nominative"IAST|bráhma" _sa. ब्रह्म) is a concept of Hinduism. Brahman is the unchanging, infinite, immanent, and transcendent realitywhich is the Divine Ground of all matter, energy, time, space, being, and everything beyond in this Universe. [cite book | last = Brodd | first = Jefferey | authorlink = | coauthors = | title = World Religions | publisher = Saint Mary's Press | year = 2003 | location = Winona, MN | pages = | url = | doi = | id = | isbn = 978-0-88489-725-5 ] The nature of Brahman is described as transpersonal, personaland impersonal by different philosophical schools. In the Rig Veda, Brahman gives rise to the primordial being Hiranyagarbhathat is equated with the creator God Brahmā. The trimurtican thus be considered a personification of Hiranyagarbha as the active principle behind the phenomena of the universe. The seers who inspired the composition of the Upanisadsasserted that the liberated soul ( jivanmukta) has realized his identity with Brahman as his true self (see Atman (Hinduism)). The word "Brahman" is derived from the verb "brh" ( _sa. to grow), and connotes greatness. The Mundaka Upanishadsays:
Om- That supreme "Brahman" is infinite, and this conditioned "Brahman" is infinite. The infinite proceeds from infinite. Then through knowledge, realizing the infinitude of the infinite, it remains as infinite alone.Note that "Brahman" is different from "
Brahmin", the priests/holy men. In fact "Brahmin" is derived from "Brahman" in the sense that a 'Brahmin is the one who knows Brahman'. The confusion between the terms can be dated back to the translation of the Upanishads into modern English.
Brahman is the Absolute Reality or universal substrate (not to be confused with the Creator god
Brahmā) is said to be eternal, omnipotent, omniscient, omnipresent, and ultimately indescribable in human language. The sage-seers of the Upanishadshad fully realized Brahman as the reality behind their own being and of everything else in this universe. They were thus Brahmins in the true sense of the word. These rishis described Brahman as infinite Being, infinite Consciousness, and infinite Bliss ( satcitananda). Brahman is regarded as the source and essence of the material universe. The initial unmanifest state of singularity of the universe is described as a beyond being and non-being in the Nasadiya Sukta. The Rig Vedasays that by the desire of the Supreme Being(RV 10.129.4), the initial manifestation of the material universe came into being from Hiranyagarbha(lit. "golden womb"), out of which all worlds, organisms and divine beings (devas) arise:
"Great indeed are the devas who have sprung out of Brahman." — Atharva Veda
Para Brahmancorresponds to the concept of Godheadand Saguna Brahman to Godas the Primordial Being. [ Krishna. The Supreme Personality of Godhead]
It is said that Brahman cannot be known by material means, that we cannot be made conscious "of" it, because Brahman "is" our very consciousness. Brahman is also not restricted to the usual dimensional perspectives of being, and thus enlightenment,
moksha, yoga, samadhi, nirvana, etc. do not merely mean to know Brahman, but to realise one's 'brahman-hood', to actually realise that one is and always was of Brahman nature (cf. the Mahayana concept of Buddha Nature). Indeed, closely related to the Self concept of Brahman is the idea that it is synonymous with jiva-atma, or individual souls, our atman (or soul) being readily identifiable with the greater soul ("paramatma") of Brahman.
Generally, Vedanta rejects the notion of an evolving Brahman since Brahman contains within it the potentiality and archetypes behind all possible manifest phenomenal forms. The
Vedas, though they are in some respects historically conditioned are considered by Hindus to convey a knowledge [Veda means 'knowledge' and not merely epistemic knowledge but knowledge of the eternal truth that one's ultimate nature is pure consciousness and independent of material form (cf. Gnosis] eternal, timeless and always contemporaneous with Brahman. This knowledge is considered to have been handed down by realised yogins to students many generations before the vedas were committed to writing. Written texts of the Vedas are a relatively recent phenomenon.
Connected with the ritual of pre-Vedantic Hinduism, "Brahman" signified the power to grow, the expansive and self-altering process of
ritualand sacrifice, often visually realized in the sputtering of flames as they received the all important ghee(clarified butter) and rose in concert with the mantras of the Vedas. The term "Brahmin" in the Vedic period actually meant one who has realized Brahman. However, later on "Brahmin" came to be identified with the highest of the four castes, the Brahmins, who by virtue of their purity and priesthood held themselves as proprietors of rituals, though mostly without actual realization of Brahman, and void of Vedantic knowledge.
Among Hindu sects,
Advaita Vedantais the first instance of monismin organized religion and Hinduism is the only religion with this concept. To call this concept 'God' could be imprecise. The closest interpretation of the term can be found in the "Taittariya Upanishad" (II.1) where "Brahman" is described in the following manner: satyam jnanam anantam brahman - "Brahman is of the nature of truth, knowledge and infinity". Thus, "Brahman" is the origin and end of all things, material or otherwise. "Brahman" is the root source and Divine Ground of everything that exists, and does not exist in Hinduism. It is defined as unknowable and Satchitananda(Truth-Consciousness-Bliss). Since it is eternal and infinite, it comprises the only truth. The goal of Hinduism, through the various yogas, is to realize that the soul ("Atman") is actually nothing but "Brahman". The Hindu pantheon of gods is said, in the " Vedas" and " Upanishads", to be only higher manifestations of "Brahman". For this reason, "ekam sat" (Truth is one), and all is "Brahman". This explains the Hindu view that "All paths lead to the one "Truth", though many sages [and religions] call upon it by different names."
Several "mahā-vākyas", or great sayings, indicate what the principle of Brahman is:
Another way to describe Brahman, as mentioned in the Brihadaranyaka Upanisad, is to say, "Brahman is not this.. Brahman is not that.." Until everything in the infinite universe has been eliminated and only Brahman remains -- implying that indeed Brahman in infinite set universes is like the
empty set. Thus all and none in one that is not but still is everywhere and nowhere in particular. Also note that a distinct term Para Brahmanis generally used to indicate the higher Supreme Brahman.
Sanskrit "IAST|bráhman" (an "n"-stem, nominative "IAST|bráhmā") is from a root "IAST|bṛh" "to swell, grow, enlarge". "IAST|
brahmán" is a masculine derivation of "IAST|bráhman", denoting a person associated with "IAST|bráhman".The further origin of "IAST|bṛh" is unclear. According to Pokorny's IE Etymological Lexicon IE root "bhreu-, bhreu-d-" denotes "to swell, sprout" (cf Slovenian "brsteti" - to sprout). (Also see " Bragi"). Some, including Georges Dumézil, have said that the Latinword " flāmen" "priest" may also be cognate.Fact|date=March 2007
emantics and pronunciation
: "Here the underlined vowels carry the Vedic Sanskrit "udātta" short pitch accent. It is usual to use an acute accent symbol for this purpose."
*"Brahma" (ब्रह्म) (nominative singular), "brahman" (ब्रह्मन्) (stem) (neuterNot Masculine or Feminine (see
Grammatical gender).] gender) means the Great Cosmic Spirit, from root "brha" (growth, development, expansion, swelling).
*"Brahmānda" (ब्रह्माण्ड) (nominative singular), from stems "brha" (to expand) + "anda" (egg), means universe as an expansion of a cosmic egg ("
Hiranyagarbha"), or the macrocosm. Brahmanda Puranadiscusses cosmogenesis. Srimad Bhagavatamalso discusses cosmogonyand fundamental principles of material nature in detail. [http://srimadbhagavatam.com/sb Bhaktivedanta VedaBase: Śrīmad Bhāgavatam]
*"Brahma" (ब्रह्म) (nominative singular), "brahman" (stem) (neuter
gender) means the concept of the transcendent and immanent ultimate reality of the One Godhead or Supreme Cosmic Spirit in Hinduism; the concept is central to Hindu philosophy, especially Vedanta; this is discussed below. Also note that the word Brahman in this sense is exceptionally treated as masculine (see the "Merrill-Webster Sanskrit Dictionary"). It is called "the Brahman" in English. "Brahm" is another variant of "Brahman".
*"Brahmā" (ब्रह्मा) (nominative singlular), "Brahman" (ब्रह्मन्) (stem) (
masculine gender), means the deity or deva Prajāpati Brahmā. He is one of the members of the Hindu trinity and associated with creation, but does not have a cult in present day India. This is because Brahmā, the creator-god, is long-lived but not eternal i.e. Brahmā gets absorbed back into Purushaat the end of an aeon, and is born again at the beginning of a new kalpa.
One must not confuse these with:
*A "brāhmaņa" (ब्राह्मण) (masculine, pronounced as /brα:h mə Ņə/ - the N being
retroflex), (which literally means "pertaining to prayer") is a prose commentary on the Vedic mantras—an integral part of the Vedic literature.
*A "brāhmaņa" (ब्राह्मण) (masculine, same pronunciation as above), means priest; in this usage the word is usually rendered in English as "
Brahmin". This usage is also found in the Atharva Veda. In neuter plural form, Brahmāņi. See Vedic priest.
Ishvara", (lit., Supreme Lord), in Advaita, is identified as a partial worldly manifestation (with limited attributes) of the ultimate reality, the attributeless Brahman. In VishistAdvaita and Dvaita, however, Ishvara (the Supreme Controller) has infinite attributes and the source of the impersonal Brahman.
*"Devas", the celestial beings of Hinduism, which may be regarded as deities, demi-gods,
spirits or angels. In Vedic Hinduism, there were 33 devas, which later became exaggerated to 330 million devas. In fact, devas are themselves regarded as more mundane manifestations of the One and the Supreme Brahman (See Para Brahman). The Sanskrit word for "ten million" also means group, and 330 million devas originally meant 33 types of divine manifestations.
Brahman and Atman
Philosopher mystics of the
Upanishads identify the micro-soul-spark, Atman, the inner essence of the human being, with Brahman, the Great Spirit. While Advaitaphilosophy considers Brahman to be without form, qualities, or attributes, VisishtAdvaitaand Dvaitaphilosophies understand Brahman as one with infinite auspicious qualities. In Advaita, the ultimate reality is expressed as Nirguna Brahman. Nirguna means formless, attributeless, mega-soul, or spirit-only. Advaita considers all personal forms of God including Vishnuand Shivaas different aspects of God in personal form, Saguna Brahmani.e. God with attributes. In VisishtAdvaitaand Dvaita, God is Saguna Brahmanwith infinite attributes and is the source of the impersonal Nirguna Brahman, and God's energy is regarded as Devi, the Divine Mother.
The phrase that is seen to be the only possible (and still thoroughly inadequate) description of Brahman that humans, with limited minds and being, can entertain is the
Sanskritword "Sacchidānanda", which is combined from "sat-chit-ānanda", meaning "Being - Consciousness - Bliss".
The description of Brahman from
सर्वं ह्येतद् ब्रह्मायमात्मा ब्रह्म सोयमात्मा चतुष्पात्
sarvam hyetad brahmāyamātmā brahma soyamātmā chatushpāt"'-
Mandukya Upanishad, verse-2
sarvam (सर्वम्)- whole/all/everything; hi (हि)- really/surely/indeed; etad (एतद्)- this here/this; brahma (ब्रह्म)- Brahma/Brahman; ayam (अयम्)- this/here; ātmā(आत्मा)- atma/atman; sah(सः)- he; ayam (अयम्)- this/here; chatus(चतुस्)- four/quadruple; pāt(पात्)- step/foot/quarter
सर्वम् हि एतद् ब्रह्म अयम् आत्मा ब्रह्म सः अयम् आत्मा चतुस पात्
sarvam hi etad brahma ayam ātmā brahm sah ayam ātmā chatus paat
All indeed is this Brahman; He is Atman; He has four steps/quarters.
Vishnuis derived from the root "Vish" which means to enter or pervade, and He is called Vishnubecause He pervades the whole universe. Brahmanda Purana(1.4.25) says that He is called as Vishnubecause He has entered into everything in the universe. The most important aspect is that the whole universe is covered by only three steps of Vishnuwhich is referred to several times in the Vedas ( Rig Veda1.22.17, 1.154. 3, 1.155.4, Atharva Veda7.26.5, Yajur Veda2.25). "In His three steps rests the whole universe" ( Rig Veda1.154.2, Yajur Veda23.49). All indeed is Brahman, which can thus be identified with Vishnu, based on the Vedas.
Enlightenment and Brahman
While Brahman lies behind the sum total of the objective universe, some human minds boggle at any attempt to explain it with only the tools provided by reason. Brahman is beyond the senses, beyond the mind, beyond intelligence, beyond imagination. Indeed, the highest idea is that Brahman is beyond both existence and non-existence, transcending and including time, causation and space, and thus can never be "known" in the same material sense as one traditionally 'understands' a given concept or object.
Imagine a person who is blind from birth and has not seen anything. Is it possible for us to explain to him what light is like? Is any amount of thinking or reasoning on his part ever going to make him understand the sensation of light? In a similar fashion the idea of Brahman cannot be explained or understood through material reasoning or any form of human communication. Brahman is like light; those who can sense it cannot explain or argue with those who have never sensed it.
The universe does not simply possess consciousness, it "is" consciousness, and this consciousness is Brahman. Human consciousness has forgotten its identity, that of Brahman, as if a drop of water from a vast ocean thought itself separate, and that the only path to merge back into that Brahman or supreme consciousness is through the paths of devotion, moral living, following the eight-fold path of Ashtanga Yoga
meditation, often expressed in various systems of spiritual practices known as yogas.
If one seeks Brahman via true knowledge, Atman seeks truth and accepts it no matter what it is. Atman accepts all truths of the self/ego, and thus is able to accept the fact that it is not separate from its surroundings. Then Atman is permanently absorbed into Brahman and become one and the same with it. This is how one forever escapes rebirth.
In Advaita Vedanta (absolute
monism), Brahman is without attributes and strictly impersonal. It can be best described as "infinite Being, infinite Consciousness, and infinite Bliss". It is pure knowledge itself, similar to a source of infinite radiance. Since the Advaitins regard Brahman to be the Ultimate Truth, so in comparison to Brahman, every other thing, including the material world, its distinctness, the individuality of the living creatures and even Ishvara (the Supreme Lord) itself are all untrue. Brahman is the effulgent cause of everything that exists and can possibly exist. Since it is beyond human comprehension, it is without any attributes, for assigning attributes to it would be distorting the true nature of Brahman. Advaitins believe in the existence of both Saguna Brahman and Nirguna Brahman, however they consider Nirguna Brahman to be the Absolute Truth.
When man tries to know the attributeless Brahman with his mind, under the influence of an illusionary power of Brahman called Maya, Brahman becomes God (
Ishvara). God is the reflection of the Brahman in the environment of illusion (Maya). Just like reflection of moon, in a pool of water. The material world also appears as such due to Maya. God is Saguna Brahman, or Brahman with attributes. He is omniscient, omnipresent, incorporeal, independent, Creator of the world, its ruler and also destroyer. He is eternal and unchangeable. He is both immanent and transcedent, as well as full of love and justice. He may be even regarded to have a personality. He is the subject of worship. He is the basis of morality and giver of the fruits of one's Karma. He rules the world with his Maya. However, while God is the Lord of Maya and she (i.e. Maya) is always under his control, living beings ( jīva, in the sense of humans) are the servants of Maya (in the form of ignorance). This ignorance is the cause of all material experiences in the mortal world. While God is Infinite Bliss, humans, under the influence of Maya consider themselves limited by the body and the material, observable world. This misperception of Brahman as the observed Universe results in human emotions such as happiness, sadness, anger and fear. The ultimate reality remains Brahman and nothing else. The Advaita equation is simple. It is due to Maya that the one single Atman (the individual soul) appears to the people as many Atmans, each in a single body. Once the curtain of maya is lifted, the Atmanis exactly equal to Brahman. Thus, due to true knowledge, an individual loses the sense of ego (Ahamkara) and achieves liberation, or Moksha.
Relevant verses from
Bhagavad-Gitawhich establish the Advaita position:
"The indestructible, transcendental living entity is called Brahman, and its eternal nature is called adhyatma, the self." (
"Similar to a person who is not attached to external pleasures but enjoys happiness in the Atman (soul), the person who perceives Brahman (all-pervading consciousness) in everybody feels everlasting joy." (
VisishtAdvaitais synonymous with Narayana, who is the transcendent and immanent reality. Brahman or Narayana is Saguna Brahmanwith infinite auspicious qualities, and not the Advaita concept of attributeless Nirguna Brahman. "Sarvam khalvidam brahma, tajjalaniti santa upasita": According to Ramanuja, considering the appearance of the word "tajjalan iti" (Roots: tat + ja = born + la = dissolved), this statement from the Chandogya Upanishaddoes not simply mean that the universe is Brahman, but that it is pervaded by, born from and dissolves into Brahman. An analogy: fish is born in water, lives in water, and is ultimately dissolved into water; yet the fish is not water.
The concept of Brahman in VisishtAdvaita is explained as an inseparable triad of Ishwara-Chit-Achit.
Ishvara, the Supreme Self ( Paramatman) is the indwelling spirit (Antaryami) in all. Both the Chit (sentient) and Achit (insentient) entities are pervaded and permeated by Ishvara. Brahman is the material and efficient cause of the universe. The concept of Brahman in VisishtAdvaitacan be seen as a hybrid of Advaita and Dvaita positions. Like all other Vaishnavaschools of thought, VisishtAdvaita is also panentheisticunlike the pantheismof Advaita. It also proposes a qualified attributive monismapproach as opposed to the absolute monismof Advaita.
Brahman is, Antaryami, the real self of all beings. Everything other than Brahman form the Sarira (body) of Brahman. The inseparable relation between the body and the soul is similar to that of substance and attribute which are inseparable. So Brahman is the prakari and the universe is the prakara, mode of Brahman. Hence anything that describes a sentient or insentient being has its connotation only with Brahman, the real and ultimate self. The relationship between Ishvara-Chit-Achit can be further understood as follows:
1. The Sarira-Sariri Concept
The key concept of VisishtAdvaita is the Sarira-Sariri Bhaava, the body-soul relationship between the universe and
Ishvara. There are three realities, namely, Ishvara(the Lord), Jiva (individual souls), and Jagat (insentient matter). They are not separate entities but together they form an organic whole. This is similar to the concept of body-soul relationship, but on a cosmic scale. Thus, Ishvarahas the Chit (sentient) and Achit (insentient) entities for His body and being the Supreme Self, exercises complete control over it.
2. Substance-Attribute Concept
VisishtAdvaita, Ishvarais the original substance, of which Jivaand Prakritiare attributes. An attribute cannot have an existence independent of an underlying substance. The substance-attribute concept establishes an uninterrupted, non-reciprocal relationship between Ishvaraand the two modes.
Followers of VisishtAdvaita refute Advaita thought that if it is indeed true that the one undivided Brahman, whose very nature is pure spirit, is the foundation of Maya and also embodies the liberating force of knowledge, then it is illogical to say that the very same Brahman falls under the influence of the illusory power of Maya and gets covered by ignorance. Thus establishing that
Jivaand Ishvaraare indeed separate entities. Since both their identities and capabilities are different, the Jivaand the Lord are essentially distinct. In other words, if Brahman is indivisible, changeless, and supreme, then a force of Maya cannot appear within Brahman, modify it, and put it into ignorance. Bhakti Yogais the sole means of liberation in VisishtAdvaita. Through Bhakti (devotion), a Jivaascends to the realm of the Lord to become one with Him. Karma Yogaand Jnana Yogaare natural outcomes of Bhakti, total surrender, as the devotee acquires the knowledge that the Lord is the inner self. A devotee realizes his own state as dependent on, and supported by, and being led by the Lord, who is the Master. One is to lead a life as an instrument of the Lord, offering all his thought, word, and deed to the feet of the Lord. One is to see the Lord in everything and everything in Him. This is the unity in diversity achieved through devotion.
Bhagavad-Gita, Krishnais Ishvaraand denotes Saguna Brahman, and the term Brahman means Nirguna Brahman:
"I (Ishvara) am the basis of the impersonal Brahman, which is immortal, imperishable and eternal and is the constitutional position of ultimate happiness." (
"I (Ishvara) am transcendental, beyond both kshara (the fallible, perishable world) and akshara (the infallible)." (
Dvaita(substantial monism) is synonymous with Harior Vishnu, who is the most exalted Para Brahman(Supreme Brahman), superior to liberated souls and even the impersonal Brahman. Dvaita holds that the individual soul is dependent (paratantra) on God, since it is unable to exist without the energizing support of the universal spirit, just as a tree cannot survive without its sap. Dvaitaschools argue against the Advaitaconcept that upon liberation one realizes Brahman as a formless God is erroneous, quoting from Vedanta Sutra:
"The form of Brahman is unmanifest, but even the form of Brahman becomes directly visible to one who worships devoutly" ("tat avyaktam aha, api samradhane pratyaksa anumanabhyam")Fact|date=February 2007. [api - but, samradhane - intense worship, pratyaksa - as directly visible, anumanabhyam - as inferred from scripture] (
"Within His divine realm, devotees see other divine manifestations which appear even as physical objects in a city" ("antara bhuta gramavat svatmanah"). (
Dvaita propounds Tattvavada which means understanding differences between
Tattvas (significant properties) of entities within the universal substrate as follows:
1. Jîva-Îshvara-bheda - difference between the soul and Vishnu
2. Jada-Îshvara-bheda - difference between the insentient and Vishnu
3. Mitha-jîva-bheda - difference between any two souls
4. Jada-jîva-bheda - difference between insentient and the soul
5. Mitha-jada-bheda - difference between any two insentients
Acintya Bheda Abhedaphilosophy is similar to Dvaitadvaita(differential monism). All Vaishnavaschools are panentheisticand perceive the Advaita concept of identification of Atman with the impersonal Brahman as an intermediate step of self-realization, but not Mukti, or final liberation of complete God-realization through Bhakti Yoga.
The Advaita concept of a
Jivanmuktais mocked as an absurd oxymoron because a person who has surmounted the realm of perception and realized the Absolute (as Advaita holds) should not continue to exist within and interact with the realm of perception that one has realized as being not real. The suggestion that such bondage to the world of perception continues for a while after the occurrence of God-realization, because of past attachments, is not tenable. Such attachments themselves are artifacts of the perceived world that has supposedly been sublated, and should not continue to besiege the consciousness of the self-realized. A Jivanmukta, or liberated person, should not even be physically present in the material universe. A person who is living in the world cannot be said to be free of sorrow born of material contact, and also cannot be said to experience the joy of liberation. The very act of being in a gross material body is not accepted in as a Jivanmukta i.e. a person liberated from the cycle of birth and death. The soul upon liberation does not lose its identity, which remains different from God, nor does one become equal to God in any respect. A mukta indeed becomes free from all suffering, but one's enjoyment is not of the same caliber as His, nor does a mukta become independent of Him. The permanent differential aspect of Atman(soul) from the Lord is established from:
"Never was there a time when I (Ishvara) did not exist, nor you, nor all these kings; nor in the future shall any of us cease to be." (
In Dvaita, liberation (
Moksha) is achieved by flawless devotion and correct understanding. Devotion to a personal form of God, Saguna Brahman, indicated here is the transcendental form of Krishnaor Vishnu(see Vaishnavism). This conclusion is corroborated by the Bhagavata Purana, written by Vyasaas his commentary on Vedanta Sutra.
"O my Lord,
Krishna, son of Vasudeva, O all-pervading Lord, I offer my respectful obeisances unto You, the Absolute Truth and the primeval cause of all causes of the creation, sustenance and destruction of the manifested universes" ("om namo bhagavate vasudevaya janmady asya yatah 'nvayad itaratas cartheshv abhijnah svarat"). ( Bhagavatam1.1.1)
Vyasa employs the words "janma-adi -- creation, sustenance and destruction; asya -- of the manifested universes; yatah -- from whom;", in the first verse of the Bhagavata Purana to establish that
Krishnais the Absolute Truth. This is clear testimony of the author's own conclusion that the ultimate goal of all Vedic knowledge is Krishna.
Modern Evolutionary View
According to modern spiritual teachers like Sri Aurobindo, Brahman is both the unmanifest and the manifest; the One and the Many; the Being and the Becoming. It is actually more than their sum, but their combination and their integration. All (and more) is then Brahman. And yet Brahman cannot be known by mind. One must move to the highest point of spiritualized mind, even above Intuition to have the vision of the integral oneness of the unmanifest and manifest that is Brahman. When we move to the soul, our minds move to the supra-mental heights where we perceive the integral view of Brahman, which is the ultimate perception of the Reality, the Absolute. Thus, in life everything is an expression of Brahman, even that which is unevolved and is in the process of evolving. To modern scholarsWho|date=October 2008, all viewpoints are but perspectives of the mind of the ultimate reality, Brahman.
Notes and references
* [http://www.hinduwebsite.com/brahmanmain.asp Detailed essays on Brahman at Hinduwebsite.com]
* [http://abstractatom.com/brahman.htm AbstractAtom.com - Information on the philosophy of Brahman]
* [http://www.geocities.com/profvk/gohitvip/32.html Essence of Upanishads: Atman and Brahman]
* [http://www.sacred-texts.com/tantra/maha/maha03.htm Worship of the Supreme Brahman]
* [http://brhmaandpujanbook.tripod.com Brhmaand Pujan All Line Free Book]
* [http://brhmaandpujan-news-reviews.tripod.com Brhmaand Pujan Critics, News-Reviews]
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