- Labour Day
Labour Day or Labor Day is an annual holiday to celebrate the economic and social achievements of workers. Labour Day has its origins in the labour union movement, specifically the eight-hour day movement, which advocated eight hours for work, eight hours for recreation, and eight hours for rest.
Celebrating the Australian labour movement, the Labour Day public holiday is fixed by the various state and territory governments, and so varies considerably. It is the first Monday in October in the Australian Capital Territory, New South Wales and South Australia. In both Victoria and Tasmania, it is the second Monday in March (though the latter calls it Eight Hours Day). In Western Australia, Labour Day is the first Monday in March. In both Queensland and the Northern Territory, it is the first Monday in May.
Labour Day has been celebrated on the first Monday in September in Canada since the 1880s. The origins of Labour Day in Canada can be traced back to December 1872 when a parade was staged in support of the Toronto Typographical Union's strike for a 58-hour work-week. The Toronto Trades Assembly (TTA) called its 27 unions to demonstrate in support of the Typographical Union who had been on strike since March 25. George Brown, Canadian politician and editor of the Toronto Globe hit back at his striking employees, pressing police to charge the Typographical Union with "conspiracy." Although the laws criminalising union activity were outdated and had already been abolished in Great Britain, they were still on the books in Canada and police arrested 24 leaders of the Typographical Union. Labour leaders decided to call another similar demonstration on September 3 to protest the arrests. Seven unions marched in Ottawa, prompting a promise by Canadian Prime Minister Sir John A. Macdonald to repeal the "barbarous" anti-union laws. Parliament passed the Trade Union Act on June 14 the following year, and soon all unions were demanding a 54-hour work-week.
The Toronto Trades and Labour Council (successor to the TTA) held similar celebrations every spring. American Peter J. McGuire, co-founder of the American Federation of Labor, was asked to speak at a labour festival in Toronto, Canada on July 22, 1882. Returning to the United States, McGuire and the Knights of Labor organised a similar parade based on the Canadian event on September 5, 1882 in New York City, USA. On July 23, 1894, Canadian Prime Minister John Thompson and his government made Labour Day, to be held in September, an official holiday. In the United States, the New York parade became an annual event that year, and in 1894 was adopted by American president Grover Cleveland to compete with International Workers' Day (May Day).
While Labour Day parades and picnics are organised by unions, many Canadians regard Labour Day as the Monday of the last long weekend of summer. Non-union celebrations include picnics, fireworks displays, water activities, and public art events. Since the new school year generally starts right after Labour Day, families with school-age children take it as the last chance to travel before the end of summer.
An old fashion related idea in Canada and the United States scorns at the wearing of white after Labour Day. The explanations for this tradition varies. The fact that white is a summer colour and Labour Day unofficially marks the end of summer, while also offering less protection against the start of the cooler temperatures is one potential explanation. The rule may have been intended as a status symbol for new members of the upper and middle classes, in the late 19th and early 20th century.
A Labour Day tradition in Atlantic Canada would be the Wharf Rat Rally in Digby, Nova Scotia, while the rest of Canada is watching Labour Day Classic, Canadian Football League event where rivals like Calgary Stampeders and Edmonton Eskimos, Hamilton Tiger-Cats and Toronto Argonauts (except in 2011, due to a scheduling conflict), and Saskatchewan Roughriders and Winnipeg Blue Bombers play on Labour Day weekend. Before the demise of the Ottawa Renegades after the 2005 season, that team played the nearby Montreal Alouettes on Labour Day weekend. Since then, the Alouettes have played the remaining team in the league, the BC Lions.
Labour Day parade in Grand Falls-Windsor Newfoundland started in 1996 and still continues today, over 100 years later. The celebrations go on for three days with the parade on Labour Day Monday.
Before 1961, May 24 was celebrated in Jamaica as Empire Day in honour of the birthday of Queen Victoria and her emancipation of slaves in Jamaica. As its name suggests, the day was used to celebrate the British Empire, complete with flag-raising ceremonies and the singing of patriotic songs. In 1961, Jamaican Chief Minister Norman Washington Manley proposed the replacement of Empire Day with Labour Day, a celebration in commemoration of May 23, 1938, when Alexander Bustamante led a labour rebellion leading to Jamaican independence.
Until May 23, 1971, Labour Day was primarily a trade unions celebration with public rallies and marches. On occasion, opposing trade unions clashed on this day, so in 1972, Jamaican Prime Minister Michael Manley promoted Labour Day as a showcase for the importance of labour to the development of Jamaica, and a day of voluntary community participation to beneficial projects. Since then, Labour Day has been not only a public holiday but also a day of mass community involvement around the country.
In New Zealand, Labour Day is a public holiday held on the fourth Monday in October. Its origins are traced back to the eight-hour working day movement that arose in the newly founded Wellington colony in 1840, primarily because of carpenter Samuel Parnell's refusal to work more than eight hours a day. He encouraged other tradesmen also to work for only eight hours a day and in October 1840, a workers' meeting passed a resolution supporting the idea. On October 28, 1890, the 50th anniversary of the eight-hour day was commemorated with a parade. The event was then celebrated annually in late October as either Labour Day or Eight-Hour Demonstration Day. In 1899 government legislated that the day be a public holiday from 1900. The day was celebrated on different days in different provinces. This led to ship owners complaining that seamen were taking excessive holidays by having one Labour Day in one port then another in their next port. In 1910 the government stipulated that the holiday would be observed on the same day throughout the nation.
Trinidad and Tobago
In the United States, Labor Day is a federal holiday observed on the first Monday of September. It is customarily viewed as the end of the summer vacation season. Many schools open for the year in the week after Labor Day.
As a socialist country, Labour day in cuba is celebrated on the first day of May.In all provinces of the country it is celebrated , large rallies and public gathering is arranged by government. The largest rally is celebrated in Havana in Plaza de La Revolucion,and traditionally Cuban president speech the gathering. A general holiday is celebrated.It is considered one of the world largest gathering.
- ^ a b c d e Marsh, James. "Origins of Labour Day". The Canadian Encyclopedia. http://www.thecanadianencyclopedia.com/index.cfm?PgNm=ArchivedFeatures&Params=A218.
- ^ "Why aren't you supposed to wear white after Labor Day?". Ask.com. 2002-09-13. http://ask.yahoo.com/ask/20020913.html.
- ^ a b c "History of Labour Day". National Labour Day 2008. Jamaica Information Service. http://www.jis.gov.jm/special_sections/labourDay2008/history.htm.
- ^ Trinidad and Tobago Labour Day
- ^ 5 U.S.C. § 6103(a).
- ^ Yelena Johnson, Labor Day End of Summer White Party, Celebrations. Accessed 2009.10.05.
- ^ Rosalind S. Helderman, "Issues That Matter to You: School Start After Labor Day"; The Washington Post, September 6, 2009.
- Canadian Holidays, Government of Canada
- The Canadian Roots of Labour Day
- How Labour Day was Celebrated in the 13th Century
- New Zealand Encyclopaedia history of the 8 hour movement
Wikimedia Foundation. 2010.