- Jimmy Buffett
Jimmy Buffett performing, January 2008
Background information Birth name James William Buffett Born December 25, 1946
Origin Mobile, Alabama, U.S. Genres Country, "Gulf & Western", Tropical Rock Occupations Singer-songwriter Years active 1965–present Labels Barnaby, Dunhill, MCA, Margaritaville, Island, PolyGram Associated acts The Margartias, Alan Jackson, Glenn Frey, Eagles, Zac Brown Band Website Official Web Site
James William "Jimmy" Buffett (born December 25, 1946) is a singer-songwriter, author, entrepreneur, and film producer. He is best known for his music, which often portrays an "island escapism" lifestyle. Together with his Coral Reefer Band, Buffett's musical hits include "Margaritaville" (No. 234 on RIAA's list of "Songs of the Century"), and "Come Monday". He has a devoted base of fans known as "Parrotheads".
Aside from his career in music, Buffett is also a best-selling writer and is involved in two restaurant chains named after two of his best known songs, "Cheeseburger in Paradise" and "Margaritaville". He owns the Margaritaville Cafe restaurant chain and co-developed the Cheeseburger in Paradise restaurant concept with OSI Restaurant Partners (parent of Outback Steakhouse), which operates the chain under a licensing agreement with Buffett.
- 1 Personal life
- 2 Music
- 3 Writing
- 4 Film and television
- 5 Business ventures
- 6 Charity work
- 7 Controversy
- 8 Concerts and tours
- 9 "Gulf and western" style
- 10 Discography
- 11 See also
- 12 References
- 13 External links
Buffett spent part of his childhood in Mobile, Alabama. As a boy in grade school, he attended St. Ignatius School, where he played the trombone in the school band. He later lived in Fairhope, Alabama, mentioned by Buffett as his "Home Town" during a 2001 concert. He graduated from high school from McGill Institute for Boys (now McGill-Toolen Catholic High School) in 1964. He began playing guitar during his college years at Auburn University, Pearl River Community College, and The University of Southern Mississippi in Hattiesburg, Mississippi, where he received a bachelor's degree in history in 1969. He was initiated into the fraternity Kappa Sigma (ΚΣ) at the University of Southern Mississippi. After graduating from college, Buffett worked as a correspondent for Billboard magazine in Nashville, breaking the news of the separation of Flatt and Scruggs.
Buffett married Margie Washichek in 1969 and divorced in 1972. Buffett and his second wife Jane (Jane Slagsvol) have two daughters, Savannah Jane and Sarah Delaney, and an adopted son, Cameron Marley, and reside in Palm Beach, Florida. They were separated in the early 1980s; however, they reconciled in 1991. Buffett also owns a home in St Barts, a Caribbean island where he lived on and off in the early 1980s while he was part-owner of the Autour de Rocher hotel and restaurant. An avid pilot, Buffett has a flagship plane, a Dassault Falcon 900 aircraft with identifier N908JB, that he often uses while on concert tour and traveling worldwide.
His father, John Delaney Buffett, Jr. died in 2003 at the age of 83.
Buffett began his musical career in Nashville, Tennessee during the late 1960s as a country artist and recorded his first album, the folk rock Down to Earth, in 1970. During this time Buffett could be frequently found busking for tourists in New Orleans. Country music singer Jerry Jeff Walker took him to Key West on a busking expedition in November, 1971 . Buffett then moved to Key West and began establishing the easy-going beach bum persona for which he is known. Following this move, Buffett combined country, folk, and pop music with coastal as well as tropical lyrical themes for a sound sometimes called "gulf and western". Today, he is a regular visitor to the Caribbean island of Saint Barts and other islands where he gets inspiration for many of his songs and some of the characters in his books.
Buffett's third album was the 1973 A White Sport Coat and a Pink Crustacean. Living & Dying in 3/4 Time and A1A both followed in 1974, Havana Daydreamin' appeared in 1976, followed by 1977's Changes in Latitudes, Changes in Attitudes, which featured the breakthrough hit song "Margaritaville".
With the untimely death of friend and mentor Jim Croce in September 1973, ABC Dunhill tapped Buffett to fill his space. Earlier, Buffett had visited Croce's farm in Pennsylvania and met with Croce in Florida.
During the 1980s, Buffett made far more money off his tours than albums and became known as a popular concert draw. He released a series of albums during the following twenty years, primarily to his devoted audience, and also branched into writing and merchandising. In 1985, Buffett opened a "Margaritaville" retail store in Key West and then in 1987, the Margaritaville Cafe was opened. During the 1980s Buffett played at the Houston Livestock Show and Rodeo. He briefly changed the name of the band from "Coral Reefers" to the "Coral Reef Band" to suit the HLS&R's request as they thought "Reefers" was a drug related reference. HLS&R is a charity event that provides student grants to children and young adults that compete in agriculture contests (FFA).
Two of the more out-of-character albums were Christmas Island, a collection of Christmas songs, and Parakeets, a collection of Buffett songs sung by children and containing "cleaned-up" lyrics (like "a cold root beer" instead of "a cold draft beer").
In 1997, Buffett collaborated with novelist Herman Wouk to create a short-lived musical based on Wouk's novel, Don't Stop the Carnival. Broadway showed little interest in the play, (following the failure of Paul Simon's The Capeman) and it only ran for six weeks in Miami. He released an album of songs from the musical in 1998.
In August 2000 Buffett and the Coral Reefer Band played on the White House lawn for then President Bill Clinton.
In 2003, he partnered in a partial duet with Alan Jackson for the song "It's Five O'Clock Somewhere", a number one hit on the country charts. This song won the 2003 Country Music Association Award for Vocal Event of the Year. This was Buffett’s first award of any kind for his music in his 30 year career.
Buffett's album, License to Chill, released on July 13, 2004, sold 238,600 copies in its first week of release according to Nielsen SoundScan. With this, Buffett topped the U.S. pop albums chart for the first time in his three-decade career.
Buffett continues to tour throughout the year although he has shifted recently to a more relaxed schedule of around 20–30 dates, and rarely on back-to-back nights, preferring to play only on Tuesdays, Thursdays and Saturdays, thus the title of his 1999 live album Buffett Live: Tuesdays, Thursdays, Saturdays. Purchasing tickets is difficult with most of his concerts selling out in minutes.
In the summer of 2005 Buffett teamed up with Sirius radio and introduced Radio Margaritaville, and as of November 2008 is also on XM radio channel 55. Until this point Radio Margaritaville was solely an online channel. The channel broadcasts from the Margaritaville restaurant at Universal CityWalk in Orlando, Florida.
In August 2006, he released the album Take The Weather With You. The song "Breathe In, Breathe Out, Move On" on this album refers to 2005's Hurricane Katrina. Also on the album he pays tribute to Merle Haggard with his rendition of "Silver Wings" and covers, with Mark Knopfler playing on the track, "Whoop De Doo."
On December 8, 2009, Jimmy Buffett released his 28th studio album entitled Buffet Hotel.
On April 20, 2010, a double CD of performances recorded during the 2008 and 2009 tours called encores was released exclusively at Walmart, Walmart.com and Margaritaville.com.
Of the over 30 albums Jimmy Buffett has released, as of October 2007, he has 8 Gold Albums and 9 Platinum or Multi Platinum Albums. In 2003 Buffett won his first ever Country Music Award (CMA) for his song "It's 5 O'clock Somewhere" with Alan Jackson, and was nominated again in 2007 for the CMA Event of the Year Award for his song "Hey Good Lookin" which featured Alan Jackson and George Strait.
Buffett has written three #1 best sellers. Tales from Margaritaville and Where Is Joe Merchant? both spent over seven months on The New York Times Best Seller fiction list. His book A Pirate Looks At Fifty went straight to No. 1 on the New York Times Best Seller non-fiction list, making him one of eight authors in that list's history to have reached No. 1 on both the fiction and non-fiction lists. The seven other authors who have accomplished this are Ernest Hemingway, John Steinbeck, William Styron, Irving Wallace, Dr. Seuss, Mitch Albom and Glenn Beck.
Buffett also co-wrote two children's books, The Jolly Mon and Trouble Dolls, with his eldest daughter, Savannah Jane Buffett. The original hard cover release of The Jolly Mon included a cassette tape recording of him and Savannah Jane reading the story accompanied by an original score written by Michael Utley.
Buffett's novel A Salty Piece of Land, was released on November 30, 2004, and the first edition of the book included a CD single of the song "A Salty Piece Of Land", which was recorded for License to Chill. The book was a New York Times best seller soon after its release.
Buffett's latest title, Swine Not?, was released May 13, 2008.
Buffett is currently writing a follow-up to his autobiography A Pirate Looks at Fifty, which he says may take up to ten years to write and complete.
Buffett is one of several popular 'philosophers' whose quotations appear on the road signs of Project HIMANK in the Ladakh region of Northern India.
Film and television
Buffett wrote the soundtrack for, co-produced and acted in the 2006 film Hoot, directed by Wil Shriner and based on the book by Carl Hiaasen, which focuses on issues important to Buffett, such as conservation. The film was not a critical or commercial success. Among his other film music credits are the theme song to the short-lived 1993 CBS television series Johnny Bago; "Turning Around" for the 1985 film Summer Rental starring John Candy; "I Don't Know (Spicoli's Theme)" for the film Fast Times at Ridgemont High; "Hello, Texas" for the 1980 John Travolta film Urban Cowboy; and "If I Have To Eat Someone (It Might As Well Be You)" for the animated film FernGully: The Last Rainforest, which was sung in the film by rap artist Tone Loc.
In addition, Buffett has made several cameo appearances, including in Repo Man, Hook, Cobb, Hoot, Congo, and From the Earth to the Moon. He also made cameo appearances as himself in Rancho Deluxe (for which he also wrote the music) and in FM. He made a Guest appearance in the season two of Hawaii Five-0 on CBS in 2011. Buffett reportedly was offered a cameo role in Pirates of the Caribbean: The Curse of the Black Pearl, but declined the offer. In 1997, Buffett collaborated with novelist Herman Wouk on a musical production based on Wouk's 1965 novel Don't Stop the Carnival. In the South Park episode "Tonsil Trouble", an animated version of Buffett (but not voiced by Buffett) was seen singing "AIDSburger in Paradise" and "CureBurger in Paradise". Jimmy has also appeared on the Sesame Street special, Elmopalooza, singing "Carribean Amphibian" with the popular Muppet, Kermit the Frog.
Buffett has taken advantage of his name and the fan following for his music to launch several business ventures, usually with a tropical theme. He owns or licenses the Margaritaville Cafe and Cheeseburger in Paradise restaurant chains. As a baseball fan, he was part-owner of two minor league teams: the Fort Myers Miracle and the Madison Black Wolf. Between his restaurants, album sales, and tours, he earns an estimated $100 million a year.
In 1993, he launched Margaritaville Records, with distribution through MCA Records. His MCA record deal ended with the release of 1996's Christmas Island and he took Margaritaville Records over to Chris Blackwell's Island Records for a two record deal, 1998's Don't Stop The Carnival and 1999's Beach House On The Moon. In the fall of 1999, he started up Mailboat Records to release live albums. He partnered up with RCA Records for distribution in 2005 and 2006 for the two studio albums License To Chill and Take The Weather With You.
Another Margaritaville Casino was slated to be opening in Atlantic City, New Jersey but has been put on hold indefinitely. Buffett has also licensed Margaritaville Tequila, Margaritaville Footwear and a Margaritaville Foods including Chips, Salsa, Guacamole, Shrimp, Chicken and more.
From May 8, 2009 through January 5, 2010 Sun Life Stadium (formerly Dolphin Stadium) in Miami was named Landshark Stadium pursuant to an eight-month naming rights deal. Buffett also wrote new lyrics for the team to his 1979 song "Fins", which is played during Dolphins home games.
In May 2011, Buffet announced that he had partnered with game makers THQ to make a Margaritaville game for Facebook and iOS devices. The game opened in closed beta to what's being referred to as the Buffet Beta Club. The game, which requires users to download Unity Engine for use on the Facebook API, is expected to release on Facebook in December 2011 and to iOs devices by the end of January 2012.
Buffett has been involved in many charity efforts. In 1981 the Save the Manatee Club was founded by Buffett and former Florida governor Bob Graham. Save the Manatee Club is the world's leading manatee protection organization. West Indian Manatee In 1989, legislation was passed in Florida that introduced the "Save the Manatee" license plate, and earmarked funding for the Save the Manatee Club. One of the two manatees trained to interact with researchers at Mote Marine Laboratory is named Buffett after the singer.
The "Singing for Change" foundation was initially funded by proceeds from Buffett's 1995 concert tour, and provides grants to local charities in three main areas: children and family causes, environmental causes, and causes for disenfranchised groups.
On November 23, 2004, Buffett raised substantial money at his "Surviving the Storm" Hurricane Relief Concert in Orlando, Florida to provide relief for hurricane victims in Florida, Alabama and the Caribbean affected by the four major hurricanes that year.
Buffett performed in Hong Kong on January 18, 2008 for a concert that raised US$63,000 for the Foreign Correspondents' Club Charity Fund. This was his first concert in Hong Kong and it sold out within weeks. Not only did Buffett perform for the groundlings for free, but he also paid for the concertgoers' tequila and beer.
On July 11, 2010, Buffett, a Gulf Coast native, put on a free concert on the beach in Gulf Shores, Alabama. The concert was Buffett's response to the BP oil disaster in the Gulf. The concert was aired on CMT television. The 35,000 free tickets were given away within minutes to help draw people back to Alabama's beaches. Buffett played several popular songs including "Fins", "Son of a Son of a Sailor", "A Pirate Looks at Forty" and a modified version of "Margaritaville" where the lyrics were changed in the chorus to "now I know, it's all BP's fault." The concert featured Jesse Winchester and Allen Toussaint.
In addition, many Parrothead club activities are focused on charity work, although Buffett is not directly involved with them.
The earliest controversy with Buffett was his recording of "God's Own Drunk" found on the live recorded album You Had to Be There. In 1983 the son of the late entertainer Lord Buckley sued Buffett for $11 million for copyright infringement claiming that Buffett took parts of the monologue from Buckley's A Tribute to Buckley and claimed it as his own work in "God's Own Drunk". The suit also alleged that Buffett's "blasphemous" rendition presented to the public a distorted impression of Lord Buckley. They got an injunction against Buffett which prevented him from performing the song until the lawsuit was settled or resolved. So, in 1986 when Buffett would get to the part of his show where he would normally perform "God's Own Drunk," he would say that he still isn't allowed to play it because of the lawsuit and instead played a song he wrote called "The Lawyer and the Asshole" in which he accuses Buckley's son and lawyers as being greedy and tells them to "kiss his ass."
On October 6, 2006, it was reported that Buffett had been detained by French custom officials in Saint Tropez for allegedly carrying over 100 pills of ecstasy. Buffett’s luggage was searched after his Dassault Falcon 900 private jet landed at Toulon-Hyères International Airport. He paid a fine of $300 and was released. A spokesperson for Buffett stated the pills in question were prescription drugs, but declined to name the drug or the health problem for which he was being treated. Buffett released a statement that the "ecstasy" was in fact, a Vitamin B supplement known as Foltx.
In January 1996 Buffett's Grumman HU-16 airplane nicknamed "Hemisphere Dancer" was shot at by Jamaican police who believed the craft to be smuggling marijuana. The aircraft sustained minimal damage. The plane had been carrying Buffett as well as U2's Bono, and Island Records producer Chris Blackwell, and co-pilot Bill Dindy. They were not on board at the time. The Jamaican government acknowledged the mistake and apologized to Buffett who penned the song "Jamaica Mistaica" for his Banana Wind album based on the experience. The plane from the incident is now at Orlando City Walk's Margaritaville.
On February 4, 2001, he was ejected from the American Airlines Arena in Miami during a Miami Heat/New York Knicks basketball game for cursing. After the game, referee Joe Forte said that he ordered him moved during the fourth quarter because "there was a little boy sitting next to him and a lady sitting by him. He used some words he knows he shouldn't have used." Forte apparently didn't know who Buffett was, and censured Heat coach Pat Riley because he thought Riley – who was trying to explain to him who Buffett was – was insulting him by asking if he'd ever been a "Parrothead", the nickname for Buffett fans. Buffett didn't comment immediately after the incident, but discussed it with Matt Lauer on The Today Show three days later.
Jimmy Buffett was paid $250,000 to perform a private show for ex-Tyco CEO Dennis Kozlowski. This show was part of a multiple day event held to celebrate Kozlowski's girlfriend and her birthday. Video footage of this performance is included in a CNBC television series known as "American Greed."
Concerts and tours
Buffett and the Coral Reefer Band have earned a tremendous amount of recognition for their concerts—which mixes theatrical elements with improvisation—bringing a carefree tropical party to life. Most recent shows consist of 24–26 songs and two separate encores.
The first encore usually consists of two songs. After the first song, Buffett introduces the band, and then they segue into the second song. The second encore usually consists of a single acoustic ballad. "A Pirate Looks at Forty" is a typical closer at shows, however, Buffett sometimes takes the opportunity to choose a more obscure song to perform such as:"He Went to Paris", "Nautical Wheelers" or "Tin Cup Chalice", among others.
"Fins", mostly performed towards the end of the show in recent years, is always preluded by the Jaws theme as a teaser. Buffett calls out to the Parrotheads, or "land-sharks", to get their "fins up"! The fans raise their hands in the air, in the manner of a dorsal fin, and wave it left and right. "Changes in Latitudes, Changes in Attitudes" usually has a video of local parrotheads in the arena/venue parking lot playing over its performance. "Why Don't We Get Drunk" is sometimes performed in a different style (i.e. Hawaiian style, karaoke style, sing-along style). "One Particular Harbour" is played for women and men wearing hula-skirts. "It's Five O'Clock Somewhere" is performed with Mac McAnally taking Alan Jackson's place.
The band will also often throw in references to and skits about the actual venue they're playing to please home town fans. As an example, when Buffett and the Coral Reefers performed at Fenway Park, Boston, in September 2004, they added a performance of "Take Me Out To The Ball Game" featuring Dr. Charles Steinberg on organ, segued "Why Don't We Get Drunk" into Red Sox favorite "Sweet Caroline", and attempted to reverse the Curse of the Bambino (some even claim they were successful, as the Red Sox won their first World Series in over 86 years a few weeks later). Similarly, when playing the Shepherd's Bush Empire in 2009 (Buffett's first London gig for 29 years), the setlist included Warren Zevon's "Werewolves of London", a cover that Buffett recorded on the soundtrack to Hoot. Buffett also performed two Beatles songs that he had been playing throughout the Summerzcool tour: "Yellow Submarine" and "Rocky Raccoon".
"The Big 8" and standard songs
Before 2003, songs played at every Buffett show were known as the Big 8. With the success of the Alan Jackson duet "It's 5 O'Clock Somewhere", and the rising popularity of "One Particular Harbour", the list of songs played at every show went from 8 to 10. The "Big 8" were:
- "Come Monday"
- "A Pirate Looks at Forty"
- "Cheeseburger in Paradise"
- "Why Don't We Get Drunk" — Only played occasionally, as of 2007
- "Changes in Latitudes, Changes in Attitudes"
Since "Why Don't We Get Drunk" has been knocked off the standards list, there are only nine songs played at almost every show in recent years. However, neither Buffett nor the Coral Reefers have ever used the term "Big 9" for the new line-up.
This list doesn't necessarily mean that those songs have been played at every show. "A Pirate Looks at Forty" was not played during the George, Washington '92 show. "Cheeseburger in Paradise" was excluded from two setlists during the 1998 tour. "One Particular Harbour" was left out of 11 shows during the 1997 tour, not to mention every show during the 1988 & 1989 tour. "Why Don't We Get Drunk" wasn't played at all during the Bama Breeze tour, and has since only returned to be played on an occasional basis. "Changes in Latitudes, Changes in Attitudes" did not appear during the opening shows of the 1998 and 2003 tours. "It's Five O'Clock Somewhere" was omitted from first of the two Irvine shows in 2006.
Other notable songs that are played at almost all shows, but have been dropped on occasion, are "Son of a Son of a Sailor", Van Morrison's "Brown Eyed Girl" and Crosby, Stills and Nash's "Southern Cross". However, it's not unusual for these three songs to be dropped from a show, therefore they aren't considered a standard.
On 26 January 2011 (Australia Day), Buffett was performing a concert in Australia at Sydney's Hordern Pavilion and fell off the stage after an encore. Coincidentally, one of Australia's leading trauma surgeons was at the concert and close to the stage; Dr. Gordian Fulde treated Buffett at the scene then at St Vincent's Hospital Emergency centre. Fulde has said, "I thought he'd broken his neck." "I heard the clunk of his head on a metal ledge, he has a deep gash on his scalp, which is all right now." "But at first I thought - this guy is going to be a spinal injury." Another concert-goer said, "He just went over to the edge of the stage, like he had numerous times through the night, just to wave, and people were throwing stuffed toys and things at him. And he just took one step too many and just disappeared in a flash. He didn't have time to put his arms out to save himself or anything, he just dropped." He was released from the hospital the next day.
List of tours
- 1976: A Pink Crustacean Tour
- 1977: Changes in Latitudes, Changes in Attitudes Tour
- 1978: Cheeseburger in Paradise Tour
- 1979: You Had to Be There Tour / Volcano Tour
- 1980: A Hot Dog & A Road Map Tour
- 1981: Coconut Telegraph Tour
- 1982: Homecoming Tour
- 1983: The Six-Stop American Tour
- 1984: Feeding Frenzy Tour
- 1985: Last Mango in Paris Tour
- 1986: Floridays Tour / World Tour of Florida
- 1987: A Pirate Looks At Forty Tour
- 1988: Cheap Vacation Tour / Hot Water Tour
- 1989: Off to See the Lizard Tour / Buffett Does Ballads Tour
- 1990: Jimmy's Jump Up Tour
- 1991: Outpost Tour
- 1992: Rece$$ion Rece$$ Tour
- 1993: Chameleon Caravan Tour
- 1994: Fruitcakes Tour
- 1995: Domino College Tour
- 1996: Banana Wind Tour
- 1997: Havana Daydreamin' Tour
- 1998: Don't Stop The Carnival Tour
- 1999: Beach House On The Moon Tour
- 2000: Tuesdays, Thursdays, Saturdays Tour
- 2001: A Beach Odyssey Tour
- 2002: Far Side of the World Tour
- 2003: Tiki Time Tour
- 2004: License To Chill Tour
- 2005: A Salty Piece Of Land Tour
- 2006: Party At The End Of The World Tour
- 2007: Bama Breeze Tour
- 2008: Year of Still Here Tour
- 2009: Summerzcool Tour
- 2010: Under The Big Top Tour
- 2011: Welcome to Fin Land
"Gulf and western" style
Gulf and western is a term used to describe the music of Buffett and other similar sounding performers. The name derives from elements in Buffett's early music including musical influence from country and western, along with folk music and lyrical themes from the Gulf of Mexico coast. A critic described Buffett's music as a combination of "tropical languor with country funkiness into what some [have] called the Key West sound, or Gulf-and-western." The term is a play on the name of the former megacorporation Gulf+Western (now part of National Amusements).
Other performers identified as gulf and western are often deliberately derivative of Buffett's musical style and some are tribute bands or, in the case of Greg "Fingers" Taylor, a former member of Jimmy Buffett's Coral Reefer Band. They can be heard on Buffett's online Radio Margaritaville and on the compilation album series Thongs in the Key of Life.
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- ^ Mark Humphrey. Jimmy Buffett Scrap Book. Page 120.
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- ^ "Buffett Caught with Club Drug". New York Post. October 6, 2006. http://www.nypost.com/seven/10062006/gossip/pagesix/pagesix.htm. Retrieved 2008-03-30. [dead link]
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- ^ "Singer Buffett ejected from Knicks and Heat contest". http://media.www.dailytexanonline.com/media/storage/paper410/news/2001/02/05/Sports/Across.The.Wire-698290.shtml. Retrieved 2007-08-25.
- ^ CNBC (October 4, 2008). "American Greed". NBC. http://www.hulu.com/watch/46535/american-greed-partys-over---tycos-kozlowski#x-0,vepisode,1,0. Retrieved 2010-10-26.
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- ^ Alanna Nash. "Margaritaville Madness." Entertainment Weekly. 13 July 1990. Retrieved on 25 July 2009. "Buffett, 43, who crafts a sunny variant of calypso, salsa, country, and Memphis soul described as 'yacht rock' or 'gulf and western'..."
- ^ "Jimmy Buffett" at the Mississippi Writers Page. 5 August 2007. Retrieved on 25 July 2009. "...he began to mix country, folk, and pop music styles with tropical and coastal lyrical themes to create a musical sound sometimes called 'gulf and western.'"
- ^ Lori Hoffman. "Booming Buffettville." Atlantic City Weekly. 21 August 2008. Retrieved on 25 July 2009. "[Buffett's] music is described as having a 'gulf and western' sound."
- ^ Mark Humphrey with Harris Lewine. The Jimmy Buffett Scrap Book. Citadel Press, 2000. p. 68. ISBN 978-0-8065-2099-5. "[ Jerry Jeff Walker said] 'I am responsible for all that island junk he does so well -- that golf-Gulf-and-Western thing.'"
- ^ Music Achievers: Jimmy Buffett at the Alabama Music Hall of Fame. Retrieved on 25 July 2009. "Refers to his style of music as 'Gulf and Western.'"
- ^ *Harrington, Richard. "Jimmy Buffett: Oh, the Stories He Can Tell." Washington Post 17 December 1989, G1. Cited in Dawn S. Bowen. "Lookin' for Margaritaville: Place and Imagination in Jimmy Buffett's Songs." Journal of Cultural Geography. Spring/Summer 1997. Vol. 16, Issue 2. p. 99. Retrieved 10 April 2007.
- ^ Jim Morris website
- Official Jimmy Buffett Web Site
- Jimmy Buffett at the Internet Movie Database
- Jimmy Buffett Entry at the Encyclopedia of Alabama
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