- Armored car (military)
A military armored (or armoured) car (see spelling differences) is a wheeled armored vehicle, lighter than other armored fighting vehicles, primarily being armored and/or armed for self-defence of the occupants. Other multi-axled wheeled military vehicles can be quite large, and actually be superior to some smaller tracked vehicles in terms of armour and armament.
At the beginning of the twentieth century a number of military armored vehicles were manufactured by adding armor and weapons to existing vehicles. The first manufactured one was the "
Motor War Car" in 1902. [cite book
last = Macksey
first = Kenneth
title = The Guinness Book of Tank Facts and Feats
publisher = Guinness Superlatives Limited
date = 1980
pages = 256
isbn = 0851122043] The Italians used armored cars during the
Italo-Turkish War. [Crow, "Encyclopedia of Armored Cars", pg. 102] A great variety of amored cars appeared on both sides during World War Iand these were used in various ways. Generally, the armored cars were used by more or less independent car commanders. However, sometimes they were used in larger units up to squadron size. The cars were primarily armed with light machine guns. But larger units usually employed a few cars with heavier guns. As air power became a factor, armored cars offered a mobile platform for anti-aircraft guns. [Crow, "Encyclopedia of Armored Cars", pg. 25]
In 1914, the Belgians fielded some primitive examples of armored cars during the "
Race to the Sea". The British Royal Naval Air Servicethen began using cars to rescue downed reconnaisance pilots in the battle areas, and as these excursions became increasingly dangerous, they improvised boiler plate armoring on the vehicles. Eventually, customised Rolls-Royce armoured cars were ordered , but when they arrived in December 1914, the mobile period on the Western Front was already over. ["First World War" - Willmott, H.P., Dorling Kindersley, 2003, Pg. 59]
A military armored car is a type of
armoured fighting vehiclehaving wheels (from four to ten large off-road wheels) instead of tracks, and usually light armor. Armored cars are typically less expensive and have superior speed and range compared to tracked military vehicles. Most are not intended for heavy fighting; their normal use is for reconnaissance, command, control, and communications, or for use against lightly armed insurgents or rioters. Only some are intended to enter close combat, often accompanying convoys to protect soft-skinned vehicles. They usually mount a machine gun, autocannon, or small tank gun. Other uses include as a way to move (or tow) various long-range rocket, missile, or mortar batteries through dangerous areas while giving some protection to the crew.
Armored cars are popular for peacekeeping or internal security duties. Their appearance is less confrontational and threatening than tanks, and their size and manoeuvrability is more compatible with tight urban spaces designed for wheeled vehicles. They can also be much more easily air-deployed in
Many modern forces now have their dedicated armored car designs, to exploit the advantages noted above. Examples would be the
M1117 Armored Security Vehicleof the USA or Alvis Saladinof the post-World War II era in the United Kingdom.
Alternatively, civilian vehicles may be modified into improvised armored cars in ad-hoc fashion. Many militias and irregular forces adapt civilian vehicles into AFVs (Armoured Fighting Vehicles) and troop carriers, and in some regional conflicts these "technicals" are the only combat vehicles present. On occasion, even the soldiers of national militaries are forced to adapt their civilian-type vehicles for combat use, often using improvised armor and scrounged weapons.
*Crow, Duncan, and Icks, Robert J., "Encyclopedia of Armored Cars", Chatwell Books, Secaucus, NJ, 1976. ISBN 0-89009-058-0.
[http://wio.ru/tank/ww1ba.htm WWI armored cars]
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