triangular alopecia (Temporal alopecia, Temporal triangular alopecia)
  • Trichomegaly
  • Trichomycosis axillaris
  • Trichorrhexis invaginata (Bamboo hair)
  • Trichorrhexis nodosa
  • Trichostasis spinulosa
  • Tufted folliculitis
  • Tumor alopecia
  • Twenty-nail dystrophy (Sandpapered nails, Trachyonychia)
  • Uncombable hair syndrome (Cheveux incoiffable, Pili trianguli et canaliculi, Spun-glass hair)
  • Wooly hair (Woolly hair)
  • Wooly hair nevus (Woolly hair nevus)
  • X-linked hypertrichosis

Conditions of the subcutaneous fat

Conditions of the subcutaneous fat are those affecting the layer of adipose tissue that lies between the dermis and underlying fascia.[35][36][37][38]

Congenital anomalies

Cutaneous congenital anomalies are a diverse group of disorders that result from faulty morphogenesis, the biological process that forms the shape of a human body.[34][39][40]

Connective tissue diseases

Connective tissue diseases are caused by a complex array of autoimmune responses that target or affect collagen or ground substance.[34][41]

Abnormalities of dermal fibrous and elastic tissue

Abnormalities of dermal fibrous and elastic tissue are caused by problems in the regulation of collagen synthesis and/or degradation.[34][42]

Fuzzy red lines on an abdomen
Striae distensae

Dermal and subcutaneous growths

Dermal and subcutaneous growths result from (1) reactive or neoplastic proliferation of cellular components of the dermis or subcutaneous tissue, or (2) neoplasms invading or aberrantly present in the dermis.[1][34]

Dermatitis

Dermatitis is a general term for "inflammation of the skin."[43]

  • Essential dermatitis

Atopic

Atopic dermatitis is a chronic dermatitis associated with a hereditary tendency to develop allergies to food and inhalant substances.[44][45][46]

  • Atopic dermatitis (Atopic eczema, Disseminated neurodermatitis, Flexural eczema, Infantile eczema, Prurigo diathsique)

Contact

Contact dermatitis is caused by certain substances coming in contact with the skin.[47][48][49]

  • Abietic acid dermatitis
  • Acid-induced
  • Acrylic monomer dermatitis
  • Adhesive dermatitis
  • African blackwood dermatitis
  • Airbag dermatitis (Airbag burn)
  • Alkali-induced
  • Allergic
  • Antifungal agent-induced
  • Antimicrobial agent-induced
  • Arsenic dermatitis
  • Artificial nail-induced
  • Axillary antiperspirant-induced
  • Axillary deodorant-induced
  • Baboon syndrome
  • Black dermatographism
  • Bleaching cream-induced
  • Capsaisin-induced
  • Chemical burn
  • Chloracne
  • Chrome dermatitis
  • Clothing-induced
  • Cobalt dermatitis
  • Contact stomatitis (Contact lichenoid reaction, Lichenoid amalgam reaction, Oral mucosal cinnamon reaction)
  • Contact urticaria
  • Corticosteroid-induced
  • Cosmetic dermatitis
  • Cosmetic intolerance syndrome
  • Dentifrice-induced
  • Dermatitis from metals and metal salts
  • Dust-induced
  • Epoxy resin dermatitis
  • Ethylenediamine-induced
  • Eye makeup-induced
  • Fiberglass dermatitis
  • Flower-induced
  • Formaldehyde-induced
  • Formaldehyde-releasing agent-induced
  • Fragrance-induced
  • Gold dermatitis
  • Hair bleach-induced
  • Hair dye-induced
  • Hair lotion-induced
  • Hair spray-induced
  • Hair straightener-induced
  • Hair tonic-induced
  • Houseplant-induced
  • Hydrocarbon-induced
  • Irritant folliculitis
  • Lacquer dermatitis (Lacquer sensitivity)
  • Lanolin-induced
  • Lipstick-induced
  • Local anesthetic-induced
  • Makassar ebony dermatitis
  • Marine plant-induced
  • Mechanical irritant dermatitis
  • Mercury dermatitis
  • Mouthwash-induced
  • Nail lacquer-induced
  • Nail polish remover-induced
  • Nickel dermatitis
  • Occupation-induced
  • p-Chloro-Meta-Xylenol-induced
  • Paraben-induced
  • Paraphenylenediamine dermatitis
  • Permanent wave preparation-induced
  • Phenothiazine drug-induced
  • Photoallergic
  • Photoirritant
  • Plant derivative-induced
  • Pollen-induced
  • Polyester resin dermatitis
  • Propylene glycol-induced
    Blisters distributed over an adult forearm
    Toxicodendron dermatitis
  • Protein contact dermatitis
  • Quaternium-15 hypersensitivity
  • Reed dermatitis
  • Rosewood dermatitis
  • Rosin dermatitis
  • Rubber dermatitis
  • Seed-induced
  • Shoe dermatitis
  • Solvent-induced
  • Sorbic acid-induced
  • Subjective irritant contact dermatitis (Sensory irritant contact dermatitis)
  • Sunscreen-induced
  • Systemic contact dermatitis
  • Tear gas dermatitis
  • Textile dermatitis
  • Toxicodendron dermatitis (Poison ivy)
  • Traumatic irritant contact dermatitis
  • Tree-associated plant-induced
  • Tree-induced
  • Tulip fingers
  • Vegetable-induced

Eczema

Eczema refers to a broad range of conditions that begin as spongiotic dermatitis and may progress to a lichenified stage.[50][51]

Pustular

Pustular dermatitis is an inflammation of the skin that presents with pustular lesions.[51][52]

  • Eosinophilic pustular folliculitis (Ofuji's disease, Sterile eosinophilic pustulosis)
  • Reactive arthritis (Reiter's disease, Reiter's syndrome)
  • Subcorneal pustular dermatosis (Sneddon–Wilkinson disease)

Seborrheic

Seborrheic dermatitis is a chronic, superficial, inflammatory disease characterized by scaling on an erythematous base.[53]

  • Infantile seborrheic dermatitis
  • Leiner's disease
  • Pityriasis simplex capillitii (Dandruff)
  • Seborrheic dermatitis (Seborrheic eczema)

Disturbances of pigmentation

Disturbances of human pigmentation, either loss or reduction, may be related to loss of melanocytes or the inability of melanocytes to produce melanin or transport melanosomes correctly.[54][55][56]

  • Albinism–black lock–cell migration disorder of the neurocytes of the gut–deafness syndrome (ABCD syndrome)
  • Albinism–deafness syndrome (Woolf syndrome, Ziprkowski–Margolis syndrome)
  • Alezzandrini syndrome
  • Argyria
  • Arsenic poisoning
  • Berlin syndrome
  • Canthaxanthin
  • Chédiak–Higashi syndrome
  • Chrysiasis
  • Cross–McKusick–Breen syndrome (Cross syndrome, Oculocerebral-hypopigmentation syndrome)
  • Dermatopathia pigmentosa reticularis (Dermatopathia pigmentosa reticularis hyperkeratotica et mutilans, Dermatopathia pigmentosa reticularis hypohidotica et atrophica, Dermatopathic pigmentosa reticularis)
  • Dyschromatosis symmetrica hereditaria (Reticulate acropigmentation of Dohi, Symmetrical dyschromatosis of the extremities)
  • Dyschromatosis universalis hereditaria
  • Elejalde syndrome (Griscelli syndrome type 1)
  • Familial progressive hyperpigmentation
  • Galli–Galli disease
  • Griscelli syndrome type 2 (Partial albinism with immunodeficiency)
  • Griscelli syndrome type 3
  • Hemochromatosis (Bronze diabetes)
  • Hemosiderin hyperpigmentation
  • Hermansky–Pudlak syndrome
  • Idiopathic guttate hypomelanosis (Leukopathia symmetrica progressiva)
  • Iron metallic discoloration
  • Klein–Waardenburg syndrome
  • Lead poisoning
  • Leukoderma
  • Melanoma-associated leukoderma
  • Melasma (Chloasma faciei, Mask of pregnancy)
  • Mukamel syndrome
  • Necklace of Venus
  • Nevus anemicus
  • Nevus depigmentosus (Nevus achromicus)
  • Ocular albinism
  • Oculocutaneous albinism
  • Pallister–Killian syndrome
  • Periorbital hyperpigmentation
  • Photoleukomelanodermatitis of Kobori
  • Phylloid hypomelanosis
  • Piebaldism
  • Pigmentatio reticularis faciei et colli
  • Pityriasis alba
  • Poikiloderma of Civatte
  • Poikiloderma vasculare atrophicans
  • Postinflammatory hyperpigmentation (Postinflammatory hypermelanosis)
  • Postinflammatory hypopigmentation
  • Progressive macular hypomelanosis
  • Quadrichrome vitiligo
  • Reticular pigmented anomaly of the flexures (Dark dot disease, Dowling–Degos' disease)
  • Reticulate acropigmentation of Kitamura
  • Revesz syndrome
  • Riehl melanosis
  • Scratch dermatitis (Flagellate pigmentation from bleomycin)
  • Segmental vitiligo
  • Shah–Waardenburg syndrome
  • Shiitake mushroom dermatitis (Flagellate mushroom dermatitis, Mushroom worker's disease, Shiitake-induced toxicoderma)
  • Tar melanosis (Melanodermatitis toxica lichenoides)
  • Tietz syndrome
  • Titanium metallic discoloration
  • Transient neonatal pustular melanosis (Transient neonatal pustulosis, Lentigines neonatorum)
  • Trichrome vitiligo
  • Vagabond's leukomelanoderma
  • Vasospastic macule
  • Vitiligo
  • Vitiligo ponctué
  • Vogt–Koyanagi–Harada syndrome
  • Waardenburg syndrome
  • Wende–Bauckus syndrome (Pegum syndrome)
  • Woronoff's ring
  • X-linked reticulate pigmentary disorder (Familial cutaneous amyloidosis, Partington amyloidosis, Partington cutaneous amyloidosis, Partington syndrome type II, Reticulate pigmentary disorder, X-linked reticulate pigmentary disorder with systemic manifestations)
  • Yemenite deaf-blind hypopigmentation syndrome

Drug eruptions

Drug eruptions are adverse drug reactions that present with cutaneous manifestations.[57][58][59]

Endocrine-related

Endocrine conditions often present with cutaneous findings as the skin interacts with the endocrine system in many ways.[60][61]

  • Acanthosis nigricans associated with malignancy (Acanthosis nigricans type I)
  • Acanthosis nigricans associated with obesity, insulin-resistant states, and endocrinopathy (Acanthosis nigricans type III)
  • Acral acanthosis nigricans (Acral acanthotic anomaly)
  • Acral dry gangrene
  • Acromegaly
  • Addison's disease
  • Adrenal adenoma
  • Adrenal carcinoma
  • Adrenal hyperplasia
  • Alopecia–nail dystrophy–ophthalmic complications–thyroid dysfunction–hypohidrosis–ephelides and enteropathy–respiratory tract infections syndrome (ANOTHER syndrome)
  • Arrhenoblastoma
  • Cretinism
  • Cushing's syndrome
  • Excess ovarian androgen release syndrome (Ovarian SAHA syndrome)
  • Familial acanthosis nigricans (Acanthosis nigricans type II)
  • Growth hormone deficiency
  • Hyperandrogenism–insulin resistance–acanthosis nigricans syndrome (HAIR-AN syndrome)
  • Hyperparathyroidism
  • Hyperprolactinemic SAHA syndrome
  • Hyperthyroidism
  • Hypoparathyroidism
  • Hypothyroidism
  • Leydig cell tumor
  • Multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 (Wermer syndrome)
  • Multiple endocrine neoplasia type 2 (Multiple endocrine neoplasia type 2A, Pheochromocytoma and amyloid producing medullary thyroid carcinoma, PTC syndrome, Sipple syndrome)
  • Multiple endocrine neoplasia type 3 (Mucosal neuromata with endocrine tumors, Multiple endocrine neoplasia type 2B, Multiple mucosal neuroma syndrome, Wagenmann–Froboese syndrome)
  • Myxedema
  • Panhypopituitarism
  • Persistent adrenarche syndrome (Adrenal SAHA syndrome)
  • Polycystic ovarian syndrome
  • Seborrhoea–acne–hirsutism–alopecia (SAHA syndrome)
  • Thyroid acropachy

Eosinophilic

Eosinophilic cutaneous conditions encompass a wide variety of diseases that are characterized histologically by the presence of eosinophils in the inflammatory infiltrate and/or evidence of eosinophil degranulation.[62][63]

  • Angiolymphoid hyperplasia with eosinophilia (Epithelioid hemangioma, Histiocytoid hemangioma, Inflammatory angiomatous nodule, Inflammatory arteriovenous hemangioma, Intravenous atypical vascular proliferation, Papular angioplasia, Pseudopyogenic granuloma)
  • Annular erythema of infancy
  • Arthropod assault
  • Churg–Strauss syndrome (Allergic granulomatosis)
  • Eosinophilic cellulitis (Wells' syndrome)
  • Eosinophilic fasciitis (Shulman's syndrome)
  • Eosinophilic granuloma
  • Eosinophilic pustular folliculitis of infancy (Eosinophilic pustular folliculitis in infancy, Infantile eosinophilic pustular folliculitis, Neonatal eosinophilic pustular folliculitis)
  • Eosinophilic ulcer of the oral mucosa (Eosinophilic ulcer of the tongue, Riga–Fede disease, Traumatic eosinophilic granuloma)
    Solitary, large, white to yellow erosion on the inner lower lip of a child
    Eosinophilic ulcer of the oral mucosa
  • Eosinophilic vasculitis
  • Erythema toxicum neonatorum (Erythema toxicum, Toxic erythema of the newborn)
  • Granuloma faciale
  • Hypereosinophilic syndrome
  • Incontinentia pigmenti (Bloch–Siemens syndrome, Bloch–Sulzberger disease, Bloch–Sulzberger syndrome)
  • Itchy red bump disease (Papular dermatitis)
  • Juvenile xanthogranuloma
  • Kimura's disease
  • Nodules–eosinophilia–rheumatism–dermatitis–swelling syndrome (NERDS syndrome)
  • Pachydermatous eosinophilic dermatitis
  • Papular eruption of blacks
  • Papuloerythroderma of Ofuji
  • Pruritic papular eruption of HIV disease

Epidermal nevi, neoplasms, cysts

Epidermal nevi, neoplasms, cysts are skin lesions that develop from the epidermal layer of the skin.[8][51]

  • Aberrant basal cell carcinoma
  • Acanthoma fissuratum (Granuloma fissuratum, Spectacle frame acanthoma)
  • Acrospiroma (Clear cell hidradenoma, Dermal duct tumor, Hidroacanthoma simplex, Nodular hidradenoma, Poroma)
  • Actinic keratosis (Senile keratosis, Solar keratosis)
  • Adenoid squamous cell carcinoma (Pseudoglandular squamous cell carcinoma)
  • Aggressive digital papillary adenocarcinoma (Digital papillary adenocarcinoma, Papillary adenoma)
  • Apocrine gland carcinoma
  • Apocrine nevus
  • Arsenical keratosis
  • Atrophic actinic keratosis
  • Balanitis plasmacellularis (Balanoposthitis chronica circumscripta plasmacellularis, Balanitis circumscripta plasmacellularis, Plasma cell balanitis, Plasma cell vulvitis, Vulvitis circumscripta plasmacellularis, Zoon's balanitis, Zoon's erythroplasia, Zoon's vulvitis)
  • Basal cell carcinoma
  • Basaloid follicular hamartoma
  • Basaloid squamous cell carcinoma
  • Birt–Hogg–Dubé syndrome
  • Bowen's disease (Squamous cell carcinoma in situ)
  • Ceruminoma
  • Cicatricial basal cell carcinoma (Morpheaform basal cell carcinoma, Morphoeic basal cell carcinoma)
  • Ciliated cyst of the vulva (Cutaneous Müllerian cyst, Paramesonephric mucinous cyst of the vulva)
  • Clear cell acanthoma (Acanthome cellules claires of Degos and Civatte, Degos acanthoma, Pale cell acanthoma)
  • Clear cell squamous cell carcinoma (Clear cell carcinoma of the skin)
  • Chronic scar keratosis (Chronic cicatrix keratosis)
  • Clonal seborrheic keratosis
  • Common seborrheic keratosis (Basal cell papilloma, Solid seborrheic keratosis)
  • Cowden syndrome (Cowden's disease, Multiple hamartoma syndrome)
  • Cutaneous ciliated cyst
  • Cutaneous columnar cyst
  • Cutaneous horn (Cornu cutaneum)
  • Cystic basal cell carcinoma
  • Dermal eccrine cylindroma (Cylindroma)
  • Dermatosis papulosa nigra
  • Desmoplastic trichoepithelioma
  • Dilated pore (Dilated pore of Winer)
  • Eccrine carcinoma (Syringoid carcinoma)
  • Eccrine nevus
  • Epidermal cyst (Epidermal inclusion cyst, Epidermoid cyst, Infundibular cyst, Keratin cyst)
  • Epidermal nevus syndrome (Feuerstein and Mims syndrome, Solomon's syndrome)
  • Epidermolytic acanthoma
  • Eruptive vellus hair cyst
  • Erythroplasia of Queyrat
  • Extramammary Paget's disease
  • Fibroepithelioma
  • Fibroepithelioma of Pinkus
  • Fibrofolliculoma
  • Follicular hybrid cyst (Hybrid cyst)
  • Folliculosebaceous-apocrine hamartoma (Follicular-apocrine hamartoma)
  • Folliculosebaceous cystic hamartoma
  • Generalized eruptive keratoacanthoma (Generalized eruptive keratoacanthoma of Grzybowski)
  • Giant solitary trichoepithelioma
  • Hidradenoma
    Large, red, exophytic nodule on the malar surface of an adult
    Hidradenoma
  • Hidradenocarcinoma
  • Hidrocystoma (Cystadenoma, Moll's gland cyst, Sudoriferous cyst)
  • Hydrocarbon keratosis (Pitch keratosis, Tar keratosis, Tar wart)
  • Hyperkeratosis lenticularis perstans (Flegel's disease)
  • Hyperkeratosis of the nipple and areola
  • Hyperkeratotic actinic keratosis
  • Ichthyosis hystrix (Ichthyosis hystrix gravior type Lambert, Porcupine man, Systematized verrucous nevus)
  • Ichthyosis hystrix of Curth–Macklin
  • Infiltrative basal cell carcinoma
  • Inflammatory linear verrucous epidermal nevus
  • Inverted follicular keratosis
  • Irritated seborrheic keratosis (Basosquamous cell acanthoma, Inflamed seborrheic keratosis)
  • Isthmicoma (Infundibuloma, Tumor of the follicular infundibulum)
  • Juvenile myelomonocytic leukemia
  • Keratin implantation cyst
  • Keratoacanthoma
  • Keratoacanthoma centrifugum marginatum
  • Large cell acanthoma
  • Lichenoid actinic keratosis
  • Lichenoid keratosis (Benign lichenoid keratosis, Lichen planus-like keratosis, Solitary lichen planus, Solitary lichenoid keratosis)
  • Linear verrucous epidermal nevus (Linear epidermal nevus, Verrucous epidermal nevus)
  • Malignant acrospiroma (Malignant poroma, Porocarcinoma, Spiradenocarcinoma)
  • Malignant mixed tumor (Malignant chondroid syringoma)
  • Malignant trichilemmal cyst
  • Mantleoma
  • Marjolin's ulcer
  • Melanoacanthoma (Pigmented seborrheic keratosis)
  • Merkel cell carcinoma (Cutaneous apudoma, Primary neuroendocrine carcinoma of the skin, Primary small cell carcinoma of the skin, Trabecular carcinoma of the skin)
  • Microcystic adnexal carcinoma (Sclerosing sweat duct carcinoma)
  • Micronodular basal cell carcinoma
  • Milia en plaque
  • Milium
  • Mixed tumor (Chondroid syringoma)
  • Mucinous carcinoma
  • Mucinous nevus (Nevus mucinosus)
  • Muir–Torre syndrome
  • Multiple familial trichoepithelioma (Brooke–Spiegler syndrome, Epithelioma adenoides cysticum)
  • Multiple keratoacanthomas (Ferguson Smith type of multiple self-healing keratoacanthomas, Multiple keratoacanthomas of the Ferguson–Smith type)
  • Multiple minute digitate hyperkeratosis (Digitate keratoses, Disseminated spiked hyperkeratosis, Familial disseminated piliform hyperkeratosis, Minute aggregate keratosis)
  • Nevoid basal cell carcinoma syndrome (Basal cell nevus syndrome, Gorlin syndrome, Gorlin–Goltz syndrome)
  • Nevus comedonicus (Comedo nevus)
  • Nevus comedonicus syndrome
  • Nevus sebaceous (Nevus sebaceous of Jadassohn, Organoid nevus)
  • Nevus unius lateris
  • Nodular basal cell carcinoma (Classic basal cell carcinoma)
  • Paget's disease of the breast
  • Papillary eccrine adenoma (Tubular apocrine adenoma)
  • Papillary hidradenoma (Hidradenoma papilliferum)
  • Papillomatosis cutis carcinoides (Papillomatosis cutis carcinoides of Gottron–Eisenlohr)
  • Patch blue nevus (Acquired dermal melanocytosis, Dermal melanocyte hamartoma)
  • Perifollicular fibroma
  • Phakomatosis pigmentokeratotica
  • Pigmented actinic keratosis
  • Pigmented basal cell carcinoma
  • Pigmented hairy epidermal nevus syndrome
  • Pilar sheath acanthoma
  • Pilonidal sinus (Barber's interdigital pilonidal sinus, Pilonidal cyst, Pilonidal disease)
  • Polypoid basal cell carcinoma
  • Pore-like basal cell carcinoma
  • Primary cutaneous adenoid cystic carcinoma
  • Proliferating epidermoid cyst (Proliferating epithelial cyst)
  • Proliferating trichilemmal cyst (Pilar tumor, Proliferating follicular cystic neoplasm, Proliferating pilar tumor, Proliferating trichilemmal tumor)
  • Pseudocyst of the auricle (Auricular endochondrial pseudocyst, Cystic chondromalacia, Endochondral pseudocyst, Intracartilaginous cyst)
  • Pseudoepitheliomatous keratotic and micaceous balanitis
  • PUVA keratosis
  • Reactional keratosis
  • Reticulated seborrheic keratosis (Adenoid seborrheic keratosis)
  • Rodent ulcer (Jacobi ulcer)
  • Schimmelpenning syndrome (Schimmelpenning–Feuerstein–Mims syndrome)
  • Sebaceoma (Sebaceous epithelioma)
  • Sebaceous adenoma
  • Sebaceous carcinoma
  • Sebaceous hyperplasia
  • Sebaceous nevus syndrome
  • Seboacanthoma
  • Seborrheic keratosis (Seborrheic verruca, Senile wart)
  • Seborrheic keratosis with squamous atypia
  • Signet-ring cell squamous cell carcinoma
  • Solitary keratoacanthoma (Subungual keratoacanthoma)
  • Solitary trichoepithelioma
  • Spindle cell squamous cell carcinoma (Spindle cell carcinoma)
  • Spiradenoma
  • Squamous cell carcinoma
  • Steatocystoma multiplex (Epidermal polycystic disease, Sebocystomatosis)
  • Steatocystoma simplex (Simple sebaceous duct cyst, Solitary steatocystoma)
  • Stucco keratosis (Digitate seborrheic keratosis, Hyperkeratotic seborrheic keratosis, Keratosis alba, Serrated seborrheic keratosis, Verrucous seborrheic keratosis)
  • Superficial basal cell carcinoma (Superficial multicentric basal cell carcinoma)
  • Syringadenoma papilliferum (Syringocystadenoma papilliferum)
  • Syringofibroadenoma (Acrosyringeal nevus of Weedon and Lewis)
  • Syringoma
  • Systematized epidermal nevus
  • Thermal keratosis
  • Trichilemmal carcinoma
  • Trichilemmal cyst (Isthmus-catagen cyst, Pilar cyst)
  • Trichilemmoma
  • Trichoadenoma (Trichoadenoma of Nikolowski)
  • Trichoblastoma
  • Trichoblastic fibroma
  • Trichodiscoma
  • Trichofolliculoma
  • Unilateral palmoplantar verrucous nevus
  • Urethral caruncle
  • Verrucous carcinoma (Ackerman tumor, Carcinoma cuniculatum)
  • Verrucous cyst (Cystic papilloma)
  • Viral keratosis
  • Warty dyskeratoma (Isolated dyskeratosis follicularis)
  • Waxy keratosis of childhood (Kerinokeratosis papulosa)
  • Zoon's vulvitis
  • Zosteriform speckled lentiginous nevus

Erythemas

Erythemas are reactive skin conditions in which there is blanchable redness.[1][9]

Genodermatoses

Genodermatoses are inherited genetic skin conditions often grouped into three categories: chromosomal, single gene, and polygenetic.[64][65]

  • 18q deletion syndrome
  • Acrodermatitis enteropathica
  • Acrogeria (Gottron syndrome)
  • Acrokeratosis verruciformis (Acrokeratosis verruciformis of Hopf)
  • Adams–Oliver syndrome
  • Adducted thumbs syndrome
  • Albright's hereditary osteodystrophy
  • Angelman syndrome
  • Apert syndrome (Acrocephalosyndactyly)
  • Arthrogryposis–renal dysfunction–cholestasis syndrome (ARC syndrome)
  • Ataxia telangiectasia (Louis–Bar syndrome)
  • Atrichia with papular lesions
  • Atrophodermia vermiculata (Acne vermoulante, Acne vermoulanti, Atrophoderma reticulata symmetrica faciei, Atrophoderma reticulatum, Atrophoderma vermiculata, Atrophoderma vermiculatum, Atrophodermia reticulata symmetrica faciei, Atrophodermia ulerythematosa, Atrophodermie vermiculée des joues avec kératoses folliculaires, Folliculitis ulerythema reticulata, Folliculitis ulerythematous reticulata, Folliculitis ulerythemosa, Honeycomb atrophy, Ulerythema acneforme, Ulerythema acneiforme)
  • Autoimmune polyendocrinopathy–candidiasis–ectodermal dystrophy syndrome (APECED syndrome)
  • Bart syndrome
  • Bazex–Dupré–Christol syndrome (Bazex syndrome, Follicular atrophoderma and basal cell cacinomas)
  • Bloom syndrome (Bloom–Torre–Machacek syndrome)
  • Blue rubber bleb nevus syndrome
  • Brittle hair–intellectual impairment–decreased fertility–short stature syndrome (BIDS syndrome)
  • Cantú syndrome
  • Cardio-facio-cutaneous syndrome (Cardiofaciocutaneous syndrome)
  • Cartilage–hair hypoplasia (McKusick type metaphyseal chondrodysplasia)
  • Cerebral dysgenesis–neuropathy–ichthyosis–keratoderma syndrome (CEDNIK syndrome)
  • Childhood tumor syndrome
  • Chondrodysplasia punctata
  • Cicatricial junctional epidermolysis bullosa
  • Craniosynostosis–anal anomalies–porokeratosis syndrome (CAP syndrome)
  • Cockayne syndrome
  • Colobomas of the eye–heart defects–ichthyosiform dermatosis–mental retardation–ear defects syndrome (CHIME syndrome, Zunich neuroectodermal syndrome, Zunich–Kaye syndrome)
  • Congenital hemidysplasia with ichthyosiform erythroderma and limb defects syndrome (CHILD syndrome)
  • Conradi–Hünermann syndrome (Conradi–Hünermann–Happle syndrome, Happle syndrome, X-linked dominant chondrodysplasia punctata)
  • Costello syndrome
  • Cronkhite–Canada syndrome
  • Crouzon syndrome
  • Cutis verticis gyrata
  • Darier's disease (Darier–White disease, Dyskeratosis follicularis, Keratosis follicularis)
    Many hyperkeratotic, vegetative, and hyperpigmented papules in a zosteriform pattern on the right lateral lower extremity of an adult
    Linear Darier disease
  • DeSanctis–Cacchione syndrome
  • Disseminated superficial actinic porokeratosis
  • Disseminated superficial porokeratosis
  • Dolichol kinase deficiency
  • Dominant dystrophic epidermolysis bullosa
  • Dyskeratosis congenita (Zinsser–Cole–Engman syndrome)
  • Dystrophic epidermolysis bullosa
  • Ectodermal dysplasia
  • Ectodermal dysplasia with corkscrew hairs
  • Ectrodactyly–ectodermal dysplasia–cleft syndrome (EEC syndrome, Split hand–split foot–ectodermal dysplasia–cleft syndrome)
  • Epidermolysis bullosa herpetiformis (Dowling–Meara epidermolysis bullosa simplex)
  • Epidermolysis bullosa simplex
  • Epidermolysis bullosa simplex of Ogna
  • Epidermolysis bullosa simplex with mottled pigmentation
  • Epidermolysis bullosa simplex with muscular dystrophy
  • Epidermolytic hyperkeratosis (Bullous congenital ichthyosiform erythroderma, Bullous ichthyosiform erythroderma)
  • Erythrokeratodermia with ataxia (Giroux–Barbeau syndrome)
  • Familial benign chronic pemphigus (Familial benign pemphigus, Hailey–Hailey disease)
  • Fanconi syndrome (Familial pancytopenia, Familial panmyelophthisis)
  • Focal dermal hypoplasia (Goltz syndrome)
  • Follicular atrophoderma
  • Franceschetti–Klein syndrome (Mandibulofacial dysostosis)
  • Gardner's syndrome (Familial colorectal polyposis)
  • Gastrocutaneous syndrome
  • Generalized atrophic benign epidermolysis bullosa
  • Generalized epidermolysis bullosa simplex (Koebner variant of generalized epidermolysis bullosa simplex)
  • Generalized trichoepithelioma
  • Giant axonal neuropathy with curly hair
  • Gingival fibromatosis with hypertrichosis
  • Haber syndrome
  • Hallerman–Streiff syndrome
  • Harlequin-type ichthyosis (Harlequin baby, Harlequin fetus, Harlequin ichthyosis, Ichthyosis congenita, Ichthyosis congenita gravior)
  • Hay–Wells syndrome (AEC syndrome, Ankyloblepharon filiforme adnatum–ectodermal dysplasia–cleft palate syndrome, Ankyloblepharon–ectodermal defects–cleft lip and palate syndrome, Ankyloblepharon–ectodermal dysplasia–clefting syndrome)
  • Hereditary sclerosing poikiloderma
  • Heterochromia iridum
  • Holocarboxylase synthetase deficiency
  • Hypohidrotic ectodermal dysplasia (Anhidrotic ectodermal dysplasia, Christ–Siemens–Touraine syndrome)
  • Hypotrichosis–acro-osteolysis–onychogryphosis–palmoplantar keratoderma–periodontitis syndrome (HOPP syndrome)
  • Hypotrichosis–lymphedema–telangiectasia syndrome
  • Ichthyosis–brittle hair–impaired intelligence–decreased fertility–short stature syndrome (IBIDS syndrome, Sulfur-deficient brittle hair syndrome, Tay's syndrome, Trichothiodystrophy, Trichothiodystrophy with ichthyosis)
  • Ichthyosis bullosa of Siemens (Ichthyosis exfoliativa)
  • Ichthyosis follicularis (Ichthyosis follicularis with alopecia and photophobia syndrome)
  • Ichthyosis linearis circumflexa
  • Ichthyosis prematurity syndrome
  • Ichthyosis vulgaris (Autosomal dominant ichthyosis, Ichthyosis simplex)
  • Neonatal ichthyosis–sclerosing cholangitis syndrome (Ichthyosis–sclerosing cholangitis syndrome, NISCH syndrome)
  • Incontinentia pigmenti achromians (Hypomelanosis of Ito)
  • Immune dysfunction–polyendocrinopathy–enteropathy–X-linked syndrome (IPEX syndrome)
  • Jaffe–Campanacci syndrome
  • Johanson–Blizzard syndrome
  • Johnson–McMillin syndrome
  • Joubert syndrome
  • Junctional epidermolysis bullosa
  • Junctional epidermolysis bullosa gravis (Epidermolysis bullosa letalis, Herlitz disease, Herlitz epidermolysis bullosa, Herlitz syndrome, Lethal junctional epidermolysis bullosa)
  • Junctional epidermolysis bullosa with pyloric atresia
  • Kabuki syndrome (Kabuki makeup syndrome, Niikawa–Kuroki syndrome)
  • Keratolytic winter erythema (Erythrokeratolysis hiemalis, Oudtshoorn disease, Oudtshoorn skin)
  • Keratosis follicularis spinulosa decalvans (Siemens-1 syndrome)
  • Keratosis linearis with ichthyosis congenital and sclerosing keratoderma syndrome (KLICK syndrome)
  • Keratosis pilaris atrophicans faciei (Folliculitis rubra, Keratosis pilaris rubra atrophicans faciei, Lichen pilare, Lichen pilaire ou xerodermie pilaire symmetrique de la face, Ulerythema ophryogenes, Xerodermi pilaire symmetrique de la face)
  • Keratosis pilaris
  • Kindler syndrome (Acrokeratotic poikiloderma, Bullous acrokeratotic poikiloderma of Kindler and Weary, Congenital poikiloderma with blisters and keratoses, Congenital poikiloderma with bullae and progressive cutaneous atrophy, Hereditary acrokeratotic poikiloderma, Hyperkeratosis–hyperpigmentation syndrome, Weary–Kindler syndrome)
  • Klinefelter syndrome
  • Klippel–Feil syndrome
  • Lamellar ichthyosis (Collodion baby)
  • Legius syndrome
  • Lelis syndrome
  • Lenz–Majewski syndrome
  • Leschke syndrome
  • Lethal acantholytic epidermolysis bullosa
  • Lhermitte–Duclos disease
  • Linear and whorled nevoid hypermelanosis (Linear nevoid hyperpigmentation, Progressive cribriform and zosteriform hyperpigmentation, Reticulate and zosteriform hyperpigmentation, Reticulate hyperpigmentation of Iijima and Naito and Uyeno, Zebra-like hyperpigmentation in whorls and streaks, Zebra-line hyperpigmentation)
  • Linear Darier disease (Acantholytic dyskeratotic epidermal nevus)
  • Linear porokeratosis
  • Localized epidermolysis bullosa simplex (Weber–Cockayne syndrome, Weber–Cockayne variant of generalized epidermolysis bullosa simplex)
  • Mandibuloacral dysplasia
  • Marinesco–Sjögren syndrome
  • McCune–Albright syndrome
  • McCusick syndrome
  • Metageria
  • Microphthalmia–dermal aplasia–sclerocornea syndrome (MIDAS syndrome)
  • Mitis junctional epidermolysis bullosa (Nonlethal junctional epidermolysis bullosa)
  • Mitochondrial myopathy–encephalopathy–lactic acidosis–stroke syndrome (MELAS syndrome)
  • Multiple lentigines syndrome (Cardiocutaneous syndrome, Gorlin syndrome II, Lentiginosis profusa syndrome, LEOPARD syndrome, Progressive cardiomyopathic lentiginosis)
  • Multiple pterygium syndrome
  • Multiple sulfatase deficiency (Austin disease, Mucosulfatidosis)
  • Naegeli–Franceschetti–Jadassohn syndrome (Chromatophore nevus of Naegeli)
  • Netherton syndrome
  • Neurofibromatosis type 1 (von Recklinghausen's disease)
    Many small to large, skin colored nodules on the trunk of an adult
    Neurofibromatosis type 1
  • Neurofibromatosis type 3 (Neurofibromatosis mixed type)
  • Neurofibromatosis type 4 (Neurofibromatosis variant type)
  • Neutral lipid storage disease (Dorfman–Chanarin syndrome)
  • Nonbullous congenital ichthyosiform erythroderma (Congenital ichthyosiform erythroderma)
  • Noonan syndrome
  • Oculocerebrocutaneous syndrome (Delleman–Oorthuys syndrome)
  • Oculodentodigital dysplasia
  • Odonto–Tricho–Ungual–Digital–Palmar syndrome
  • Oliver–McFarlane syndrome
  • Pachydermoperiostosis (Idiopathic hypertrophic osteoathorpathy, Touraine–Solente–Gole syndrome)
  • Peeling skin syndrome (Acral peeling skin syndrome, Continual peeling skin syndrome, Familial continual skin peeling, Idiopathic deciduous skin, Keratolysis exfoliativa congenita)
  • Pfeiffer syndrome
  • Photosensitivity–ichthyosis–brittle sulfur-deficient hair–impaired intelligence–decreased fertility–short stature syndrome (PIBI(D)S syndrome)
  • Pityriasis rotunda (Pityriasis circinata, Tinea circinata)
  • Plaque-type porokeratosis (Classic porokeratosis, Porokeratosis of Mibelli)
  • Polyneuropathy–organomegaly–endocrinopathy–monoclonal gammopathy–skin changes syndrome (Crow–Fukase syndrome, POEMS syndrome)
  • Polyostotic fibrous dysplasia (Albright's disease)
  • Popliteal pterygium syndrome
  • Porokeratosis
  • Porokeratosis palmaris et plantaris disseminata
  • Prader–Willi syndrome
  • Progeria (Hutchinson–Gilford progeria syndrome, Hutchinson–Gilford syndrome, Progeria syndrome)
  • Progressive osseous heteroplasia
  • Progressive symmetric erythrokeratodermia (Erythrokeratodermia progressiva symmetrica)
  • Proteus syndrome
  • Proteus-like syndrome
  • Punctate porokeratosis
  • Rapp–Hodgkin syndrome (Rapp–Hodgkin ectodermal dysplasia syndrome)
  • Recessive dystrophic epidermolysis bullosa (Hallopeau–Siemens variant of epidermolysis bullosa, Hallopeau–Siemens disease)
  • Refsum's disease (Heredopathia atactica polyneuritiformis, Phytanic acid storage disease)
  • Relapsing linear acantholytic dermatosis
  • Restrictive dermopathy
  • Rhizomelic chondrodysplasia punctata (Autosomal recessive chondrodysplasia punctata type 1, Chondrodystrophia calcificans punctata, Peroxisomal biogenesis disorder complementation group 11)
  • Rombo syndrome
  • Rothmund–Thomson syndrome (Poikiloderma congenitale)
  • Rud syndrome
  • Say syndrome
  • Scalp–ear–nipple syndrome (Finlay–Marks syndrome)
  • Schindler disease (Kanzaki disease, Alpha-N-acetylgalactosaminidase deficiency)
  • Schinzel–Giedion syndrome
  • Scleroatrophic syndrome of Huriez (Huriez syndrome, Palmoplantar keratoderma with scleroatrophy, Palmoplantar keratoderma with sclerodactyly, Scleroatrophic and keratotic dermatosis of the limbs, Sclerotylosis)
  • Segmental neurofibromatosis
  • Senter syndrome (Desmons' syndrome)
  • Shabbir syndrome (Laryngo–onycho–cutaneous syndrome)
  • Silver–Russell syndrome
  • Sjögren–Larsson syndrome
  • Skin fragility syndrome (Plakophilin 1 deficiency)
  • Supernumerary nipples–uropathies–Becker's nevus syndrome (SNUB syndrome)
  • Terminal osseous dysplasia with pigmentary defects
  • Tooth and nail syndrome (Hypodontia with nail dysgenesis, Witkop syndrome)
  • Townes–Brocks syndrome
  • Transient bullous dermolysis of the newborn
  • Treacher Collins syndrome (Treacher Collins–Franceschetti syndrome)
  • Tricho–rhino–phalangeal syndrome
  • Tuberous sclerosis (Bourneville disease, Epiloia)
  • Turner syndrome
  • Ulnar–mammary syndrome
  • Van Der Woude syndrome
  • Von Hippel–Lindau syndrome
  • Watson syndrome
  • Werner syndrome (Adult progeria)
  • Westerhof syndrome
  • Whistling syndrome (Cranio-carpo-tarsal syndrome, Distal arthrogryposis type 2, Freeman–Sheldon syndrome, Windmill–Vane–Hand syndrome)
  • Wilson–Turner syndrome
  • Wolf–Hirschhorn syndrome (4p- syndrome)
  • X-linked ichthyosis (Steroid sulfatase deficiency, X-linked recessive ichthyosis)
  • X-linked recessive chondrodysplasia punctata
  • Xeroderma pigmentosum (Cockayne syndrome complex)
  • XXYY genotype
  • Zimmermann–Laband syndrome

Infection-related

Infection-related cutaneous conditions may be caused by bacteria, fungi, yeast, viruses, and/or parasites.[51][66]

Bacterium-related

Bacterium-related cutaneous conditions often have distinct morphologic characteristics that may be an indication of a generalized systemic process or simply an isolated superficial infection.[66][67]

Mycobacterium-related

Mycobacterium-related cutaneous conditions are caused by mycobacterium infections.[66][68]

Mycosis-related

Mycosis-related cutaneous conditions are caused by fungi or yeasts, and may present as either a superficial or deep infection of the skin, hair, and/or nails.[66]

Parasitic infestations, stings, and bites

Parasitic infestations, stings, and bites in humans are caused by several groups of organisms belonging to the following phyla: Annelida, Arthropoda, Bryozoa, Chordata, Cnidaria, Cyanobacteria, Echinodermata, Nemathelminthes, Platyhelminthes, and Protozoa.[66][69]

  • Acanthamoeba infection
  • Amebiasis cutis
  • Ant sting
  • Arachnidism
  • Balamuthia infection
  • Bedbug infestation (Bedbug bite, Cimicosis)
  • Bee and wasp stings
  • Blister beetle dermatitis
  • Bombardier beetle burn
  • Bristleworm sting
    Multiple, red, linear plaques on the extremity
    Creeping eruption
  • Centipede bite
  • Cheyletiella dermatitis
  • Chigger bite
  • Coolie itch
  • Copra itch
  • Coral dermatitis
  • Creeping eruption (Cutaneous larva migrans)
  • Cutaneous leishmaniasis (Aleppo boil, Baghdad boil, Bay sore, Biskra button, Chiclero ulcer, Delhi boil, Kandahar sore, Lahore sore, Leishmaniasis tropica, Oriental sore, Pian bois, Uta)
  • Cysticercosis cutis
  • Demodex mite bite
  • Dogger Bank itch
  • Dracunculiasis (Dracontiasis, Guinea worm disease, Medina worm)
  • Echinococcosis (Hydatid disease)
  • Elephantiasis tropica (Elephantiasis arabum)
  • Elephant skin
  • Enterobiasis (Oxyuriasis, Pinworm infection, Seatworm infection)
  • Erisipela de la costa
  • Funnel web spider bite
  • Gamasoidosis
  • Gnathostomiasis (Larva migrans profundus)
  • Grain itch (Barley itch, Mattress itch, Prairie itch, Straw itch)
  • Grocer's itch
  • Head lice infestation (Cooties, Pediculosis capitis)
  • Hookworm disease (Ancylostomiasis, Ground itch, Necatoriasis, Uncinariasis)
  • Human trypanosomiasis
  • Hydroid dermatitis
  • Irukandji syndrome
  • Jellyfish dermatitis
  • Ked itch
  • Larva currens
  • Latrodectism (Widow spider bite)
  • Leech bite
  • Leopard skin
  • Lepidopterism (Caripito itch, Caterpillar dermatitis, Moth dermatitis)
  • Lizard bite
  • Lizard skin
  • Loaiasis (Calabar swelling, Fugitive swelling, Loa loa, Tropical swelling)
  • Loxoscelism (Brown recluse spider bite, Necrotic cutaneous loxoscelism)
  • Mal morando
  • Millipede burn
  • Mosquito bite
  • Mucocutaneous leishmaniasis (Espundia, Leishmaniasis americana)
  • Myiasis
  • Nairobi fly dermatitis (Kenya fly dermatitis, Nairobi eye)
  • Nematode dermatitis
  • Norwegian scabies (Crusted scabies)
    Diffuse thickening of the skin over an adult's bilateral arms and fingers
    Norwegian scabies
  • Onchocerciasis
  • Ophthalmia nodosa
  • Paederus dermatitis
  • Pediculosis corporis (Pediculosis vestimenti, Vagabond's disease)
  • Pediculosis pubis (Crabs, Phthirus pubis, Pthirus pubis, Pubic lice)
  • Pneumocystosis (often classified as fungal)
  • Portuguese man-of-war dermatitis
  • Post-kala-azar dermal leishmaniasis (Post-kala-azar dermatosis)
  • Protothecosis
  • Pulicosis (Flea bites)
  • Reduviid bite
  • Scabies (Itch mite infestation, Seven-year itch)
  • Scorpion sting
  • Sea anemone dermatitis
  • Seabather's eruption (Sea lice)
  • Sea urchin injury
  • Seaweed dermatitis
  • Snake bite
  • Sowda
  • Sparganosis
  • Spider bite
  • Stingray injury
  • Swimmer's itch (Cercarial dermatitis, Schistosome cercarial dermatitis)
  • Tarantula bite
  • Tick bite
  • Toxoplasmosis
  • Trichinosis
  • Trichomoniasis
  • Tungiasis (Bicho de pie, Chigoe flea bite, Jigger bite, Nigua, Pique)
  • Visceral leishmaniasis (Dumdum fever, Kala-azar)
  • Visceral schistosomiasis (Bilharziasis)
  • Viscerotropic leishmaniasis
  • Wheat warehouse itch

Virus-related

Virus-related cutaneous conditions are caused by two main groups of virusesDNA and RNA types–both of which are obligatory intracellular parasites.[66][70]

Lichenoid eruptions

Lichenoid eruptions are dermatoses related to the unique, common inflammatory disorder lichen planus, which affects the skin, mucous membranes, nails, and hair.[71][72][73]

  • Annular lichen planus
  • Atrophic lichen planus
  • Bullous lichen planus (Vesiculobullous lichen planus)
  • Erythema dyschromicum perstans (Ashy dermatosis, Dermatosis cinecienta)
  • Giant cell lichenoid dermatitis
  • Hepatitis-associated lichen planus
  • Hypertrophic lichen planus (Lichen planus verrucosus)
  • Idiopathic eruptive macular pigmentation
  • Inverse lichen planus
  • Keratosis lichenoides chronica (Nékam's disease)
  • Kraurosis vulvae
  • Lichen nitidus
  • Lichen planus actinicus (Actinic lichen niditus, Actinic lichen planus, Lichen planus atrophicus annularis, Lichen planus subtropicus, Lichen planus tropicus, Lichenoid melanodermatitis, Lichenoid melanodermatosis, Summertime actinic lichenoid eruption)
  • Lichen planus pemphigoides
  • Lichen planus pigmentosus
  • Lichen planus–lichen sclerosus overlap syndrome
  • Lichen ruber moniliformis
  • Lichen sclerosus (Lichen sclerosus et atrophicus)
  • Lichen striatus (Blaschko linear acquired inflammatory skin eruption, Linear lichenoid dermatosis)
  • Lichen verrucosus et reticularis
  • Lichenoid trikeratosis
  • Lichenoid dermatitis
  • Lichenoid reaction of graft-versus-host disease
  • Linear lichen planus
  • Peno-gingival syndrome
  • Ulcerative lichen planus
  • Vulvovaginal gingival syndrome
  • Vulvovaginal lichen planus

Lymphoid-related

Lymphoid-related cutaneous conditions are a group of disorders characterized by collections of lymphocyte cells within the skin.[74]

  • Adult T-cell leukemia/lymphoma
  • Angiocentric lymphoma (Extranodal natural killer cell lymphoma, Nasal-type NK lymphoma, NK/T-cell lymphoma, Polymorphic/malignant midline reticulosis)
  • Angioimmunoblastic T-cell lymphoma (Angioimmunoblastic lymphadenopathy with dysproteinemia)
  • Blastic NK-cell lymphoma
  • CD30+ cutaneous T-cell lymphoma (Primary cutaneous anaplastic large cell lymphoma)
  • Cutaneous lymphoid hyperplasia (Borrelial lymphocytoma, Lymphadenosis benigna cutis, Lymphocytoma cutis, Pseudolymphoma, Pseudolymphoma of Spiegler and Fendt, Sarcoidosis of Spiegler and Fendt, Spiegler–Fendt lymphoid hyperplasia, Spiegler–Fendt sarcoid)
  • Cutaneous lymphoid hyperplasia with bandlike and perivascular patterns
  • Cutaneous lymphoid hyperplasia with nodular pattern (Nodular pattern of cutaneous lymphoid hyperplasia)
  • Diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (Primary cutaneous large B-cell lymphoma)
  • Granulocytic sarcoma (Chloroma, Myeloid sarcoma)
  • Granulomatous slack skin
  • Hairy-cell leukemia
  • Hodgkin's disease
  • Ichthyosis acquisita (Acquired ichthyosis)
  • Intravascular large B-cell lymphoma (Angiotropic large cell lymphoma, Intralymphatic lymphomatosis, Intravascular lymphomatosis, Malignant angioendotheliomatosis)
  • Jessner lymphocytic infiltrate of the skin (Benign lymphocytic infiltration of the skin, Jessner lymphocytic infiltration of the skin, Jessner–Kanof lymphocytic infiltration of the skin, Lymphocytic infiltrate of Jessner)
  • Kikuchi's disease (Histiocytic necrotizing lymphadenitis)
  • Large plaque parapsoriasis (Parapsoriasis en plaques)
  • Lennert lymphoma (Lymphoepitheliod lymphoma)
  • Leukemia cutis
  • Lymphoma cutis
  • Lymphomatoid granulomatosis
  • Lymphomatoid papulosis
  • Malignant histiocytosis (Histiocytic medullary reticulosis)
  • Marginal zone B-cell lymphoma
  • Mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma
  • Mycosis fungoides
  • Non-mycosis fungoides CD30− cutaneous large T-cell lymphoma
  • Nonspecific cutaneous conditions associated with leukemia (Leukemid)
  • Pagetoid reticulosis (Acral mycoses fungoides, Localized epidermotropic reticulosis, Mycosis fungoides palmaris et plantaris, Unilesional mycosis fungoides, Woringer–Kolopp disease)
  • Pityriasis lichenoides chronica (Chronic guttate parapsoriasis, Chronic pityriasis lichenoides, Dermatitis psoriasiformis nodularis, Parapsoriasis chronica, Parapsoriasis lichenoides chronica)
  • Pityriasis lichenoides et varioliformis acuta (Acute guttate parapsoriasis, Acute parapsoriasis, Acute pityriasis lichenoides, Mucha–Habermann disease, Parapsoriasis acuta, Parapsoriasis lichenoides et varioliformis acuta, Parapsoriasis varioliformis)
  • Plasmacytoma
  • Plasmacytosis
  • Pleomorphic T-cell lymphoma (Non-mycosis fungoides CD30− pleomorphic small/medium sized cutaneous T-cell lymphoma)
  • Polycythemia vera (Erythremia)
  • Primary cutaneous follicular lymphoma (Follicular center cell lymphoma, Follicular center lymphoma)
  • Primary cutaneous immunocytoma
  • Primary cutaneous marginal zone lymphoma
  • Retiform parapsoriasis
  • Secondary cutaneous CD30+ large cell lymphoma
  • Sézary syndrome
  • Sinus histiocytosis with massive lymphadenopathy (Rosai–Dorfman disease)
  • Subcutaneous T-cell lymphoma (Panniculitis-like T-cell lymphoma)
  • Vesiculopustular eruption and leukemoid reaction in Down syndrome

Melanocytic nevi and neoplasms

Melanocytic nevi and neoplasms are caused by either a proliferation of (1) melanocytes, or (2) nevus cells, a form of melanocyte that lack dendritic processes.[75][76]

  • Acral nevus (Melanocytic nevus of acral skin, Melanocytic nevus with intraepidermal ascent of cells)
  • Amelanotic blue nevus (Hypomelanotic blue nevus)
  • Balloon cell nevus
  • Bannayan–Riley–Ruvalcaba syndrome
  • Becker's nevus (Becker's melanosis, Becker's pigmentary hamartoma, Nevoid melanosis, Pigmented hairy epidermal nevus)
  • Benign melanocytic nevus (Banal nevus, Common acquired melanocytic nevus, Mole, Nevocellular nevus, Nevocytic nevus)
  • Blue nevus (Blue neuronevus, Dermal melanocytoma, Nevus bleu)
  • Blue nevus of Jadassohn–Tièche (Common blue nevus, Nevus ceruleus)
  • Carney complex (LAMB syndrome, NAME syndrome)
  • Cellular blue nevus
  • Centrofacial lentiginosis
  • Congenital melanocytic nevus
  • Deep penetrating nevus
  • Dysplastic nevus (Atypical mole, Atypical nevus, B-K mole, Clark's nevus, Dysplastic melanocytic nevus, Nevus with architectural disorder)
  • Dysplastic nevus syndrome (B-K mole syndrome, Familial atypical multiple mole–melanoma syndrome, Familial melanoma syndrome)
  • Ephelis (Freckle)
  • Epithelioid blue nevus
  • Generalized lentiginosis
  • Giant pigmented nevus (Bathing trunk nevus, Congenital nevomelanocytic nevus, Garment nevus, Giant hairy nevus, Nevus pigmentosus et pilosus)
  • Halo nevus (Leukoderma acquisitum centrifugum, Perinevoid vitiligo, Sutton nevus)
  • Hori's nevus (Acquired bilateral nevus of Ota-like macules)
  • Inherited patterned lentiginosis in black persons
  • Ink spot lentigo (Sunburn lentigo)
  • Laugier–Hunziker syndrome
  • Lentigo simplex (Simple lentigo)
  • Malignant blue nevus
  • Medium-sized congenital nevocytic nevus
  • Melanoacanthoma
  • Melanocytic tumors of uncertain malignant potential
  • Moynahan syndrome
  • Mucosal lentigines (Labial and penile and vulvar melanosis, Melanotic macules)
  • Nevus of Ito (Nevus fuscoceruleus acromiodeltoideus)
  • Nevus of Ota (Congenital melanosis bulbi, Melanosis bulborum and aberrant dermal melanocytosis, Nevus fuscoceruleus ophthalmomaxillaris, Oculodermal melanocytosis, Oculomucodermal melanocytosis)
  • Nevus spilus (Speckled lentiginous nevus, Zosteriform lentiginous nevus)
  • Partial unilateral lentiginosis (Segmental lentiginosis)
  • Peutz–Jeghers syndrome
  • Pigmented spindle cell nevus (Pigmented spindle cell tumor of Reed, Pigmented variant of Spitz nevus)
  • Pseudomelanoma (Recurrent melanocytic nevus, Recurrent nevus)
  • PUVA lentigines
  • Small-sized congenital nevocytic nevus
  • Spitz nevus (Benign juvenile melanoma, Epithelioid and spindle cell nevus, Spitz's juvenile melanoma)
  • Solar lentigo (Lentigo senilis, Liver spot, Old age spot, Senile freckle)

Melanoma

Melanoma is a malignant proliferation of melanocytes and the most aggressive type of skin cancer.[77][78][79]

Monocyte- and macrophage-related

Monocyte- and macrophage-related cutaneous conditions are characterized histologically by infiltration of the skin by monocyte and/or macrophage cells,[10] often divided into several categories, including granulomatous disease,[80] histiocytoses,[81] and sarcoidosis.[82]

  • Actinic granuloma (O'Brien granuloma)
  • Annular elastolytic giant cell granuloma (Giant cell elastophagocytosis, Meischer's granuloma, Miescher's granuloma of the face)
  • Annular sarcoidosis
    Large, well demarcated plaques with red, active borders, all located on the lower leg of an adult
    Generalized granuloma annulare
  • Benign cephalic histiocytosis (Histiocytosis with intracytoplasmic worm-like bodies)
  • Congenital self-healing reticulohistiocytosis (Hashimoto–Pritzker disease, Hashimoto–Pritzker syndrome)
  • Erythrodermic sarcoidosis
  • Generalized eruptive histiocytoma (Eruptive histiocytoma, Generalized eruptive histiocytosis)
  • Generalized granuloma annulare
  • Giant cell reticulohistiocytoma (Solitary reticulohistiocytoma, Solitary reticulohistiocytosis)
  • Granuloma annulare in HIV disease
  • Granuloma multiforme (Leiker)
  • Hand–Schüller–Christian disease
  • Heerfordt's syndrome
  • Hereditary progressive mucinous histiocytosis
  • Hypopigmented sarcoidosis
  • Ichthyosiform sarcoidosis
  • Indeterminate cell histiocytosis
  • Interstitial granulomatous drug reaction
  • Langerhans cell histiocytosis (Histiocytosis X)
  • Letterer–Siwe disease
  • Localized granuloma annulare
  • Löfgren syndrome
  • Lupus pernio
  • Morpheaform sarcoidosis
  • Mucosal sarcoidosis
  • Multicentric reticulohistiocytosis
  • Necrobiotic xanthogranuloma (Necrobiotic xanthogranuloma with paraproteinemia)
  • Non-X histiocytosis
  • Papular sarcoid
  • Papular xanthoma
  • Patch-type granuloma annulare (Macular granuloma annulare)
  • Perforating granuloma annulare
    Multiple reddish-brownish papules and plaques on the left mandibular region of an adult face
    Systemic sarcoidosis
  • Progressive nodular histiocytosis
  • Reticulohistiocytoma
  • Scar sarcoid (Sarcoidosis in scars)
  • Sea-blue histiocytosis
  • Subcutaneous granuloma annulare (Deep granuloma annulare, Pseudorheumatoid nodule)
  • Subcutaneous sarcoidosis (Darier–Roussy disease, Darier–Roussy sarcoid)
  • Systemic sarcoidosis
  • Ulcerative sarcoidosis
  • Xanthoma disseminatum (Disseminated xanthosiderohistiocytosis, Montgomery syndrome)

Mucinoses

Mucinoses are a group of conditions caused by dermal fibroblasts producing abnormally large amounts of mucopolysaccharides.[33]

Neurocutaneous

Neurocutaneous conditions are due organic nervous system disease or are psychiatric in etiology.[83][84]

Noninfectious immunodeficiency-related

Noninfectious immunodeficiency-related cutaneous conditions are caused by T-cell and/or B-cell dysfunction.[85][86]

Nutrition-related

Nutrition-related cutaneous conditions are caused by malnutrition due to an improper or inadequate diet.[87][88]

Papulosquamous hyperkeratotic

Papulosquamous hyperkeratotic cutaneous conditions are those that present with papules and scales caused by a thickening of the stratum corneum.[9]

  • Confluent and reticulated papillomatosis (Confluent and reticulated papillomatosis of Gougerot and Carteaud, Familial cutaneous papillomatosis, Familial occurrence of confluent and reticulated papillomatosis)
  • Digitate dermatosis
  • Drug-induced keratoderma
  • Exfoliative dermatitis (Dermatitis exfoliativa, Erythroderma, Red man syndrome)
  • Florid cutaneous papillomatosis
  • Granular parakeratosis (Axillary granular parakeratosis, Intertriginous granular parakeratosis)
  • Keratolysis exfoliativa (Lamellar dyshidrosis, Recurrent focal palmar peeling, Recurrent palmar peeling)
  • Keratosis punctata of the palmar creases (Hyperkeratosis penetrans, Hyperkeratosis punctata, Keratodermia punctata, Keratosis punctata, Keratotic pits of the palmar creases, Lenticular atrophia of the palmar creases, Punctate keratosis of the palmar creases)
  • Meesmann corneal dystrophy
  • Paraneoplastic keratoderma
  • Pityriasis rosea (Pityriasis rosea Gibert)
  • Pityriasis rubra pilaris (Devergie's disease, Lichen ruber acuminatus, Lichen ruber pilaris)
  • Pure hair-nail type ectodermal dysplasia
  • Small plaque parapsoriasis (Chronic superficial dermatitis)
  • Tripe palms
  • Xanthoerythrodermia perstans

Palmoplantar keratodermas

Palmoplantar keratodermas are a diverse group of hereditary and acquired keratodermas in which there is hyperkeratosis of the skin of the palms and soles.[89]

  • Acrokeratoelastoidosis of Costa (Keratoelastoidosis marginalis)
  • Aquagenic keratoderma (Acquired aquagenic palmoplantar keratoderma, Aquagenic syringeal acrokeratoderma, Aquagenic wrinkling of the palms, Transient reactive papulotranslucent acrokeratoderma)
  • Bart–Pumphrey syndrome (Palmoplantar keratoderma with knuckle pads and leukonychia and deafness)
  • Camisa disease
  • Carvajal syndrome (Striate palmoplantar keratoderma with woolly hair and cardiomyopathy, Striate palmoplantar keratoderma with woolly hair and left ventricular dilated cardiomyopathy)
  • Corneodermatoosseous syndrome (CDO syndrome)
  • Diffuse epidermolytic palmoplantar keratoderma (Palmoplantar keratoderma cum degeneratione granulosa Vörner, Vörner's epidermolytic palmoplantar keratoderma, Vörner keratoderma)
  • Diffuse nonepidermolytic palmoplantar keratoderma (Diffuse orthohyperkeratotic keratoderma, Hereditary palmoplantar keratoderma, Keratosis extremitatum progrediens, Keratosis palmoplantaris diffusa circumscripta, Tylosis, Unna–Thost disease, Unna–Thost keratoderma)
  • Erythrokeratodermia variabilis (Erythrokeratodermia figurata variabilis, Keratosis extremitatum progrediens, Keratosis palmoplantaris transgrediens et progrediens, Mendes da Costa syndrome, Mendes da Costa type erythrokeratodermia, Progressive symmetric erythrokeratoderma)
  • Focal acral hyperkeratosis (Acrokeratoelastoidosis lichenoides, Degenerative collagenous plaques of the hand)
  • Focal palmoplantar and gingival keratosis
  • Focal palmoplantar keratoderma with oral mucosal hyperkeratosis (Focal epidermolytic palmoplantar keratoderma, Hereditary painful callosities, Hereditary painful callosity syndrome, Keratosis follicularis, Keratosis palmoplantaris nummularis, Nummular epidermolytic palmoplantar keratoderma)
  • Haim–Munk syndrome (Palmoplantar keratoderma with periodontitis and arachnodactyly and acro-osteolysis)
  • Hidrotic ectodermal dysplasia (Alopecia congenita with keratosis palmoplantaris, Clouston syndrome, Clouston's hidrotic ectodermal dysplasia, Fischer–Jacobsen–Clouston syndrome, Keratosis palmaris with drumstick fingers, Palmoplantar keratoderma and clubbing)
  • Howel–Evans syndrome (Familial keratoderma with carcinoma of the esophagus, Focal non-epidermolytic palmoplantar keratoderma with carcinoma of the esophagus, Palmoplantar ectodermal dysplasia type III, Palmoplantar keratoderma associated with esophageal cancer, Tylosis, Tylosis–esophageal carcinoma)
  • Hystrix-like ichthyosis–deafness syndrome (HID syndrome)
  • Keratoderma climactericum (Acquired plantar keratoderma, Climacteric keratoderma, Haxthausen's disease)
  • Keratosis punctata palmaris et plantaris (Buschke–Fischer–Brauer disease, Davis Colley disease, Keratoderma disseminatum palmaris et plantaris, Keratosis papulosa, Keratoderma punctatum, Keratodermia punctata, Keratoma hereditarium dissipatum palmare et plantare, Palmar and plantar seed dermatoses, Palmar keratoses, Papulotranslucent acrokeratoderma, Punctate keratoderma, Punctate keratoses of the palms and soles, Maculosa disseminata)
  • Keratitis–ichthyosis–deafness syndrome (Erythrokeratodermia progressiva Burns, Ichthyosiform erythroderma with corneal involvement and deafness, KID syndrome)
  • Mal de Meleda (Acral keratoderma, Gamborg–Nielsen keratoderma, Mutilating palmoplantar keratoderma of the Gamborg–Nielsen type, Palmoplantar ectodermal dysplasia type VIII, Palmoplantar keratoderma of the Norrbotten type)
  • Naxos syndrome (Diffuse non-epidermolytic palmoplantar keratoderma with woolly hair and cardiomyopathy, Diffuse palmoplantar keratoderma with woolly hair and arrythmogenic right ventricular cardiomyopathy of Naxos, Naxos disease)
  • Olmsted syndrome (Mutilating palmoplantar keratoderma with periorificial keratotic plaques, Mutilating palmoplantar keratoderma with periorificial plaques, Polykeratosis of Touraine)
  • Pachyonychia congenita type I (Jadassohn–Lewandowsky syndrome)
  • Pachyonychia congenita type II (Jackson–Lawler pachyonychia congenita, Jackson–Sertoli syndrome)
  • Palmoplantar keratoderma and spastic paraplegia (Charcot–Marie–Tooth disease with palmoplantar keratoderma and nail dystrophy)
  • Palmoplantar keratoderma of Sybert (Greither palmoplantar keratoderma, Greither syndrome, Keratosis extremitatum hereditaria progrediens, Keratosis palmoplantaris transgrediens et progrediens, Sybert keratoderma, Transgrediens and progrediens palmoplantar keratoderma)
  • Papillon–Lefèvre syndrome (Palmoplantar keratoderma with periodontitis)
  • Porokeratosis plantaris discreta
  • Punctate palmoplantar keratoderma
  • Schöpf–Schulz–Passarge syndrome (Eyelid cysts with palmoplantar keratoderma and hypodontia and hypotrichosis)
  • Scleroatrophic syndrome of Huriez (Huriez syndrome, Palmoplantar keratoderma with scleroatrophy, Palmoplantar keratoderma with sclerodactyly, Scleroatrophic and keratotic dermatosis of the limbs, Sclerotylosis)
  • Striate palmoplantar keratoderma (Acral keratoderma, Brünauer–Fuhs–Siemens type of palmoplantar keratoderma, Focal non-epidermolytic palmoplantar keratoderma, Keratosis palmoplantaris varians, Palmoplantar keratoderma areata, Palmoplantar keratoderma striata, Wachter keratoderma, Wachters palmoplantar keratoderma)
  • Spiny keratoderma (Porokeratosis punctata palmaris et plantaris, Punctate keratoderma, Punctate porokeratosis of the palms and soles)
  • Tyrosinemia type II (Oculocutaneous tyrosinemia, Richner–Hanhart syndrome)
  • Vohwinkel syndrome (Keratoderma hereditaria mutilans, Keratoma hereditaria mutilans, Mutilating keratoderma of Vohwinkel, Mutilating palmoplantar keratoderma)

Pregnancy-related

Pregnancy-related cutaneous conditions are a group of skin changes observed during pregnancy.[90][91]

  • Impetigo herpetiformis
  • Intrahepatic cholestasis of pregnancy (Cholestasis of pregnancy, Jaundice of pregnancy, Obstetric cholestasis, Prurigo gravidarum)
  • Linea nigra
  • Pemphigoid gestationis (Gestational pemphigoid, Herpes gestationis)
  • Prurigo gestationis (Besnier prurigo, Early-onset prurigo of pregnancy, Linear IgM dermatosis of pregnancy, Papular dermatitis of pregnancy, Prurigo of pregnancy, Spangler's papular dermatitis of pregnancy)
  • Pruritic folliculitis of pregnancy
  • Pruritic urticarial papules and plaques of pregnancy (Late-onset prurigo of pregnancy, Polymorphic eruption of pregnancy, PUPPP syndrome, Toxemic rash of pregnancy, Toxic erythema of pregnancy)
  • Striae gravidarum

Pruritic

Pruritus, commonly known as itchiness, is a sensation exclusive to the skin, and characteristic of many skin conditions.[92][93]

Psoriasis

Psoriasis is a common, chronic, and recurrent inflammatory disease of the skin characterized by circumscribed, erythematous, dry, scaling plaques.[94][95][96]

Large, red, scaly plaque
Psoriasis vulgaris
  • Annular pustular psoriasis
  • Drug-induced psoriasis
  • Exanthematic pustular psoriasis
  • Generalized pustular psoriasis (Pustular psoriasis of von Zumbusch)
  • Guttate psoriasis (Eruptive psoriasis)
  • Inverse psoriasis
  • Keratoderma blennorrhagica (Keratoderma blennorrhagicum)
  • Localized pustular psoriasis
  • Napkin psoriasis
  • Psoriasis vulgaris (Chronic stationary psoriasis, Plaque-like psoriasis)
  • Psoriatic arthritis
  • Psoriatic erythroderma (Erythrodermic psoriasis)
  • Seborrheic-like psoriasis (Sebopsoriasis, Seborrhiasis)

Reactive neutrophilic

Reactive neutrophilic cutaneous conditions constitute a spectrum of disease mediated by neutrophils, and typically associated with underlying diseases, such as inflammatory bowel disease and hematologic malignancy.[97][98]

  • Acute erythema nodosum
  • Bowel-associated dermatosis–arthritis syndrome (Bowel bypass syndrome, Bowel bypass syndrome without bowel bypass, Intestinal bypass arthritis–dermatitis syndrome)
  • Marshall syndrome
  • Neutrophilic dermatosis of the dorsal hands (Pustular vasculitis of the dorsal hands)
  • Neutrophilic eccrine hidradenitis
  • Pyoderma gangrenosum
  • Pyogenic arthritis–pyoderma gangrenosum–acne syndrome (PAPA syndrome)
  • Rheumatoid neutrophilic dermatitis (Rheumatoid neutrophilic dermatosis)
  • Superficial granulomatous pyoderma
  • Sweet's syndrome (Acute febrile neutrophilic dermatosis)
  • Sweet's syndrome-like dermatosis
  • Vesicopustular dermatosis

Recalcitrant palmoplantar eruptions

Recalcitrant palmoplantar eruptions are skin conditions of the palms and soles which are resistant to treatment.[33]

  • Dermatitis repens (Acrodermatitis continua, Acrodermatitis continua of Hallopeau, Acrodermatitis continua suppurativa Hallopeau, Acrodermatitis perstans, Dermatitis repens Crocker, Hallopeau's acrodermatitis, Hallopeau's acrodermatitis continua, Pustular acrodermatitis)
  • Infantile acropustulosis (Acropustulosis of infancy)
  • Palmoplantar pustulosis (Persistent palmoplantar pustulosis, Pustular psoriasis of the Barber type, Pustular psoriasis of the extremities, Pustulosis of palms and soles, Pustulosis palmaris et plantaris)
  • Pustular bacterid

Resulting from errors in metabolism

Skin conditions resulting from errors in metabolism are caused by enzymatic defects that lead to an accumulation or deficiency of various cellular components, including, but not limited to, amino acids, carbohydrates, and lipids.[16]

Resulting from physical factors

Skin conditions resulting from physical factors occur from a number of causes, including, but not limited to, hot and cold temperatures, friction, and moisture.[33][99][100]

  • Abrasion
  • Acrocyanosis
  • Actinic prurigo (Familial polymorphous light eruption of American Indians, Hereditary polymorphous light eruption of American Indians, Hutchinson's summer prurigo, Hydroa aestivale)
  • Benign summer light eruption
  • Beryllium granuloma
  • Black heel and palm (Black heel, Calcaneal petechiae, Chromidrose plantaire, Post-traumatic punctate intraepidermal hemorrhage, Tache noir, Talon noir)
  • Callus (Callosity, Clavus, Corn, Heloma, Heloma durum, Heloma molle, Intractable plantar keratosis, Tyloma)
  • Carbon stain
  • Chilblains (Pernio, Perniosis)
  • Chronic actinic dermatitis (Actinic reticuloid, Chronic photosensitivity dermatitis, Persistent light reactivity, Photosensitive eczema)
  • Colloid milium
  • Coma blister
  • Coral cut
  • Delayed blister
  • Dermatosis neglecta
  • Edema blister (Edema bulla, Hydrostatic bulla, Stasis blister)
  • Electrical burn
  • Equestrian perniosis
  • Erythema ab igne (Fire stains, Toasted skin syndrome)
  • Erythrocyanosis crurum
  • Favre–Racouchot syndrome (Favre–Racouchot disease, Nodular cutaneous elastosis with cysts and comedones)
  • Foreign body reaction
  • Fracture blister
  • Friction blister
  • Frostbite
  • Garrod's pad (Violinist's viola pad)
  • Harpist's finger
  • Heel stick wound
  • Heat edema
  • Hot tar burn
  • Hunan hand syndrome (Chili burn)
  • Hydroa vacciniforme (Bazin's hydroa vacciniforme)
  • Jogger's nipple
  • Juvenile spring eruption
  • Kairo cancer
  • Kang cancer
  • Kangri ulcer
  • Lightning burn
  • Loop mark
  • Magnetic resonance imaging burn (MRI burn)
  • Mercury granuloma
  • Miliaria crystallina (Miliaria crystalline, Sudamina)
  • Miliaria profunda (Mammillaria)
  • Miliaria pustulosa
  • Miliaria rubra (Heat rash, Prickly heat)
  • Narcotic dermopathy
  • Occlusion miliaria
  • Painful fat herniation (Painful piezogenic pedal papules, Piezogenic papules)
  • Peat fire cancer
  • Photoaging (Dermatoheliosis)
  • Photosensitivity with HIV infection
  • Phototoxic tar dermatitis
  • Phytophotodermatitis (Berloque dermatitis)
  • Pinch mark
  • Polymorphous light eruption (Polymorphic light eruption)
  • Postmiliarial hypohidrosis
    A large ulceration of the lower back with complete loss of the overlying skin
    Pressure ulcer
  • Postoperative hematoma
  • Pressure ulcer (Decubitus ulcer)
  • Pseudoacanthosis nigricans
  • Pseudoverrucous papules and nodules
  • Pulling boat hands
  • PUVA-induced acrobullous dermatosis
  • Runner's rump
  • Sclerosing lymphangiitis
  • Silica granuloma
  • Silicone granuloma
  • Skin pop scar
  • Skin track
  • Slap mark
  • Solar erythema
  • Soot tattoo
  • Subcutaneous emphysema
  • Sucking blister
  • Sunburn
  • Surfer's knots
  • Tattoo
  • Tennis toe
  • Thermal burn
  • Traumatic asphyxia
  • Trench foot
  • Tropical anhidrotic asthenia
  • Tropical immersion foot (Paddy foot, Paddy-field foot)
  • Turf toe
  • Uranium dermatosis
  • UV-sensitive syndrome
  • Vibration white finger (Dead finger, Hand–arm vibration syndrome)
  • Warm water immersion foot
  • Weathering nodule of ear
  • Wrestler's ear (Cauliflower ear, Traumatic auricular hematoma)
  • Zirconium granuloma

Ionizing radiation-induced

Ionizing radiation-induced cutaneous conditions result from exposure to ionizing radiation.[101]

  • Acute radiodermatitis
  • Chronic radiation keratosis
  • Chronic radiodermatitis
  • Eosinophilic, polymorphic, and pruritic eruption associated with radiotherapy
  • Fluoroscopy burn
  • Radiation acne
  • Radiation cancer
  • Radiation dermatitis (Radiodermatitis)
  • Radiation recall reaction
  • Radiation-induced erythema multiforme
  • Radiation-induced hypertrophic scar
  • Radiation-induced keloid
  • Radiation-induced morphea

Urticaria and angioedema

Urticaria is a vascular reaction of the skin characterized by the appearance of wheals, which are firm, elevated swelling of the skin.[102] Angioedema, which can occur alone or with urticaria, is characterized by a well-defined, edematous swelling that involves subcutaneous tissues, abdominal organs, and/or upper airway.[103]

Raised, edematous, red skin lesions on the abdomen
Acute urticaria
  • Acquired C1 esterase inhibitor deficiency
  • Acute urticaria
  • Adrenergic urticaria
  • Anaphylaxis
  • Aquagenic urticaria
  • Cholinergic urticaria
  • Chronic urticaria (Ordinary urticaria)
  • Cold urticaria
  • Dermatographism (Dermographism)
  • Episodic angioedema with eosinophilia (Gleich syndrome)
  • Exercise urticaria (Exercise-induced urticaria)
  • Galvanic urticaria
  • Heat urticaria
  • Hereditary angioedema (Quincke edema)
  • Localized heat contact urticaria
  • Mast cell-independent urticaria
  • Physical urticaria
  • Primary cold contact urticaria
  • Pressure urticaria (Delayed pressure urticaria)
  • Reflex cold urticaria
  • Schnitzler syndrome
  • Secondary cold contact urticaria
  • Solar urticaria
  • Systemic capillary leak syndrome
  • Urticarial allergic eruption
  • Urticaria-like follicular mucinosis
  • Vibratory angioedema

Vascular-related

Vascular-related cutaneous conditions result from dysfunction of the blood and/or blood vessels in the dermis, or lymphatics in the subcutaneous tissues.[9][104][105]

  • Aagenaes syndrome
  • Acroangiodermatitis (Acroangiodermatitis of Mali, Mali acroangiodermatitis, Pseudo-Kaposi's sarcoma)
  • Acute hemorrhagic edema of infancy (Acute hemorrhagic edema of childhood, Finkelstein's disease, Infantile postinfectious iris-like purpura and edema, Medallion-like purpura, Purpura en cocarde avec oedema, Seidlmayer syndrome)
  • Arterial insufficiency ulcer (Ischemic ulcer)
  • Arteriosclerosis obliterans
  • Bier spots
  • Blueberry muffin baby
  • Bonnet–Dechaume–Blanc syndrome (Wyburn–Mason syndrome)
  • Bullous lymphedema
  • Bullous small vessel vasculitis (Bullous variant of small vessel vasculitis)
  • Calciphylaxis
  • Cholesterol embolus (Warfarin blue toe syndrome)
  • Cobb syndrome
  • Cryofibrinogenemic purpura
  • Cryoglobulinemic purpura
  • Cryoglobulinemic vasculitis
  • Cutaneous small-vessel vasculitis (Cutaneous leukocytoclastic angiitis, Cutaneous leukocytoclastic vasculitis, Cutaneous necrotizing venulitis, Hypersensitivity angiitis)
  • Deep venous thrombosis
  • Disseminated intravascular coagulation
  • Doucas and Kapetanakis pigmented purpura
  • Drug-induced purpura
  • Drug-induced thrombocytopenic purpura
  • Eczematid-like purpura of Doucas and Kapetanakis
  • Epidemic dropsy
  • Erythema elevatum diutinum
  • Erythromelalgia (Acromelalgia, Erythermalgia)
  • Factitial lymphedema (Hysterical edema)
  • Fibrinolysis syndrome (Defibrinating syndrome, Hypofibrinogenemia)
  • Food-induced purpura
  • Generalized essential telangiectasia (General essential telangiectasia)
  • Giant-cell arteritis
  • Gougerot–Blum syndrome (Pigmented purpuric lichenoid dermatitis, Pigmented purpuric lichenoid dermatitis of Gougerot and Blum)
  • Hematopoietic ulcer
  • Hennekam syndrome (Hennekam lymphangiectasia-lymphedema syndrome, Intestinal lymphagiectasia-lymphedema-mental retardation syndrome)
  • Henoch–Schönlein purpura (Anaphylactoid purpura, Purpura rheumatica, Schönlein–Henoch purpura)
    Red, non-blanching skin lesions on the upper leg
    Henoch–Schönlein purpura
  • Hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia (Osler's disease, Osler–Weber–Rendu disease)
  • Idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura (Autoimmune thrombocytopenic purpura, Werlhof's disease)
  • IgA vasculitis
  • Kawasaki's disease (Mucocutaneous lymph node syndrome)
  • Lichen aureus (Lichen purpuricus)
  • Livedo racemosa
  • Livedo reticularis
  • Livedoid dermatitis (Embolia cutis medicamentosa, Nicolau syndrome)
  • Livedoid vasculopathy (Atrophie blanche, Livedo reticularis with summer ulceration, Livedoid vasculitis, PURPLE syndrome, Segmental hyalinizing vasculitis)
  • Lymphedema praecox
  • Lymphedema–distichiasis syndrome
  • Maffucci syndrome
  • Majocchi's disease (Purpura annularis telangiectodes, Purpura annularis telangiectodes of Majocchi)
  • Malignant atrophic papulosis (Degos' disease)
  • Marshall–White syndrome
  • Meige lymphedema
  • Microscopic polyangiitis (Microscopic polyarteritis, Microscopic polyarteritis nodosa)
  • Mondor's disease (Mondor's syndrome of superficial thrombophlebitis)
  • Neuropathic ulcer (Mal perforans)
  • Njolstad syndrome
  • Nonne–Milroy–Meige syndrome (Hereditary lymphedema, Milroy disease)
  • Obstructive purpura
  • Orthostatic purpura (Stasis purpura)
  • Painful bruising syndrome (Autoerythrocyte sensitization, Gardner–Diamond syndrome, Psychogenic purpura)
  • Parkes Weber syndrome
  • Paroxysmal hand hematoma (Achenbach syndrome)
  • Paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria
  • Polyarteritis nodosa (Panarteritis nodosa, Periarteritis nodosa)
  • Postcardiotomy syndrome
  • Perinatal gangrene of the buttock
  • Pigmentary purpuric eruptions (Progressive pigmentary dermatosis, Progressive pigmenting purpura, Purpura pigmentosa chronica)
  • Postinflammatory lymphedema
  • Postmastectomy lymphangiosarcoma (Stewart–Treves syndrome)
  • Purpura fulminans (Purpura gangrenosa)
  • Purpura secondary to clotting disorders
  • Purpuric agave dermatitis
    White and red discoloration of the distal fingertips
    Raynaud phenomenon
  • Raynaud phenomenon
  • Raynaud's disease (Primary Raynaud's phenomenon)
  • Reactive angioendotheliomatosis
  • Schamberg's disease (Progressive pigmentary dermatosis of Schamberg, Purpura pigmentosa progressiva, Schamberg's purpura)
  • Secondary lymphedema
  • Septic thrombophlebitis
  • Sinusoidal hemangioma
  • Sneddon's syndrome (Idiopathic livedo reticularis with cerebrovascular accidents)
  • Solar purpura (Actinic purpura, Senile purpura)
  • Stasis dermatitis (Congestion eczema, Gravitational dermatitis, Gravitational eczema, Stasis eczema, Varicose eczema)
  • Superficial thrombophlebitis
  • Takayasu arteritis (Aortic arch syndrome, Pulseless disease)
  • Temporal arteritis (Cranial arteritis, Horton's disease)
  • Thromboangiitis obliterans (Buerger's disease)
  • Thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura (Moschcowitz syndrome)
  • Traumatic purpura
  • Trousseau's syndrome
  • Unilateral nevoid telangiectasia (Nevoid telangiectasia)
  • Urticarial vasculitis (Chronic urticaria as a manifestation of venulitis, Hypocomplementemic urticarial vasculitis syndrome, Hypocomplementemic vasculitis, Unusual lupus-like syndrome)
  • Venous insufficiency ulceration
  • Waldenström hyperglobulinemic purpura (Purpura hyperglobulinemica)
  • Waldenström macroglobulinemia
  • Wegener granulomatosis
  • Yellow nail syndrome (Primary lymphedema associated with yellow nails and pleural effusion)

Footnotes

  1. ^ Any given cutaneous condition is only included once within this list.
  2. ^ Parentheticals are used to indicate other names by which a condition is known. If there are multiple alternative names for a condition, they are separated by commas within the parenthetical.
  3. ^ Citations for any given condition name and/or alternative name(s) may be found within the condition's respective article.
  4. ^ This list uses American English; therefore, the symbols æ and œ, which are common to British English, are not used, but, rather, simplified to a single e. For example, the spelling of nevus is favored over nævus, edema over œdema, and so forth. For more information, see American and British English differences.
  5. ^ Non-English names are included within this list when those terms are found in English medical literature. Inclusion of acne excoriée des jeunes filles (French), frambösie (German), and parangi (Malay) represent examples of this convention.
  6. ^ Abbreviations for condition names commonly described in medical literature with an acronym or initialism are included within this list.
  7. ^ Within this list, the term immunoglobulin is abbreviated to Ig when used as a prefix to a specific antibody isotype (i.e. IgA, IgD, IgE, IgG, and IgM).
  8. ^ Within this list, the terms human immunodeficiency virus and acquired immunodeficiency syndrome are abbreviated to HIV and AIDS, respectively.

References

  1. ^ a b c d e Miller, Jeffrey H.; Marks, James G. (2006). Lookingbill and Marks' Principles of Dermatology. Saunders. ISBN 1-4160-3185-5. 
  2. ^ Lippens S, Hoste E, Vandenabeele P, Agostinis P, Declercq W (April 2009). "Cell death in the skin". Apoptosis 14 (4): 549–69. doi:10.1007/s10495-009-0324-z. PMID 19221876. 
  3. ^ a b c d Burns, Tony; et al. (2006) Rook's Textbook of Dermatology CD-ROM. Wiley-Blackwell. ISBN 1-4051-3130-6.
  4. ^ Paus R, Cotsarelis G (1999). "The biology of hair follicles". N Engl J Med 341 (7): 491–7. doi:10.1056/NEJM199908123410706. PMID 10441606. 
  5. ^ Goldsmith, Lowell A. (1983). Biochemistry and physiology of the skin. Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-261253-0. 
  6. ^ Fuchs E (February 2007). "Scratching the surface of skin development". Nature 445 (7130): 834–42. doi:10.1038/nature05659. PMC 2405926. PMID 17314969. http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2405926. 
  7. ^ Fuchs E, Horsley V (April 2008). "More than one way to skin . .". Genes Dev. 22 (8): 976–85. doi:10.1101/gad.1645908. PMC 2732395. PMID 18413712. http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2732395. 
  8. ^ a b c d e Freedberg, Irwin M.; et al. (2003). Fitzpatrick's Dermatology in General Medicine. McGraw-Hill. ISBN 0-07-138076-0. 
  9. ^ a b c d Bolognia, Jean L.; et al. (2007). Dermatology. St. Louis: Mosby. ISBN 1-4160-2999-0. 
  10. ^ a b c d Rapini, Ronald P. (2005). Practical dermatopathology. Elsevier Mosby. ISBN 0-323-01198-5. 
  11. ^ Grant-Kels JM (2007). Color Atlas of Dermatopathology (Dermatology: Clinical & Basic Science). Informa Healthcare. pp. 163. ISBN 0-8493-3794-1. 
  12. ^ Ryan, T (1991). "Cutaneous Circulation". In Goldsmith, Lowell A. Physiology, biochemistry, and molecular biology of the skin (2nd ed.). New York: Oxford University Press. p. 1019. ISBN 0-19-505612-4. 
  13. ^ Swerlick RA, Lawley TJ (January 1993). "Role of microvascular endothelial cells in inflammation". J. Invest. Dermatol. 100 (1): 111S–115S. doi:10.1038/jid.1993.33. PMID 8423379. 
  14. ^ a b c d Lynch, Peter J. (1994). Dermatology. Williams & Wilkins. ISBN 0-683-05252-7. 
  15. ^ King, L.S. (1954). "What Is Disease?". Philosophy of Science 21: 193–203. 
  16. ^ a b Bluefarb, Samuel M. (1984). Dermatology. Upjohn Co. ISBN 0-89501-004-6. 
  17. ^ Tilles G, Wallach D (1989). "[The history of nosology in dermatology]" (in French). Ann Dermatol Venereol 116 (1): 9–26. PMID 2653160. 
  18. ^ Lambert WC, Everett MA (October 1981). "The nosology of parapsoriasis". J. Am. Acad. Dermatol. 5 (4): 373–95. doi:10.1016/S0190-9622(81)70100-2. PMID 7026622. 
  19. ^ Jackson R (1977). "Historical outline of attempts to classify skin diseases". Can Med Assoc J 116 (10): 1165–8. PMC 1879511. PMID 324589. http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=1879511. 
  20. ^ Copeman PW (February 1995). "The creation of global dermatology". J R Soc Med 88 (2): 78–84. PMC 1295100. PMID 7769599. http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=1295100. 
  21. ^ Fitzpatrick, Thomas B.; Klauss Wolff; Wolff, Klaus Dieter; Johnson, Richard R.; Suurmond, Dick; Richard Suurmond (2005). Fitzpatrick's color atlas and synopsis of clinical dermatology. McGraw-Hill Medical Pub. Division. ISBN 0-07-144019-4. 
  22. ^ Werner B (August 2009). "[Skin biopsy and its histopathologic analysis: Why? What for? How? Part I]" (in Portuguese). An Bras Dermatol 84 (4): 391–5. PMID 19851671. 
  23. ^ Werner B (October 2009). "[Skin biopsy with histopathologic analysis: why? what for? how? part II]" (in Portuguese). An Bras Dermatol 84 (5): 507–13. PMID 20098854. 
  24. ^ Xiaowei Xu; Elder, David A.; Rosalie Elenitsas; Johnson, Bernett L.; Murphy, George E. (2008). Lever's Histopathology of the Skin. Hagerstwon, MD: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins. ISBN 0-7817-7363-6. 
  25. ^ Weedon's Skin Pathology, 2-Volume Set: Expert Consult - Online and Print. Edinburgh: Churchill Livingstone. 2009. ISBN 0-7020-3941-1. 
  26. ^ Rustin MH (1990). "Dermatology". Postgrad Med J 66 (781): 894–905. doi:10.1136/pgmj.66.781.894. PMC 2429766. PMID 2148371. http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2429766. 
  27. ^ Feldman S, Careccia RE, Barham KL, Hancox J (2004). "Diagnosis and treatment of acne". Am Fam Physician 69 (9): 2123–30. PMID 15152959. 
  28. ^ Fietta P (2004). "Autoinflammatory diseases: the hereditary periodic fever syndromes". Acta Biomed 75 (2): 92–9. PMID 15481697. 
  29. ^ Centola M, Aksentijevich I, Kastner DL (1998). "The hereditary periodic fever syndromes: molecular analysis of a new family of inflammatory diseases". Hum Mol Genet 7 (10): 1581–8. doi:10.1093/hmg/7.10.1581. PMID 9735379. http://hmg.oxfordjournals.org/cgi/content/full/7/10/1581. 
  30. ^ Chan, Lawrence S. (30 March 2009). Blistering Skin Diseases (1 ed.). Manson Publishing Ltd. ISBN 978-1-84076-066-8. http://books.google.co.uk/books?id=X0QzPwAACAAJ. 
  31. ^ Yeh SW, Ahmed B, Sami N, Razzaque Ahmed A (2003). "Blistering disorders: diagnosis and treatment". Dermatol Ther 16 (3): 214–23. doi:10.1046/j.1529-8019.2003.01631.x. PMID 14510878. 
  32. ^ Eming R, Hertl M (2006). "Autoimmune bullous disorders". Clin Chem Lab Med 44 (2): 144–9. doi:10.1515/CCLM.2006.027. PMID 16475898. 
  33. ^ a b c d James, William D.; et al. (2006). Andrews' Diseases of the Skin: Clinical Dermatology. Saunders Elsevier. ISBN 0-7216-2921-0. 
  34. ^ a b c d e Christine J. Ko; Schwarzenberger, Kathryn; Werchniak, Andrew E. (2009). General dermatology. Philadelphia: Saunders. ISBN 0-7020-3093-7. 
  35. ^ Aronson IK, Tharp MD (2010). "Diagnosis and Treatment of Panniculitis". Dermatologic Therapy 23 (4): 317–434. ISSN 1529-8019. 
  36. ^ Requena L, Yus ES (2001). "Panniculitis. Part I. Mostly septal panniculitis". J Am Acad Dermatol 45 (2): 163–83; quiz 184–6. doi:10.1067/mjd.2001.114736. PMID 11464178. 
  37. ^ Requena L, Sánchez Yus E (2001). "Panniculitis. Part II. Mostly lobular panniculitis". J Am Acad Dermatol 45 (3): 325–61; quiz 362–4. doi:10.1067/mjd.2001.114735. PMID 11511831. 
  38. ^ Phelps RG, Shoji T (2001). "Update on panniculitis". Mt Sinai J Med 68 (4–5): 262–7. PMID 11514913. http://www.mssm.edu/msjournal/68/6845262.shtml. 
  39. ^ Küster W, Traupe H (September 1988). "[Clinical aspects and genetics of congenital skin defects]" (in German). Hautarzt 39 (9): 553–63. PMID 3053531. 
  40. ^ Andrea L. Zaenglein; MD, Howard Gimbel; Albert C. Yan (2008). Pediatric Dermatology: Requisites in Dermatology. Saunders Ltd. ISBN 0-7020-3022-8. 
  41. ^ Crofford, Leslie J.; Klippel, John H.; Weyand, Cornelia M.; Stone, John F. (2001). Primer on the rheumatic diseases. Atlanta, GA: Arthritis Foundation. ISBN 0-912423-29-3. 
  42. ^ Ushiki T (2002). "Collagen fibers, reticular fibers and elastic fibers. A comprehensive understanding from a morphological viewpoint" (PDF). Arch Histol Cytol 65 (2): 109–26. doi:10.1679/aohc.65.109. PMID 12164335. http://www.jstage.jst.go.jp/article/aohc/65/2/109/_pdf. 
  43. ^ Alsaad KO, Ghazarian D (2005). "My approach to superficial inflammatory dermatoses". J Clin Pathol 58 (12): 1233–41. doi:10.1136/jcp.2005.027151. PMC 1770784. PMID 16311340. http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=1770784. 
  44. ^ Wüthrich B, Cozzio A, Roll A, Senti G, Kündig T, Schmid-Grendelmeier P (2007). "Atopic eczema: genetics or environment?". Ann Agric Environ Med 14 (2): 195–201. PMID 18247450. 
  45. ^ Roosterman D, Goerge T, Schneider SW, Bunnett NW, Steinhoff M (2006). "Neuronal control of skin function: the skin as a neuroimmunoendocrine organ". Physiol Rev 86 (4): 1309–79. doi:10.1152/physrev.00026.2005. PMID 17015491. 
  46. ^ Spergel JM (August 2010). "From atopic dermatitis to asthma: the atopic march". Ann. Allergy Asthma Immunol. 105 (2): 99–106; quiz 107–9, 117. doi:10.1016/j.anai.2009.10.002. PMID 20674819. http://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S1081-1206(09)00049-0. 
  47. ^ Saint-Mezard P, Rosieres A, Krasteva M, et al. (2004). "Allergic contact dermatitis". Eur J Dermatol 14 (5): 284–95. PMID 15358566. http://www.john-libbey-eurotext.fr/en/revues/medecine/ejd/e-docs/00/04/05/5F/article.phtml. 
  48. ^ Krasteva M, Kehren J, Sayag M, et al. (1999). "Contact dermatitis II. Clinical aspects and diagnosis". Eur J Dermatol 9 (2): 144–59. PMID 10066966. http://www.john-libbey-eurotext.fr/en/revues/medecine/ejd/e-docs/00/01/88/1A/article.phtml. 
  49. ^ Sharma VK, Asati DP (2010). "Pediatric contact dermatitis". Indian J Dermatol Venereol Leprol 76 (5): 514–20. doi:10.4103/0378-6323.69070. PMID 20826990. 
  50. ^ Buxton PK (1987). "ABC of dermatology. Eczema and dermatitis". Br Med J (Clin Res Ed) 295 (6605): 1048–51. doi:10.1136/bmj.295.6605.1048. PMC 1248082. PMID 3120868. http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=1248082. 
  51. ^ a b c d David J. DiCaudo; Dirk Elston MD; Dirk M. Elston; Tammie Ferringer; Christine J. Ko; Christine Ko MD; Steven Peckham; Whitney A. High (2009). Dermatopathology. Philadelphia: Saunders. ISBN 0-7020-3023-6. 
  52. ^ Mengesha YM, Bennett ML (2002). "Pustular skin disorders: diagnosis and treatment". Am J Clin Dermatol 3 (6): 389–400. doi:10.2165/00128071-200203060-00003. PMID 12113648. 
  53. ^ Schwartz RA, Janusz CA, Janniger CK (2006). "Seborrheic dermatitis: an overview". Am Fam Physician 74 (1): 125–30. PMID 16848386. 
  54. ^ Costin GE, Hearing VJ (2007). "Human skin pigmentation: melanocytes modulate skin color in response to stress". FASEB J 21 (4): 976–94. doi:10.1096/fj.06-6649rev. PMID 17242160. 
  55. ^ Yamaguchi Y, Brenner M, Hearing VJ (2007). "The regulation of skin pigmentation". J Biol Chem 282 (38): 27557–61. doi:10.1074/jbc.R700026200. PMID 17635904. 
  56. ^ Davis EC, Callender VD (July 2010). "Postinflammatory hyperpigmentation: a review of the epidemiology, clinical features, and treatment options in skin of color". J Clin Aesthet Dermatol 3 (7): 20–31. PMC 2921758. PMID 20725554. http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2921758. 
  57. ^ Goolamali SK (1985). "Drug eruptions". Postgrad Med J 61 (720): 925–33. doi:10.1136/pgmj.61.720.925. PMC 2418295. PMID 2932688. http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2418295. 
  58. ^ Svensson CK, Cowen EW, Gaspari AA (2001). "Cutaneous drug reactions". Pharmacol Rev 53 (3): 357–79. PMID 11546834. http://pharmrev.aspetjournals.org/cgi/content/full/53/3/357. 
  59. ^ Ramdial PK, Naidoo DK (June 2009). "Drug-induced cutaneous pathology". J. Clin. Pathol. 62 (6): 493–504. doi:10.1136/jcp.2008.058289. PMID 19155238. 
  60. ^ Reichrath J (July 2009). "The skin is a fascinating endocrine organ". Dermatoendocrinol 1 (4): 195–6. PMC 2835874. PMID 20592790. http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2835874. 
  61. ^ Slominski A, Wortsman J (2000). "Neuroendocrinology of the skin". Endocr Rev 21 (5): 457–87. doi:10.1210/er.21.5.457. PMID 11041445. http://edrv.endojournals.org/cgi/content/full/21/5/457. 
  62. ^ Heymann WR (July 2006). "Eosinophilic dermatoses". J. Am. Acad. Dermatol. 55 (1): 114–5. doi:10.1016/j.jaad.2006.02.058. PMID 16781301. 
  63. ^ Machado-Pinto J, McCalmont TH, Golitz LE (December 1996). "Eosinophilic and neutrophilic spongiosis: clues to the diagnosis of immunobullous diseases and other inflammatory disorders". Semin Cutan Med Surg 15 (4): 308–16. doi:10.1016/S1085-5629(96)80044-7. PMID 9069598. 
  64. ^ Joel L. Spitz (2005). Genodermatoses: a clinical guide to genetic skin disorders. Lippincott Williams & Wilkins. ISBN 0-7817-4088-6. 
  65. ^ McLean WH; Epithelial Genetics, Group (2003). "Genetic disorders of palm skin and nail". J Anat 202 (1): 133–41. doi:10.1046/j.1469-7580.2003.00141.x. PMC 1571049. PMID 12587928. http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=1571049. 
  66. ^ a b c d e f Habif, Thomas P. (2001). Skin disease: diagnosis and treatment. Mosby. ISBN 0-8151-3762-1. 
  67. ^ Stulberg DL, Penrod MA, Blatny RA (2002). "Common bacterial skin infections". Am Fam Physician 66 (1): 119–24. PMID 12126026. http://www.aafp.org/afp/20020701/119.html. 
  68. ^ Frankel A, Penrose C, Emer J (October 2009). "Cutaneous tuberculosis: a practical case report and review for the dermatologist". J Clin Aesthet Dermatol 2 (10): 19–27. PMC 2923933. PMID 20725570. http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2923933. 
  69. ^ Diaz JH (2010). "Mite-transmitted dermatoses and infectious diseases in returning travelers". J Travel Med 17 (1): 21–31. doi:10.1111/j.1708-8305.2009.00352.x. PMID 20074098. 
  70. ^ Lebwohl MG, Rosen T, Stockfleth E (November 2010). "The role of human papillomavirus in common skin conditions: current viewpoints and therapeutic options". Cutis 86 (5): suppl 1–11; quiz suppl 12. PMID 21214125. 
  71. ^ Ismail SB, Kumar SK, Zain RB (2007). "Oral lichen planus and lichenoid reactions: etiopathogenesis, diagnosis, management and malignant transformation" (PDF). J Oral Sci 49 (2): 89–106. doi:10.2334/josnusd.49.89. PMID 17634721. http://www.jstage.jst.go.jp/article/josnusd/49/2/89/_pdf. 
  72. ^ Katta R (2000). "Lichen planus". Am Fam Physician 61 (11): 3319–24, 3327–8. PMID 10865927. 
  73. ^ Kanwar AJ, De D (2010). "Lichen planus in children". Indian J Dermatol Venereol Leprol 76 (4): 366–72. doi:10.4103/0378-6323.66581. PMID 20657116. http://www.ijdvl.com/article.asp?issn=0378-6323;year=2010;volume=76;issue=4;spage=366;epage=372;aulast=Kanwar. 
  74. ^ Connors JM, Hsi ED, Foss FM (2002). "Lymphoma of the skin". Hematology Am Soc Hematol Educ Program 2002 (1): 263–82. doi:10.1182/asheducation-2002.1.263. PMID 12446427. http://asheducationbook.hematologylibrary.org/cgi/content/full/2002/1/263. 
  75. ^ Alan N. Houghton; Balch, Charles M. (1992). Cutaneous melanoma. J.B. Lippincott. ISBN 0-397-51052-7. 
  76. ^ Venkatesan A (October 2010). "Pigmented lesions of the vulva". Dermatol Clin 28 (4): 795–805. doi:10.1016/j.det.2010.08.007. PMID 20883921. 
  77. ^ Petrescu I, Condrea C, Alexandru A, et al. (2010). "Diagnosis and treatment protocols of cutaneous melanoma: latest approach 2010". Chirurgia (Bucur) 105 (5): 637–43. PMID 21141087. 
  78. ^ Wojas-Pelc A, Rajzer L, Jaworek A, Woźniak W (2006). "[The latest diagnostical methods and therapy in melanoma]" (in Polish). Prz. Lek. 63 (8): 674–80. PMID 17441381. 
  79. ^ Krone B, Grange JM (December 2010). "Melanoma, Darwinian medicine and the inner world". J. Cancer Res. Clin. Oncol. 136 (12): 1787–94. doi:10.1007/s00432-010-0949-x. PMC 2962785. PMID 20852885. http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2962785. 
  80. ^ Hawryluk EB, Izikson L, English JC (2010). "Non-Infectious Granulomatous Diseases of the Skin and their Associated Systemic Diseases: An Evidence-Based Update to Important Clinical Questions". Am J Clin Dermatol 11 (3): 171–81. doi:10.2165/11530080-000000000-00000. PMID 20184390. 
  81. ^ Vardiman JW (March 2010). "The World Health Organization (WHO) classification of tumors of the hematopoietic and lymphoid tissues: an overview with emphasis on the myeloid neoplasms". Chem. Biol. Interact. 184 (1-2): 16–20. doi:10.1016/j.cbi.2009.10.009. PMID 19857474. 
  82. ^ Dempsey OJ, Paterson EW, Kerr KM, Denison AR (2009). "Sarcoidosis". BMJ 339: b3206. PMID 19717499. 
  83. ^ Jafferany M (2007). "Psychodermatology: a guide to understanding common psychocutaneous disorders". Prim Care Companion J Clin Psychiatry 9 (3): 203–13. PMC 1911167. PMID 17632653. http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=1911167. 
  84. ^ Harth W, Hermes B, Niemeier V, Gieler U (2006). "Clinical pictures and classification of somatoform disorders in dermatology". Eur J Dermatol 16 (6): 607–14. PMID 17229599. http://www.john-libbey-eurotext.fr/en/revues/medecine/ejd/e-docs/00/04/28/31/article.phtml. 
  85. ^ Sillevis Smitt JH, Wulffraat NM, Kuijpers TW (2005). "The skin in primary immunodeficiency disorders". Eur J Dermatol 15 (6): 425–32. PMID 16280293. http://www.john-libbey-eurotext.fr/en/revues/medecine/ejd/e-docs/00/04/12/B8/article.phtml. 
  86. ^ Cooper MD, Lanier LL, Conley ME, Puck JM (2003). "Immunodeficiency disorders". Hematology Am Soc Hematol Educ Program 2003 (1): 314–30. doi:10.1182/asheducation-2003.1.314. PMID 14633788. http://asheducationbook.hematologylibrary.org/cgi/content/full/2003/1/314. 
  87. ^ Miller SJ (1989). "Nutritional deficiency and the skin". J Am Acad Dermatol 21 (1): 1–30. doi:10.1016/S0190-9622(89)70144-4. PMID 2663932. 
  88. ^ Heath ML, Sidbury R (2006). "Cutaneous manifestations of nutritional deficiency". Curr Opin Pediatr 18 (4): 417–22. doi:10.1097/01.mop.0000236392.87203.cc. PMID 16914997. 
  89. ^ Christiano AM (June 1997). "Frontiers in keratodermas: pushing the envelope". Trends Genet. 13 (6): 227–33. doi:10.1016/S0168-9525(97)01104-9. PMID 9196328. 
  90. ^ Shornick JK (September 1998). "Dermatoses of pregnancy". Semin Cutan Med Surg 17 (3): 172–81. doi:10.1016/S1085-5629(98)80011-4. PMID 9759674. 
  91. ^ Holmes RC, Black MM (March 1983). "The specific dermatoses of pregnancy". J. Am. Acad. Dermatol. 8 (3): 405–12. doi:10.1016/S0190-9622(83)70046-0. PMID 6833540. 
  92. ^ Greaves MW (2007). "Recent advances in pathophysiology and current management of itch" (PDF). Ann Acad Med Singap 36 (9): 788–92. PMID 17925991. http://www.annals.edu.sg/pdf/36VolNo9Sep2007/V36N9p788.pdf. 
  93. ^ Steinhoff M, Bienenstock J, Schmelz M, Maurer M, Wei E, Bíró T (2006). "Neurophysiological, neuroimmunological, and neuroendocrine basis of pruritus". J Invest Dermatol 126 (8): 1705–18. doi:10.1038/sj.jid.5700231. PMID 16845410. 
  94. ^ Langley RG, Krueger GG, Griffiths CE (2005). "Psoriasis: epidemiology, clinical features, and quality of life". Ann Rheum Dis 64 (Suppl 2): ii18–23; discussion ii24–5. doi:10.1136/ard.2004.033217. PMC 1766861. PMID 15708928. http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=1766861. 
  95. ^ Luba KM, Stulberg DL (2006). "Chronic plaque psoriasis". Am Fam Physician 73 (4): 636–44. PMID 16506705. 
  96. ^ Krueger JG, Bowcock A (2005). "Psoriasis pathophysiology: current concepts of pathogenesis". Ann Rheum Dis 64 (Suppl 2): ii30–6. doi:10.1136/ard.2004.031120. PMC 1766865. PMID 15708932. http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=1766865. 
  97. ^ Callen JP (2002). "Neutrophilic dermatoses". Dermatol Clin 20 (3): 409–19. doi:10.1016/S0733-8635(02)00006-2. PMID 12170875. 
  98. ^ Wallach D, Vignon-Pennamen MD (2006). "From acute febrile neutrophilic dermatosis to neutrophilic disease: forty years of clinical research". J Am Acad Dermatol 55 (6): 1066–71. doi:10.1016/j.jaad.2006.07.016. PMID 17097401. 
  99. ^ Ermertcan AT, Ertan P (2010). "Skin manifestations of child abuse". Indian J Dermatol Venereol Leprol 76 (4): 317–26. doi:10.4103/0378-6323.66572. PMID 20657110. http://www.ijdvl.com/article.asp?issn=0378-6323;year=2010;volume=76;issue=4;spage=317;epage=326;aulast=Ermertcan. 
  100. ^ Rebecca Tung; Murad Alam MD; Hayes B. Gladstone (2008). Cosmetic Dermatology: Requisites in Dermatology Series. Saunders Ltd. ISBN 0-7020-3143-7. 
  101. ^ Hymes SR, Strom EA, Fife C (January 2006). "Radiation dermatitis: clinical presentation, pathophysiology, and treatment 2006". J. Am. Acad. Dermatol. 54 (1): 28–46. doi:10.1016/j.jaad.2005.08.054. PMID 16384753. 
  102. ^ Clarke P (2004). "Urticaria". Aust Fam Physician 33 (7): 501–3. PMID 15301166. http://www.racgp.org.au/afp/200407/14489. 
  103. ^ Muller BA (2004). "Urticaria and angioedema: a practical approach". Am Fam Physician 69 (5): 1123–8. PMID 15023012. 
  104. ^ Carlson JA, Cavaliere LF, Grant-Kels JM (2006). "Cutaneous vasculitis: diagnosis and management". Clin. Dermatol. 24 (5): 414–29. doi:10.1016/j.clindermatol.2006.07.007. PMID 16966021. 
  105. ^ Panuncialman J, Falanga V (December 2010). "Unusual causes of cutaneous ulceration". Surg. Clin. North Am. 90 (6): 1161–80. doi:10.1016/j.suc.2010.08.006. PMID 21074034. 

Further reading

  • Andrews RM, McCarthy J, Carapetis JR, Currie BJ (December 2009). "Skin disorders, including pyoderma, scabies, and tinea infections". Pediatr. Clin. North Am. 56 (6): 1421–40. doi:10.1016/j.pcl.2009.09.002. PMID 19962029. 
  • Anthony J. Mancini; Amy S. Paller (2005). Hurwitz's Clinical Pediatric Dermatology: A Textbook of Skin Disorders of Childhood And Adolescence. Philadelphia, PA: W.B. Saunders Company. ISBN 0-7216-0498-6. 

External links


Wikimedia Foundation. 2010.

Look at other dictionaries:

  • Cutaneous conditions — There are many conditions of or affecting the human integumentary system the organ system that comprises the entire surface of the body and includes skin, hair, nails, and related muscle and glands.[1] Contents 1 Diseases 2 History …   Wikipedia

  • List of dog diseases — This list of dog diseases is a continuously updated selection of diseases and other conditions found in the dog. Some of these diseases are unique to dogs or closely related species, while others are found in other animals, including humans. Not… …   Wikipedia

  • List of common misconceptions — This incomplete list is not intended to be exhaustive. This is a list of current, widely held, false ideas and beliefs about notable topics which have been reported by reliable sources from around the world. Each has been discussed in published… …   Wikipedia

  • Cutaneous lymphoid hyperplasia — Classification and external resources ICD 10 L98.8 (ILDS L98.812) MeSH D019310 Cutaneous lymphoid hyperplasia (also known as borrelial lymphocytoma …   Wikipedia

  • Cutaneous B-cell lymphoma — Cutaneous B cell lymphomas constitute a group of diseases that occur less commonly than cutaneous T cell lymphoma, and are characterized histologically by B cells that appear similar to those normally found in germinal centers of lymph… …   Wikipedia

  • Cutaneous horn — Classification and external resources eMedicine article/1056568 Cutaneous horns, also known by the Latin name cornu cutaneum, are unusual keratinous skin tumors with the appearance of horns, or sometimes of wood or coral. Formally, this is a… …   Wikipedia

  • Cutaneous small-vessel vasculitis — (also known as Cutaneous leukocytoclastic angiitis, [1] Cutaneous leukocytoclastic vasculitis, [1] Cutaneous necrotizing venulitis, [1] and Hypersensitivity angiitis [1]) is inflammation of small blood vessels (usually post capillary venules in… …   Wikipedia

  • Cutaneous leishmaniasis — Classification and external resources ICD 10 B55.1 ICD 9 085.1 …   Wikipedia

  • Cutaneous perforating disorders — Classification and external resources ICD 10 L87 Cutaneous perforating disorders include the following[1]: Acquired perforating dermatosis (Acquired perforating collagenosis) Kyrle disease Perforating folliculitis …   Wikipedia

  • Cutaneous sinus of dental origin — (also known as a Dental sinus ) is a condition in which a chronic periapical infection about a tooth produces a burrowing cordlike sinus tract that eventually appears beneath the surface of the gum, palate, or periorificial skin.[1]:803 See also… …   Wikipedia

Share the article and excerpts

Direct link
Do a right-click on the link above
and select “Copy Link”