- Subliminal message
A subliminal message is a signal or message embedded in another medium, designed to pass below the normal limits of the human
mind's perception. These messages are unrecognizable by the consciousmind, but in certain situations can affect the subconsciousmind and importantly, the unconscious mind, and can negatively or positively influence subsequent later thoughts, behaviors, actions, attitudes, belief systems and value systems. The term "subliminal" means "beneath a limen" ( sensory threshold). This is derived from the Latin words "sub", meaning under, and "limen", meaning threshold.
E. W. Scripturepublished " The New Psychology" in 1898, which described the basic principles of subliminal messages.cite web|title=The Straight Dope: Does subliminal advertising work?|publisher= The Straight Dope|url=http://www.straightdope.com/classics/a1_187.html|accessdate=2006-08-11]
In 1900, Knight Dunlap, an American professor of
psychology, flashed an "imperceptible shadow" to subjects while showing them a Müller-Lyer illusioncontaining two lines with pointed arrows at both ends which create an illusionof different lengths. Dunlap claimed that the shadow influenced his subjects subliminally in their judgment of the lengths of the lines.
Although these results were not verified in a scientific study, American psychologist
Harry Levi Hollingworthreported in an advertising textbookthat such subliminal messages could be used by advertisers.cite news|work= Skeptical Inquirer|date=Spring 1992|publisher= Committee for the Scientific Investigation of Claims of the Paranormal|title=The Cargo-Cult Science of Subliminal Persuasion|pages=260-272|last=Pratkanis|first=Anthony R.|url=http://www.csicop.org/si/9204/subliminal-persuasion.html|accessdate=2006-08-11]
During World War II, the
tachistoscope, an instrument which projects pictures for an extremely brief period, was used to train soldiers to recognize enemy airplanes. Today the tachistoscope is used to increase reading speed or to test sight. [ [http://dictionary.reference.com/search?q=tachistoscope tachistoscope - Definitions from Dictionary.com ] ]
In 1957, market researcher
James Vicaryclaimed that quickly flashing messages on a movie screen, in Fort Lee, New Jersey, had influenced people to purchase more food and drinks. Vicary coined the term "subliminal advertising" and formed the Subliminal Projection Company based on a six-week test. Vicary claimed that during the presentation of the movie Picnic he used a tachistoscope to project the words "Drink Coca-Cola" and "Hungry? Eat popcorn" for 1/3000 of a second at five-second intervals. Vicary asserted that during the test, sales of popcorn and Coke in that New Jersey theater increased 57.8 percent and 18.1 percent respectively.cite web|title=Urban Legends Reference Pages: Business (Subliminal Advertising)|publisher=The Urban Legends Reference Pages|url=http://www.snopes.com/business/hidden/popcorn.asp|accessdate=2006-08-11]
It was later revealed, however, that Vicary lied about the experiment. He admitted to falsifying the results, and an identical experiment conducted by
Dr. Henry Linkshowed no increase in cola or popcorn sales. This has led people to believe that Vicary actually did not conduct his experiment whatsoever. [ [http://www.snopes.com/business/hidden/popcorn.asp Urban Legends Reference Pages: Subliminal Advertising ] ]
Vicary's claims were promoted in
Vance Packard's book "The Hidden Persuaders",cite web |last=Lantos |first=Geoffrey P. |title=The Absolute Threshold Level and Subliminal Messages |publisher= Stonehill College|url=http://faculty.stonehill.edu/glantos/Lantos1/PDF_Folder/BA344_PDF/Exercise%2046.pdf|format= conspiracy theoriesof governments and cults using the technique to their advantage.cite web |title=Subliminal messages in movies and media |url=http://www.chokingonpopcorn.com/popcorn/?p=391 |accessdate=2008-05-21Fact|date=March 2007 The practice of subliminal advertising was subsequently banned in the United Kingdomand Australia, and by American networks and the National Association of Broadcastersin 1958.
But in 1958, Vicary conducted a television test in which he flashed the message "telephone now" hundreds of times during a
Canadian Broadcasting Corporationprogram, and found no increase in telephone calls. In 1962, Vicary admitted that he fabricated his claim, the story itself being a marketing ploy. [Boese, Alex (2002). "The Museum of Hoaxes: A Collection of Pranks, Stunts, Deceptions, and Other Wonderful Stories Contrived for the Public from the Middle Ages to the New Millennium", E. P. Dutton, ISBN 0-525-94678-0. pages. 137-38.] Efforts to replicate the results of Vicary's reports have never resulted in success.
In 1973, commercials in the
United Statesand Canadafor the game "Hūsker Dū?" flashed the message "Get it". During the same year, Wilson Bryan Key's book "Subliminal Seduction" claimed that subliminal techniques were widely used in advertising. Public concern was sufficient to cause the FCC to hold hearings in 1974. The hearings resulted in an FCC policy statement stating that subliminal advertising was "contrary to the public interest" and "intended to be deceptive". Subliminal advertising was also banned in Canada following the broadcasting of Hūsker Dū? ads there.
A study conducted by the
United Nationsconcluded that "the cultural implications of subliminal indoctrination is a major threat to human rights throughout the world." [cite book |last=Peters |first=Dan |coauthors=Steve Peters |title=Rock's Hidden Persuader: The Truth About Backmasking|publisher=Bethany House Publishers |year=1985 |pages=19 Cited in U.S. Senate, page 125.]
In 1985, Dr. Joe Stuessy testified to the
United States Senateat the Parents Music Resource Centerhearings that:
The message [of a piece ofStuessy's written testimony stated that:
heavy metalmusic] may also be covert or subliminal. Sometimes subaudible tracks are mixed in underneath other, louder tracks. These are heard by the subconscious but not the conscious mind. Sometimes the messages are audible but are backwards, called backmasking. There is disagreement among experts regarding the effectiveness of subliminals. We need more research on that. [U.S. Senate, page 118.]
Some messages are presented to the listener backwards. While listening to a normal forward message (often somewhat nonsensical), one is simultaneously being treated to a back-wards message (in other words, the lyric sounds like one set of words going forward, and a different set of words going backwards). Some experts believe that while the conscious mind is absorbing the forward lyric, the subconscious is working overtime to decipher the backwards message. [U.S. Senate, page 125.]
This testimony may have been based on an incorrect understanding of
backward masking, however.
Later findings discover that not everyone will benefit from such messages, in fact it has been reported to have certain adverse effects.
Used in advertising to create familiarity with new products, subliminal messages make familiarity into a preference for the new products. Dr.
Johan Karremanssuggests that subliminal messages have an effect when the messages are goal-relevant. [Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 2006] Karremans did a study assessing whether subliminal priming of a brand name of a drink would affect a person’s choice of drink, and whether this effect is caused by the individual’s feelings of being thirsty.
By subliminally priming or preparing the participant with text or an image without being aware of it, gave the partaker familiarity with the product. Half of his participants were subliminally primed with
LiptonIce ("Lipton Ice" was repeatedly flashed on a computer screen for 24 milliseconds), while the other half was primed with a control that did not consist of a brand. In his study he found that subliminally priming a brand name of a drink (Lipton Ice) made those who were thirsty want the Lipton Ice. Those who were not thirsty however, were not influenced by the subliminal message since their goal was not to quench their thirst. [ Karremans, J. (2006). Beyond vicary’s fantasies: the impact of subliminal priming and brand choice [Electronic Version] . Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 42, 792-798 ]
Subconscious stimulus by single words is well known to be modestly effective in changing human behavior or emotions. This is evident by a pictorial advertisement that portrays four different types of rum. The phrase "U Buy" was embedded somewhere, backwards in the picture. A study (Key, 1973) [Key, W. B. (1973). Subliminal seduction. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall.] was done to test the effectiveness of the alcohol ad. Before the study, participants were able to try to identify any hidden message in the ad, none found any. In the end, the study showed 80% of the subjects unconsciously perceived the backward message, meaning they showed a preference for that particular rum.Though many things can be perceived from subliminal messages, only a couple words or a single image of unconscious signals can be internalized. As only a word or image can be effectively perceived, the simpler features of that image or word will be cause a change in behavior (i.e., beef is related to hunger). This was demonstrated by Byrne in 1959. The word "
beef" was flashed for several, five millisecond intervals during a sixteen-minute movie to experimental subjects, while nothing was flashed to controlled subjects. Neither the experimental nor controlled subjects reported for a higher preference for beef sandwiches when given a list of five different foods, but the experimental subjects did rate themselves as hungrier than the controlled subjects when given a survey [Byrne, D. (1959). "The effect of a subliminal food stimulus on verbal responses." Journal of Applied Psychology. 43 (no.4), 249-251.] If the subjects were flashed a whole sentence, the words would not be perceived and no effect would be expected.
In 2007, to mark the 50th anniversary of James Vicary's original experiment, it was recreated at the International Brand Marketing Conference MARKA 2007 [ [http://www.markaconference.com/lang_id2/index.html Marka conference.com] ] . As part of the "Hypnosis, subconscious triggers and branding" presentation 1,400 delegates watched part the opening credits of the film PICNIC that was used in the original experiment. They were exposed to 30 subliminal cuts over a 90 second period. When asked to choose one of two brands 81% of the delegates picked the brand suggested by the subliminal cuts.
Studies in 2004 and 2006 showed that subliminal exposure to images of frightened faces or faces of people from another race will increase the activity of the
amygdalain the brain and also increase skin conductance. [Cite journal
volume = 27
issue = 8
pages = 652–661
last = Williams
first = Leanne M.
coauthors = Belinda J. Liddell, Andrew H. Kemp, Richard A. Bryant, Russell A. Meares, Anthony S. Peduto, Evian Gordon
title = Amygdala-prefrontal dissociation of subliminal and supraliminal fear
journal = Human Brain Mapping
accessdate = 2008-01-16
year = 2006
doi = 10.1002/hbm.20208] [ [http://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2004/12/041208231237.htm Brain Activity Reflects Complexity Of Responses To Other-race Faces] , "Science Daily", 14 December 2004]
In 2007, it was shown that subliminal exposure to the
Israeli flaghad a moderating effect on the political opinions and voting behaviors of Israeli volunteers. This effect was not present when a jumbled picture of the flag was subliminally shown. [Hassin, Ferguson, Shidlovski, Gross (2007). [http://www.pnas.org/cgi/content/abstract/104/50/19757 Subliminal exposure to national flags affects political thought and behavior] . "Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the USA", vol. 104, no. 50]
Backmasking, an audio technique in which sounds are recorded backwards onto a track that is meant to be played forwards, produces messages that sound like gibberish to the conscious mind. Gary Greenwald, a fundamentalist Christian preacher, claims that these messages can be heard subliminally, and can induce listeners towards, in the case of rock music, sex and drug use. [cite book|title=Psychological Sketches|editors=John R. Vokey and Scott W. Allen|edition=6th edition|year=2002|publisher=Psyence Ink|location=Lethbridge, Alberta|chapter=Subliminal Messages|pages=223–246|last=Vokey|first=John R.|url=http://people.uleth.ca/~vokey/pdf/Submess.pdf|format=PDF|accessdate=2006-07-05] However, this is not generally accepted as fact. [cite web|title=Backmasking on records: Real, or hoax?|last=Robinson|first=B.A.|url=http://www.religioustolerance.org/chr_cul5.htm|accessdate=2006-07-04]
Following the 1950s subliminal message panic, many businesses have sprung up purporting to offer helpful subliminal audio tapes that supposedly improve the health of the listener. However, there is no evidence for the therapeutic effectiveness of such tapes. [cite news|work=
Skeptical Inquirer|date=Spring 1992|publisher= Committee for the Scientific Investigation of Claims of the Paranormal|title=Subliminal Perception: Facts and Fallacies|pages=273-81|last=Moore|first=Timothy E.|url=http://www.csicop.org/si/9204/subliminal-perception.html|accessdate=2006-08-11]
Subliminal messages have also been known to appear in music. In the 1990s, two young men died from self-inflicted gunshots and their families were convinced it was because of a British rock band, Judas Priest. The families claimed subliminal messages told listeners to "do it" in the song "Better by You, Better Than Me". The case was taken to court and the families sought more than US$6 million in damages. The judge, Jerry Carr Whitehead, ruled that the subliminal messages did exist in the song, but stated that the families did not produce any scientific evidence that the song persuaded the young men to kill themselves. In turn, he ruled it probably would not have been perceived without the "power of suggestion" or the young men would not have done it unless they really intended to. [Vance, J., et al. v. Judas Priest et al., No. 86-5844, 2nd Dist. Ct. Nev. (August, 24 1990)]
Subliminal messages can affect a human's emotional state and/or behaviors. They are most effective when perceived unconsciously. The most extensive study of therapeutic effects from audiotapes was conducted to see if the self-esteem audiotapes would raise self-esteem. 237 volunteers were provided with tapes of three manufacturers and completed post tests after one month of use. The study showed clearly that subliminal audiotapes made to boost self-esteem did not produce effects associated with subliminal content within one month’s use. [ Eskenazi, J., & Greenwald, A.G., Pratkanis, A.R. (1990). What you expect is what you believe (but not necessarily what you get): On the ineffectiveness of subliminal self-help audiotapes. Unpublished manuscript. University of California. Santa Cruz.]
The effectiveness of any subliminal message has been called into question time after time and has led many to one conclusion, namely: that the technique does not work, as Anthony R. Pratkanis, one of the researchers in the field puts it:“It appears that, despite the claims in books and newspapers and on the backs of subliminal self help tapes, subliminal-influence tactics have not been demonstrated to be effective. Of course, as with anything scientific, it may be that someday, somehow, someone will develop a subliminal technique that may work, just as someday a chemist may find a way to transmute lead to gold. I am personally not purchasing lead futures on this hope however.” [The Straight Dope: Does subliminal advertising work?. The Straight Dope. Retrieved on 2008-06-11]
1978, Wichita, KansasTV station KAKE-TVreceived special permission from the police to place a subliminal message in a report on the BTK Killer(Bind, Torture, Kill) in an effort to get him to turn himself in. The subliminal message included the text "Now call the chief," as well as a pair of glasses. The glasses were thought to be of significance to the killer because when BTKmurdered "Nancy Fox", there was a pair of glasses lying upside down on her dresser. So, police felt that the glasses would stir up some remorse emotion and included them in the subliminal message. The attempt was unsuccessful, and police reported no increased volume of calls afterward. [ [http://www.kake.com/home/headlines/1251737.html BTK Back ] ]
Before the re-election of French president
François Mitterrandin 1988, a subliminal picture of him was mixed in the title sequence of French national television daily news show, and it appeared for several consecutive days.Fact|date=February 2007
The subject was also prominently featured in the 1999 film "Fight Club". Pictures of the main character,
Tyler Durden, flash onscreen at various points during the earlier parts of the film, before Durden is introduced. [ [http://www.eeggs.com/items/15885.html Fight Club Easter Eggs - Eeggs.com ] ] Also, Durden is shown at his job as a projectionist, splicing pornographic flash frames into a film he is showing. [ [http://www.screenit.com/movies/1999/fight_club.html Screen It! Parental Review: Fight Club ] ] A picture of a penis flashes before the end credits. [ [http://www.imdb.com/title/tt0137523/crazycredits Fight Club (1999) - Crazy credits ] ]
2000 U.S. presidential campaign, a televisionad campaigning for Republican candidate George W. Bushshowed words (and parts thereof) scaling from the foreground to the background on a television screen. When the word BUREAUCRATS flashed on the screen, one frame showed only the last part, RATS. [Crowley, Candy. " [http://archives.cnn.com/2000/ALLPOLITICS/stories/09/12/bush.ad/ Bush says 'RATS' ad not meant as subliminal message] " CNN.com, 2000-9-12. Retrieved on December 16, 2006] [ [http://www.bushwatch.com/rats.htm Smoking Pistols: George "Rat Ad" Bush and the Subliminal Kid] ] The FCC looked into the matter, [ [http://www.fcc.gov/Speeches/Furchtgott_Roth/2000/sphfr011.html 9/19/00 Speech by Commissioner Harold Furchtgott-Roth: The FCC's Investigation of "Subliminal Techniques:" ] ] but no penalties were ever assessed in the case.Fact|date=March 2007
In the British
alternative comedyshow "The Young Ones", a number of subliminal images were present in the original and most repeated broadcasts of the second series. Images included a gull coming into land, a tree frog jumping through the air, a man gurningvague|gurning? what is that?, and the end credits of the movie " Carry On Cowboy". Fact|date=February 2007 These were included to mock the then-occurring matter of subliminal messages in television. Although they may fall foul of the FCC guidelines, these images "do" appear in the U.S. boxset DVD "Every Stoopid Episode".
Chris Morris famously used subliminal messages to display a half-frame of the last episode of
Brass Eye, stating "Grade is a cunt" in reference to Michael Grade, the Channel 4executive responsible for the heavy editing of Morris's show [Brasseye Wiki] . Shaun Micallef's Australian 'Micallef P(r)ogram(me)' shows contained strange subliminal messages that can be seen on the DVDs. As they are of random, humorous statements, questions, etc, they are not regarded as advertising. They were usually images of politicians, as is the case with his more recent Newstopia.
In Warner Brothers' 1943 animated film "Wise Quacking Duck", Daffy Duck spins a statue which is holding a shield. For one frame the words "BUY BONDS" are visible on the shield.
December 16, 1973episode of "Columbo" titled "Double Exposure", is based on subliminal messaging: it is used by the murderer, Dr. Bart Keppler, a motivational research specialist, played by Robert Culp, to lure his victim out of his seat during the viewing of a promotional film and by Lt. Columbo to bring Keppler back to the crime scene and incriminate him. Lt. Columbo is shown how subliminal cuts work in a scene mirroring James Vicary's experiment. [ [http://movies2.nytimes.com/gst/movies/movie.html?v_id=130155 Error - - New York Times ] ] [ [http://palimpsest.stanford.edu/byform/mailing-lists/amia-l/2005/12/msg00182.html Re: [AMIA-L Reply: "Sherlock Jr." ] ]
McDonald'slogo appeared for one frame during the Food Network's " Iron Chef America" series on 2007-01-27, leading to claims that this was an instance of subliminal advertising. The Food Network replied that it was simply a glitch. [cite web |title=It was a glitch, not a subliminal ad, for McDonald's on Food Network |publisher=" Canadian Press" |date= 2007-01-25|url=http://www.cbc.ca/cp/media/070125/X01259AU.html |accessdate=2007-03-11]
In Formula One racing, the paint scheme of many cars would carry messages intended to look as if they were of banned tobacco products in many Grands Prix where
tobacco advertisingwas banned, though many of these were jokes on the part of the teams (for example, Jordan Grand Prixran Benson and Hedgessponsorship as "Bitten and Hisses" with a snake-skin design on their cars). A similar procedure was used by NASCAR driver Jeff Burtonafter the AT&T Mobilityadvertising was banned by a court order in 2007.
November 7, 2007, Network Ten Australia's broadcast of the ARIA Awards was caught out for using subliminal advertising in an exposé by the ABC (Australian Broadcasting Corporation). [ [http://video.msn.com/video.aspx?mkt=en-AU&brand=ninemsn&vid=8f347951-dbf5-48eb-9a24-7c35870c6552 Subliminal advertising. - ninemsn Video ] ]
2007, Sprite used a type of obvious subliminal message, involving yellow (lemon) and green (lime) objects such as cars. The objects would then be shown inconspicuously in the same setting, while showing the word "lymon" (combining the words lime and lemon) on screen for a second at a time. They called this "Sublymonal Advertising." The previous year, Sprite used a similar advertising campaign, but this time it was tied in to " Lost Experience", an alternate reality game.
In "", there is an experiment carried out to see if viewers would react to subliminal messages. One was shown during an experiment to discover which substance provides the best skid; the message appeared when a brainiac hit a bale of hay. The second message appeared across a T-Shirt of a brainiac saying 'Call your mum', and the third said 'scratch your nose' when a sound wave hit the Brainiac logo. At the end of the show, people were shown in a theatre watching that episode. The test showed that the messages barely impacted the audience. The subliminal content in this episode was legal, as its presence was announced at the beginning and end of the episode.
In Week 11 of "" in which candidates have to create an ad for the Delta's former low-cost commercial airlines Song, the team Matchstick used a 1/48th of a frame image at the bottom-right corner with the Song Airlines logo.
Some groups have made claims that subliminal messages can be found in various forms of popular entertainment, such as the supposed use of "backward messages" in rock and roll songs.
Many of these purported messages are Satanic; for example, if the
Led Zeppelinsong " Stairway to Heaven" is played backwards, lyrics including "Oh here's to my sweet Satan" can supposedly be made out. [ [http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=iduFTKST8PQ YouTube - Led Zeppelin : Greatest Secret ] ]
Another One Bites the Dust" contains (backwards) a pro-marijuana message: "Stop to smoke marijuana", not "It's fun to smoke marijuana". [www.albinoblacksheep.com/flash/queen.php]
These two messages have not been confirmed by the artists (and denied by some band members), and have not been proven to exist by fully respected sources. 
In February 2007, it was discovered that 87
Konamislot machines in Ontario (OLG) casinos displayed a brief winning hand image before the game would begin. Government officials worried that the image subliminally persuaded gamblers to continue gambling; the company claimed that the image was a coding error. The machines were removed pending a fix by Konami. [ [http://www.computerworld.com/action/article.do?command=viewArticleBasic&articleId=9012094 Agency asks slot-machine maker to halt subliminal messages ] ]
While their ultimate efficacy is somewhat controversial, subliminal messages have a long history in television shows, movies, and novels.
Governments are often depicted as employing subliminal messages in propaganda. The novel "FREEZE FRAME" by B. David Warner depicts the election of a corrupt president candidate using subliminal advertising to sway the votes in his favor. The movie "Josie and the Pussycats" described a long lasting plot whereby the U.S. government was controlling
trendsby inserting subliminal messages in popular music. Furthermore, towards the end of the film, a government agent shuts down the operation, saying that subliminal advertising works better in films. The words "Josie and the Pussycats is the best movie ever" are then spoken rapidly in voice-overand displayed quickly on screen, with the words "Join the Army" in smaller letters below it. And in the 2005 science fiction movie "Serenity", the Alliance uses subliminal messages broadly disseminated in commercials and other video to cause River Tam to go berserk. It only works on River because she was subjected to Alliance training and conditioning.
Many references deal specifically with the military. An episode of "
The Simpsons" involved Bart and his friends joining a boy band, the Party Posse. While watching a video for the Party Posse, Lisa notices the phrase "Yvan Eht Nioj" being repeated continuously by belly-dancers. She plays the video in reverse and finds that it means "Join the Navy". Also, an Uncle Sam"I Want You" poster can be seen in the video frame by frame. The joke was that the United States sends subliminal messages in order to recruit people. In addition, the art of "superliminal messages" was demonstrated to Lisa; a Navy representative leans out a window, sees Lenny Leonardand Carl Carlson, and shouts "Hey you! Join the Navy!" And in an episode of " Malcolm in the Middle" titled "Reese joins the Army (2)", one of the drill sergeants comments about the other's restored confidence in the Army "I guess the subliminal advertising's working after all." his fellow drill sergeant then matter-of-factly states "the army doesn't use subliminal ads" and then the pair slowly turn and look at each other. Not too different from the joke in "The Simpsons" episode mentioned above, this episode was a joking reference to the low military recruiting numbers in 2004suggesting that the U.S. military uses such things in a tactic of desperation. And in an episode of " Babylon 5", during a scene which represents a public service announcement for Psi Corps, the words "TRUST THE CORPS" and "THE CORPS IS YOUR FRIEND" appear on screen for four frames. J. Michael Straczynski wanted the audience to recognize the subliminal message; "I had my staff find out what constitutes subliminal material--and it's two frames per second, which is illegal, you can't do things at that speed--so I went four frames per second". [cite book |last=Killick |first=Jane |title=Babylon 5: The Coming of Shadows |publisher=The Ballantine Publishing Group |year=1997 |pages=131]
An early episode of the "
X-Files" deals with a small town plagued by killings where the perpetrators are influenced by messages appearing on ATMs and other electronic devices. Mulder refers to the use of subliminal messages in several instances. The " Family Guy" episode " Mr. Griffin Goes to Washington" jokes about subliminal messages for smoking in television. It shows an old black and white TV show whose dialogue is repeatedly interrupted by a suited man stating "Smoke" and later "Are you smoking yet?" in a monotone voice. Later in the episode, when Peter is arguing with his bosses about smoking, the same man interrupts while saying "Smoke."
The advertising element is mocked in
Terry Pratchett's Discworldnovel Moving Pictures, when, to please a sponsor, a movie producer inserts a still image lasting several minutes of a serving of spare ribs. The producer claimed that if showing just a few frames would have a positive impact, imagine what showing it for longer would do.
Subliminal psychological influence is also referenced frequently by the British
mentalist Derren Brownwho alleges their use as the basis of many of his effects. Often, these claims are just decoys to divert attention from the real workings of his effectscitation |title= I'll bet £1,000 that Derren can't read my mind |url=http://www.telegraph.co.uk/connected/main.jhtml?xml=/connected/2003/06/10/ecfmagic.xml |date= June 10, 2003|periodical= The Daily Telegraph|accessdate=2008-03-12 |last=Singh |first=Simon ] .
In an episode of the animated TV show "Kappa Mikey" Lily and Gonard made the public do their bidding by using subliminal messages in a cheese stick commercial.
* Dixon, N. F. (1971). Subliminal Perception: The nature of a controversy, McGraw-Hill, New York.
* Greeenwald, Anthony W. (1992). New Look 3: Unconscious Cognition Reclaimed, American Psychologist, 47.
* Holender, D. (1986). Semantic activation without conscious identification in dichotic listening, parafoveal vision, and visual masking: A survey and appraisal. Behavioral and Brain Sciences, 9, 1-23.
* Merikle, P. M., and M. Daneman (1998). Psychological Investigations of Unconscious Perception,
Journal of Consciousness Studies.
* Watanabe, Sasaki, Nanez (2001). Perceptual learning without perception. Nature, 413, 844-848.
* Seitz and Watanabe (2003). Is subliminal learning really passive. Nature, 422, 36.
United States Senate(1985). [http://www.joesapt.net/superlink/shrg99-529/ Record Labeling: Hearing before the Committee on Commerce, Science, and Transportation] . United States Senate, Ninety-ninth Congress, First Session on Contents of Music and the Lyrics of Records (September 19, 1985). Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.
* Boese, Alex (2006). "Hippo Eats Dwarf: A Field Guide to Hoaxes and Other B.S."", Harcourt, Inc., ISBN 0-15-603083-7, 193-95
* "The Hidden Persuaders"
List of hoaxes
* [http://www.stayfreemagazine.org/archives/22/subliminal-advertising.html Subliminal Seduction: How Did the Uproar over Subliminal Advertising Affect the Advertising Industry?]
* [http://www.csicop.org/si/9611/judas_priest.html/ Scientific Consensus and Expert Testimony: Lessons from the Judas Priest Trial]
* [http://www.ukhh.com/features/articles/sonic_branding/index.html Article on subliminal brand references in hip hop lyrics.]
* [http://www.sprudio.net/silent.html Description on Subliminal and the mind power.]
* [http://www.subliminalpersuasion.co.uk/Newsletter1.html Article on subliminal persuasion & mass mind control used in advertising & politics]
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