History of Illinois

US state
Name = Illinois
Fullname = State of Illinois

Flaglink = Flag of Illinois

Nickname = Land of Lincoln, The Prairie State
Motto = State sovereignty, national union
Capital = Springfield
LargestCity = Chicago
LargestMetro = Chicago
Governor = Rod Blagojevich (D)
Senators = Richard Durbin (D)
Barack Obama (D)
PostalAbbreviation = IL
OfficialLang = English [ [http://www.ilga.gov/legislation/ilcs/ilcs3.asp?ActID=132&ChapAct=5%26nbsp%3BILCS%26nbsp%3B460%2F&ChapterID=2&ChapterName=GENERAL+PROVISIONS&ActName=State+Designations+Act%2E 5 ILCS 460/20 (from Ch. 1, par. 2901‑20) - Sec. 20] . "Official language. The official language of the State of Illinois is English." ]
AreaRank = 25th
TotalAreaUS = 57,918
TotalArea = 149,998
LandAreaUS = 55,593
LandArea = 143,968
WaterAreaUS = 2,325
WaterArea = 6,030
PCWater = 4.0
PopRank = 5th
2000Pop = 12,419,293
DensityRank = 11
2000DensityUS = 223.4
2000Density = 86.27
MedianHouseholdIncome = $45,787cite web|url=http://www.census.gov/hhes/www/income/income04/statemhi.html|title=US Census Bureau, median household income by state 2004|accessdate=2006-07-01]
IncomeRank = 18
AdmittanceOrder = 21st
AdmittanceDate = December 3 1818
TimeZone = Central: UTC-6/-5
Latitude = 36°58'N to 42°30'N
Longitude = 87°30'W to 91°30'W
WidthUS = 210
Width = 340
LengthUS = 390
Length = 629
HighestPoint = Charles Moundcite web| date =29 April 2005 | url =http://erg.usgs.gov/isb/pubs/booklets/elvadist/elvadist.html#Highest| title =Elevations and Distances in the United States| publisher =U.S Geological Survey| accessmonthday = November 6 | accessyear = 2006]
HighestElevUS = 1,235
HighestElev = 377
MeanElevUS = 600
MeanElev = 182
LowestPoint = Mississippi River
LowestElevUS = 279
LowestElev = 85
Website = www.illinois.gov


Cahokia, the urban center of the pre-Columbian Mississippian culture, was located near present-day Collinsville, Illinois. That civilization vanished circa 1400–1500 for unknown reasons. The next major power in the region was the Illiniwek Confederation, a political alliance among several tribes. The Illiniwek gave Illinois its name. The Illini suffered in the seventeenth century as Iroquois expansion (caused by European expansion in the eastern United States) forced them to compete with several tribes for land. The Illini were replaced in Illinois by the Pottawatomie, Miami, Sauk, and other tribes.

European exploration

French explorers Jacques Marquette and Louis Joliet explored the Mississippi and Illinois Rivers in 1673. As a result of their exploration, Illinois was part of the French empire until 1763, when it passed to the British. The area was ceded to the new United States in 1783 and became part of the Northwest Territory.

The 1800s

The Illinois-Wabash Company was an early claimant to much of Illinois. The Illinois Territory was created on February 3, 1809. In 1818, Illinois became the 21st U.S. state. Early U.S. settlement began in the south part of the state and quickly spread northward, driving out the native residents. In 1832, some Indians returned from Iowa but were driven out in the Black Hawk War, fought by militia.

Illinois is known as the "Land of Lincoln" because it is here that the 16th President spent his formative years. Chicago gained prominence as a lake and canal port after 1848, and as a rail hub soon afterward. By 1857, Chicago was the state's dominant metropolis. (see History of Chicago).

Mormons at Nauvoo

In 1839, members of the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter Day Saints, also known as Mormons or LDS, fleeing persecution in Missouri, purchased a tiny town that would be renamed Nauvoo. The city, situated on a prominent bend along the Mississippi River, quickly grew to 12,000 inhabitants, and was for a time rivaling for the title of largest city in Illinois. In some ways it was a theocracy, but it held democratic elections. The fact that LDS voted in blocs, and that Mormons benefited from a collective effort as opposed to the more isolated and independent non-Mormon farmer, caused many non-LDS in the nearby areas to become suspicious and jealous. [ Heidi S. Swinton and Lee Groberg, "Sacred Stone" (2002), a PBS documentary and companion book, see. p. 86-87] By the early 1840s the LDS church built a large stone temple in Nauvoo, one of the largest buildings in Illinois at the time, which was completed in 1846. In 1844 Smith was assassinated in nearby Carthage, Illinois, even though he was under the protection of Illinois judicial system, with assurances of his safety from then Governor Ford. In 1846 the Mormons under Brigham Young left Illinois for what would become Utah, but what was still then Mexican territory. A small breakaway group remained, but Nauvoo fell largely into abandonment. The Nauvoo temple was completed in 1846, but only used for a few months before it was sold in 1846 as the LDS left Nauvoo. Years later an Icarian utopian community came to Nauvoo, but it eventually disbanded. Nauvoo today has many restored buildings from the 1840s. [ Robert Bruce Flanders, "Nauvoo Kingdom on the Mississippi" (1965)]

The Civil War

During the Civil War, over 250,000 Illinois men served in the Union Army, more than any other northern state except New York, Pennsylvania and Ohio. Beginning with President Lincoln's first call for troops and continuing throughout the war, Illinois mustered 150 infantry regiments (see Illinois in the Civil War), which were numbered from the 7th IL to the 156th IL. Seventeen cavalry regiments were also mustered, as well as two light artillery regiments.

Throughout the war the Republicans were in control, under the firm leadership of Governor Richard Yates.

Twentieth century

In the 20th century, Illinois emerged as one of the most important states in the Union. Edward F. Dunne was a Chicago Democrat and leader of the progressive movement, who served as governor 1913-1917. He was succeeded by Frank Lowden, who led the war effort and was Republican presidential hopeful in 1920.

Democrat Adlai Stevenson served as governor in 1948-52. William G. Stratton led a Republican statehouse in the 1950s. In 1960 Otto Kerner, Jr. led the Democrats back to power. He promoted economic development, education, mental health services, and equal access to jobs and housing. In a federal trial in 1973, Kerner was convicted on 17 counts of bribery while he was governor, plus other charges; he went to prison. Richard Ogilvie, a Republican, won in 1968. Bolstered by large Republican majorities in the state house, Ogilvie embarked upon a major modernization of state government. He successfully advocated for a state constitutional convention, increased social spending, and secured Illinois' first state income tax. The latter was particularly unpopular with the electorate, and the modest Ogilvie lost a close election to the flashy Democrat Dan Walker in 1972. The [http://www.cyberdriveillinois.com/publications/handbook0304/history_highlights_ilconstitution.pdf state constitutional convention of 1970] wrote a new document that was approved by the voters. It modernized government and ended the old system of three-person districts which froze the political system in place.

Walker did not repeal the income tax that Ogilvie had enacted and wedged between machine Democrats and Republicans had little success with the Illinois legislature during his tenure. In 1987 he was convicted of business crimes not related to his governorship. In the 1976 gubernatorial election, Jim Thompson, a Republican prosecutor from Chicago won 65 percent of the vote over Michael Howlett. Thompson was reelected in 1978 with 60 percent of the vote, defeating State Superintendent Michael Bakalis. Thompson was very narrowly reelected in 1982 against former U.S. Senator Adlai E. Stevenson III, and then won decisively against him in a rematch in 1986. Thompson was succeeded by Republican Jim Edgar who won a close race in 1990 against his Democratic opponent, attorney general Neil Hartigan, and was reelected in 1994 by a wide margin against another Democratic opponent, state comptroller and former state senator Dawn Clark Netsch. In the elections of 1992 and 1994, the Republicans succeeded in capturing both houses of the state legislature and all statewide offices, putting Edgar in a very strong political position. He advocated increases in funding for education along with cuts in government employment, spending and welfare programs. He was succeeded by yet another Republican, George H. Ryan. Ryan worked for extensive repairs of the Illinois Highway System called "Illinois FIRST." FIRST was an acronym for "Fund for Infrastructure, Roads, Schools, and Transit." Signed into law in May 1999, the law created a $6.3 billion package for use in school and transportation projects. With various matching funds programs, Illinois FIRST provided $2.2 billion for schools, $4.1 billion for public transportation, another $4.1 billion for roads, and $1.6 billion for other projects. Ryan gained national attention in January 2003 when he commuted the sentences of everyone on or waiting to be sent to death row in Illinois—a total of 167 convicts—due to his belief that the death penalty was incapable of being administered fairly. Ryan's term was marked by scandals, and as of late 2005 he was himself on trial.

Rod Blagojevich, elected in 2002, was the first Democratic governor in a quarter century. Illinois was trending sharply toward the Democratic party in both national and state elections. After the 2002 elections, Democrats had control of the House, Senate, and all but one statewide office. Blagojevich signed numerous pieces of progressive legislation such as ethics reform, death penalty reform, a state Earned Income Tax Credit, and expansions of health programs like KidCare and FamilyCare. Blagojevich signed a bill in 2005 that prohibited discrimination based on sexual orientation in employment, housing, public accommodations, and credit. Other notable actions of his term include a strict new ethics law and a comprehensive death penalty reform bill that was written by Sen. Barack Obama in his capacity as a state senator, and the late-Sen. Paul M. Simon. Despite an annual budget crunch, Blagojevich has overseen an increase in funding for health care and education every year without raising general sales or income taxes. He has been feuding with his powerful father-in-law Chicago Alderman Richard Mell. Blagojevich has been criticized for using what his opponents call "gimmicks" to balance the state budget. Republicans have also claimed that he is simply passing the state's fiscal problems on to future generations by borrowing his way to balanced budgets. Indeed, the 2005 state budget called for paying the bills by shorting state employees' pension fund by $1.2 billion, which led to a backlash among educators.Blagojevich has been [http://www.freewillblog.com/index.php/weblog/archives/C13 criticized] for too rapidly expanding the role of state government. In October 2005, the state had $1.4 billion in overdue medical bills, yet in November 2005, Blagojevich created two new government agencies and signed the All Kids health insurance bill, which obligates Illinois to provide affordable, comprehensive health insurance to every child in the state.

Illinois, as of the census of 2000, currently has the 5th largest population of the 50 U.S. states. Chicago, in terms of populations, is the third largest city in the country.Fact|date=November 2007

Famous Illinois People

Most pre 1940 names have been selected from the WPA Guide [Works Progress Administration. Illinois: A Descriptive and Historical Guide (1939). ISBN 0-394-72195-0. One of the most famous surveys--covers every town and city and much more.] This is a list of people from Illinois; people are not included if they left the state before beginning a career.

Before 1940

* Jane Addams, social work
* George Ade, author
* Dankmar Adler, architect
* Nelson Algren, author
* John Peter Altgeld, politics, Dem
* Philip D. Armour, business
* Louis Armstrong, music
* Edward Beecher, religion
* Lydia Moss Bradley, philanthropy
* Daniel H. Burnham, architect
* Joe Cannon, politics, GOP
* Anton Cermak, politics, Dem
* John Coughlin, politics, Dem
* Clarence Darrow, law
* John Dewey, philosophy
* Stephen Douglas, politics, Dem
* Finley Peter Dunne, author
* Jean Baptiste Pointe du Sable, settler
* Ninian Edwards, politics
* James T. Farrell, author
* Theodore Dreiser, author
* Eugene Field, author
* Marshall Field I, business
* Marshall Field III, business
* Thomas Ford, politics, Dem
* John T. Frederick, literature
* Lyman J. Gage, business
* Ulysses Grant, military
* Red Grange, sports
* Frank W. Gunsaulus, education
* William Rainey Harper, education
* Carter Harrison, Sr., politics, Dem
* Carter Harrison, Jr., politics, Dem
* George Peter Alexander Healy, artist
* Ben Hecht, author
* William Holabird, architect
* Raymond Hood, architect
* Henry Horner, politics, Dem
* Robert Maynard Hutchins, education
* Robert Ingersoll, religion
* Samuel Insull, business
* William Le Baron Jenney, architect
* Leslie Keeley, medicine
* Florence Kelley, social work
* John Kinzie, settler
* Frank Knox, newspapers
* William Kohlsaat, newspapers
* René-Robert Cavelier, Sieur de La Salle, explorer
* Victor Lawson, newspapers
* Abraham Lincoln, politics, Whig, GOP
* Mary Todd Lincoln, Lincoln's wife
* Robert Todd Lincoln, Lincoln's son
* Vachel Lindsay, author
* John A. Logan, politics, Dem, GOP
* Frank Lowden, politics, GOP
* Cyrus Hall McCormick, business
* Robert R. McCormick, newspapers
* James Robert Mann, politics, GOP
* Edgar Lee Masters, author
* Joseph Medill, newspapers
* Charles E. Merriam, education
* Harriet Monroe, poet
* Dwight L. Moody, religion
* William Vaughn Moody, author
* George Cardinal Mundelein, religion
* William Butler Ogden, business
* Richard James Oglesby, politics, GOP
* John M. Palmer, politics, GOP, Dem
* Potter Palmer, business
* Bertha Palmer, society
* Francis W. Parker, education
* John Mason Peck, author
* George M. Pullman, business
* Henry T. Rainey, politics, Dem
* John Root, architect
* Julius Rosenwald, business
* Benjamin Rusk, medicine
* Ann Rutledge, friend of Lincoln
* Edward Wyllis Scripps, newspapers
* Richard Warren Sears, business
* Albion W. Small, sociology
* Joseph Smith, religion
* John Spalding, religion
* Amos Alonzo Stagg, sports
* Ellen Gates Starr, social work
* Bernard Sheil, religion
* Melville E. Stone, newspapers
* Adlai Stevenson, politics; Vice President, Dem
* Gustavus F. Swift, business
* Graham Taylor, social work
* Theodore Thomas, conductor
* Lyman Trumbull, politics, Dem, GOP, Dem
* Jonathan Turner, education
* A. Montgomery Ward, business
* John Wentworth, politics, Dem, GOP
* Frances E Willard, social activist, head of WCTU
* Frank Lloyd Wright, architect
* Richard Yates, politics, GOP
* Charles Yerkes, business


*Benjamin Agosto (born 1982), skater
*John Bardeen (1908-1991) winner of two Nobel prizes in physics
*Joseph Cardinal Bernardin (1928-1996), religion
*John Corzine, New Jersey Governor; Dem
*Richard J. Daley (1902-1976), Chicago mayor; Dem
*Richard M. Daley (born 1942), Chicago mayor, son of Richard J.; Dem
*Everett Dirksen, politics, GOP
*Enrico Fermi, nuclear physics
*Andrew Greeley (born 1928), author; religion; sociology
*George Halas, (1895-1983) sports
*Robert H. Michel, (b. 1923), politics, GOP
*Ronald Reagan (1911-2004), 40th President of the United States, GOP
*Ludwig Mies van der Rohe, architect
*Katherine Shindle (born 1977), Miss America 1998 and actress
*William Shockley, 1910-1989, physicist invented transistor
*Adlai Stevenson II ( [908-1965), politician, Dem
*Dick Van Dyke, actor
*Jerry Van Dyke (born 1931), actor
*Hillary Rodham Clinton (born 1947), politician and former US First Lady
*Barack Obama (born 1961), politician, Dem

ee also

* List of historical sites related to the Illinois labor movement


econdary sources

*Adams, Jane. "The Transformation of Rural Life: Southern Illinois, 1890-1990" (1994)
*Angle, Paul M. "Here I Have Lived: A History of Lincoln's Springfield, 1821-1865" (1935)
*Baringer, William E. and Romaine Proctor. "Lincoln's Vandalia, a Pioneer Portrait" (1949)
*Barnard, Harry. "Eagle Forgotten": The Life of John Peter Altgeld" (1938)
*Beveridge, Albert J. "Abraham Lincoln, 1809-1858" (1928)
*Biles, Roger. "Illinois: A History Of The Land And Its People" (2005)
*Buck, Solon J. "Illinois in 1818" (1917): [http://penelope.uchicago.edu/Thayer/E/Gazetteer/Places/America/United_States/Illinois/_Texts/Centennial_History/Illinois_in_1818/home.html online]
*"The Centennial History of Illinois"
**vol. 1. "The Illinois Country 1673-1818" by Clarence Walworth Alvord. (1920)
**vol. 2. "The Frontier State, 1818-1848" by Theodore Calvin Pease. (1919)
**vol. 3. "The Era of the Civil War 1848-1870" by Arthur Charles Cole (1919)
**vol. 4. "The Industrial State 1870-1893" by Ernest Ludlow Bogart & Charles Manfred Thompson, (1920)
**vol. 5. "The Modern Commonwealth, 1893-1918" by Ernest Ludlow Bogart and John Mabry Mathews (1920).
*Carr, Kay J. "Belleville, Ottawa, and Galesburg: Community and Democracy on the Illinois Frontier" (1996)
*Chapman, Margaret L. et al. "Mitsubishi Motors in Illinois: Global Strategies, Local Impacts" (1995)
*Davis, James E. "Frontier Illinois" (1998).
*Elazar, Daniel J. "Cities of the Prairie Revisited" (1986)
*Garland, John H. "The North American Midwest: A Regional Geography" (1955)
* Gjerde, Jon. "The Minds of the West: Ethnocultural Evolution in the Rural Middle West, 1830-1917" (1997)
*Gove, Samuel K. and James D. Nowlan. "Illinois Politics & Government: The Expanding Metropolitan Frontier" (1996)
*Hallwas, John E. ed., "Illinois Literature: The Nineteenth Century" (1986)
*Hartley, Robert E. "Big Jim Thompson of Illinois" (1979), governor 1980s
* Hartley, Robert E. "Paul Powell of Illinois: A Lifelong Democrat" (1999)
*Hicken, Victor. "Illinois in the Civil War" (1966).
*Hoffmann, John. "A Guide to the History of Illinois." (1991)
*Howard, Robert P. "Illinois: A History of the Prairie State" (1972).
*Howard, Robert P. "Mostly Good and Competent Men: Illinois Governors 1818-1988" (1988)
*Hutchinson, William. "Lowden of Illinois the Life of Frank O. Lowden" 2 vol (1957) governor in 1917-21
*Jensen, Richard. "Illinois: A History" (2001). interpretive history using model of traditional-modern-postmodern
*Keiser, John H. "Building for the Centuries: Illinois 1865-1898" (1977)
*Kenney, David "The Political Passage: The Career of Stratton of Illinois" (1990). Governor in 1950s.
* Kinsley, Philip. "The Chicago Tribune: Its First Hundred Years" (1943)
*Kleppner, Paul. "Political Atlas of Illinois" (1988) maps for 1980s.
* Leonard, Gerald. "The Invention of Party Politics: Federalism, Popular Sovereignty, and Constitutional Development in Jacksonian Illinois" (2002)
*Littlewood, Thomas B. "Horner of Illinois" (1969), governor 1933-40
*Martin, John Bartlow. "Adlai Stevenson of Illinois" (1977). Governor 1948-52.
*Meyer, Douglas K. "Making the Heartland Quilt: A Geographical History of Settlement and Migration in Early-Nineteenth-Century Illinois" (2000)
*Miller, Kristie. "Ruth Hanna Mccormick: A Life in Politics, 1880-1944" (1992)
*Morton, Richard Allen. "Justice and Humanity: Edward F. Dunne, Illinois Progressive" (1997) governor 1913-17.
*Nardulli, Peter, ed."Diversity, Conflict, and State Politics: Regionalism in Illinois" (1989)
*Peirce, Neal, and John Keefe. "The Great Lakes States of America: People, Politics, and Power in the Five Great Lakes States" (1990)
* [http://www.press.uillinois.edu/epub/books/plummer/toc.html Plummer, Mark A. "Lincoln's Rail Splitter: Governor Richard J. Oglesby" (2001)] governor 1865-69, 1885-89
* Riddle, Donald W. "Lincoln Runs for Congress" (1948)
* Simpson, Dick. "Rogues, Rebels, and Rubber Stamps: The Politics of the Chicago City Council from 1863 to the Present" (2001)
* WPA. "Illinois: A Descriptive and Historical Guide" (1939)

Primary documents

*Johnson, Walter. "Governor of Illinois 1949-1953" (Papers of Adlai E. Stevenson, Volume 3) (1973), primary documents.
*Peck, J. M. "A Gazetteer of Illinois" (1837), [http://history.alliancelibrarysystem.com/IllinoisAlive/files/bp/htm7/bp000182.cfm a primary source online]
*Quaife, Milo Milton ed. "Growing Up with Southern Illinois, 1820 to 1861: From the Memoirs of Daniel Harmon Brush" (1944)
*Sutton, Robert P. ed. "The Prairie State: A Documentary History of Illinois" (1977).

External links

* [http://penelope.uchicago.edu/Thayer/E/Gazetteer/Places/America/United_States/Illinois/_Topics/history/home.html History of Illinois] at Thayer's American History site
* [http://www.encyclopedia.chicagohistory.org/ "Encyclopedia of Chicago" (2005)]
* [http://www.digitalbookindex.com/_search/search010hstregionalillinoisa.asp e-books on Illinois and Chicago]

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