Glucuronic acid
Glucuronic acid
Identifiers
CAS number 6556-12-3 YesY
PubChem 441478
ChemSpider 392615 YesY
UNII 8A5D83Q4RW YesY
DrugBank DB03156
KEGG C00191 YesY
MeSH Glucuronic+acid
ChEBI CHEBI:42717 YesY
Jmol-3D images Image 1
Properties
Molecular formula C6H10O7
Molar mass 194.14 g mol−1
Melting point

159-161 °C[1]

 YesY (verify) (what is: YesY/N?)
Except where noted otherwise, data are given for materials in their standard state (at 25 °C, 100 kPa)
Infobox references

Glucuronic acid (from Ancient Greek γλυκός "sweet" + οὖρον "urine") is a carboxylic acid. Its structure is similar to that of glucose. However, glucuronic acid's sixth carbon is oxidized to a carboxylic acid. Its formula is C6H10O7.

The salts and esters of glucuronic acid are known as glucuronates; the anion C6H9O7 is the glucuronate ion.

Glucuronic acid should not be confused with gluconic acid, a linear carboxylic acid resulting from the oxidation of a different carbon of glucose. Both glucuronic acid and gluconic acid are reported to be found in the fermented drink known as kombucha.[citation needed]

Contents

Functions

Proteoglycans

Glucuronic acid is common in carbohydrate chains of proteoglycans. It is part of mucous animal secretions (such as saliva), cell glycocalyx and intercellular matrix (for instance hyaluronan))

Glucuronidation of toxic substances

In the animal body, glucuronic acid is often linked to the xenobiotic metabolism of substances such as drugs, pollutants, bilirubin, androgens, estrogens, mineralocorticoids, glucocorticoids, fatty acid derivatives, retinoids, and bile acids. These linkages involve glycosidic bonds, and this linkage process is known as glucuronidation.[2] Glucuronidation occurs mainly in the liver, although the enzyme responsible for its catalysis, UDP-glucuronyltransferase, has been found in all major body organs, e.g., intestine, kidneys, brain, adrenal gland, spleen, and thymus.[3][4]

GlucuronidationBiphenylAmine.png

The substances resulting from glucuronidation are known as glucuronides (or glucuronosides) and are typically much more water-soluble than the non-glucuronic acid-containing substance from which they were originally synthesised. The human body uses glucuronidation to make a large variety of substances more water-soluble, and, in this way, allow for their subsequent elimination from the body through urine or faeces (via bile from the liver). Hormones may also be glucuronidated to allow for easier transport around the body. Pharmacologists have linked drugs to glucuronic acid to allow for more effective delivery of a broad range of substances. Sometimes toxic substances are also less toxic after glucuronidation.

The conjugation of xenobiotic molecules with hydrophilic molecular species such as glucuronic acid is known as phase II metabolism.

The β-D methyl glycoside of glucuronic acid in the low energy 4C1 conformation

Use

Determination of urinary steroids and of steroid conjugates in blood.

Contained in some commercially available brands of Kombucha as an antioxidant & organic acid[5]

In all plants and mammals-other than guinea pigs and primates-glucuronic acid is a precursor of ascorbic acid, also known as vitamin c[6] .

Conformation

Unlike its C5 epimer iduronic acid, which may occur in a number of conformations, glucuronic acid occurs in predominantly the 4C1 conformation.[7]

Glucuronidases

Glucuronidases are those enzymes that hydrolyze the glycosidic bond between glucuronic acid and some other compound.

Notes

  1. ^ D-Glucuronic acid at Sigma-Aldrich
  2. ^ King C, Rios G, Green M, Tephly T (2000). "UDP-glucuronosyltransferases". Curr. Drug Metab. 1 (2): 143–61. doi:10.2174/1389200003339171. PMID 11465080. 
  3. ^ Ohno, Shuji; Nakajin, Shizuo (2008-10-06). "Determination of mRNA Expression of Human UDP-Glucuronosyltransferases and Application for Localization in Various Human Tissues by Real-Time Reverse Transcriptase-Polymerase Chain Reaction". Drug Metabolism and Disposition (American Society for Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics) 37 (1): 32–40. doi:10.1124/dmd.108.023598. http://dmd.aspetjournals.org/content/37/1/32.abstract. Retrieved 2010-11-07. 
  4. ^ Bock K, Köhle C (2005). "UDP-glucuronosyltransferase 1A6: structural, functional, and regulatory aspects". Methods enzymol. 400: 57–75. doi:10.1016/S0076-6879(05)00004-2. PMID 16399343. 
  5. ^ Dave, G.T.. "Ingredients". Ingredients. http://www.synergydrinks.com/enlightened/kombucha_enlightened_multigreen.aspx#. Retrieved 26 August 2011. 
  6. ^ Harvey, Richard (2011). Biochemistry (5th Edition). Philadelphia: Wolters Kluwer: Lippincott Williams and Wilkins. pp. 161. ISBN 978-1-60831-412-6. 
  7. ^ Ferro, D. R. Provasoli, A. (1990). "Conformer populations of L-iduronic acid residues in glycosaminoglycan sequences". Carbohydr. Res. 195 (2): 157–167. doi:10.1016/0008-6215(90)84164-P. PMID 2331699. 

References

  • Kuehl GE, Murphy SE (2003). "N-glucuronidation of nicotine and cotinine by human liver microsomes and heterologously expressed UDP-glucuronosyltransferases". Drug Metab. Dispos. 31 (11): 1361–8. doi:10.1124/dmd.31.11.1361. PMID 14570768. 
  • Kuehl GE, Murphy SE (2003). "N-glucuronidation of trans-3'-hydroxycotinine by human liver microsomes". Chem. Res. Toxicol. 16 (12): 1502–6. doi:10.1021/tx034173o. PMID 14680362. 
  • Mannfred A Hollinger, Introduction to Pharmacology, ISBN 0-415-28033-8
  • Chang, K. M.; McManus, K.; Greene, J.; Byrd, G. D.; DeBethizy, J. D. Glucuronidation as a metabolic pathway for nicotine metabolism. 1991
  • Coffman B.L., King C.D., Rios G.R. and Tephly T.R. The glucuronidation of opioids, other xenobiotics, and androgens by human

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Look at other dictionaries:

  • glucuronic acid — glucuronic acid. См. глюкуроновая кислота. (Источник: «Англо русский толковый словарь генетических терминов». Арефьев В.А., Лисовенко Л.А., Москва: Изд во ВНИРО, 1995 г.) …   Молекулярная биология и генетика. Толковый словарь.

  • glucuronic acid — The uronic acid of glucose in which C 6 is oxidized to a carboxyl group; the d isomer detoxicates or inactivates various substances ( e.g., benzoic acid, phenol, camphor, and the female sex hormones) undergoing conjugation with such substances in …   Medical dictionary

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  • glucuronic acid — (= GA; GlcA) Uronic acid formed by oxidation of OH group of glucose in position 6. D glucuronic acid is widely distributed in plants and animals as a subunit of various oligosaccharides …   Dictionary of molecular biology

  • glucuronic acid — gliukurono rūgštis statusas T sritis chemija formulė OCH(CHOH)₄COOH santrumpa( os) GlcA atitikmenys: angl. glucuronic acid rus. глюкуроновая кислота …   Chemijos terminų aiškinamasis žodynas

  • glucuronic acid — acid that is derived from glucose and is present in the blood and urine …   English contemporary dictionary

  • glucuronic acid — |glükyə|ränik noun Etymology: glucuronic from gluc + Greek ouron urine + English ic more at urine : a crystalline aldehyde acid HOOC(CHOH)4CHO obtainable from gum arabic by hydrolysis or from methyl glucoside by oxidation and occurring naturally… …   Useful english dictionary

  • glucuronic acid — /glooh kyeuh ron ik, glooh / Biochem. an acid, C6H10O7, formed by the oxidation of glucose, found combined with other products of metabolism in the blood and urine. Also, glycuronic acid. [1910 15; earlier glycuronic acid, trans. of G… …   Universalium

  • glucuronic acid — noun Etymology: gluc + uronic Date: 1911 a compound C6H10O7 that occurs especially as a constituent of mucopolysaccharides (as hyaluronic acid) and combined as a glucuronide …   New Collegiate Dictionary

  • glucuronic acid — noun A uronic acid derived from glucose …   Wiktionary

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