Target Corporation
Target Corporation
Type Public company
Traded as NYSETGT
Industry Retail
Founded 1902 (as Dayton Dry Goods)[1]
1969 (as Dayton-Hudson)[2]
2000 (as Target)[3]
Founder(s) George Dayton
Headquarters Target Plaza North & Target Plaza South
Minneapolis, Minnesota, United States
Number of locations 1,750 (January 2011)[4]
Area served United States
(except Vermont)
Key people Gregg Steinhafel
(Chairman, President and CEO)
Revenue increase US$ 67.390 billion (FY 2010)[4]
Operating income increase US$ 4.495 billion (FY 2010)[4]
Net income increase US$ 2.920 billion (FY 2010)[4]
Total assets decrease US$ 44.533 billion (FY 2010)[4]
Total equity increase US$ 15.487 billion (FY 2010)[4]
Employees 355,000 (FY 2010)[4]
Website Target.com

Target Corporation, doing business as Target, is an American retailing company headquartered in Minneapolis, Minnesota. It is the second-largest discount retailer in the United States, behind Walmart.[5][6] The company is ranked at number 33 on the Fortune 500 as of 2010 and is a component of the Standard & Poor's 500 index. Its bullseye trademark is licensed to Wesfarmers, owners of the separate Target Australia chain.

The company was founded in 1902 as the Dayton Dry Goods Company, though its first Target store was opened in 1962 in nearby Roseville, Minnesota. Target grew and eventually became the largest division of Dayton Hudson Corporation, culminating in the company being renamed as Target Corporation in August 2000. On January 13, 2011, Target announced its expansion into Canada. Target will operate 100 to 150 stores in Canada by 2013, through its purchase of leaseholds from the Canadian chain Zellers.

Contents

History

1902–1962: Dayton's

In 1876, George Dayton constructed a six-story building in downtown Minneapolis and convinced Reuben Simon Goodfellow Company to move its Goodfellows department store into the location. Goodfellow retired and sold his interest in the store to Dayton.[7] The store's name was changed to the Dayton Dry Goods Company in 1903, later being changed to the Dayton Company in 1911. In the 1950s, it acquired the Portland, Oregon-based Lipmans department store company and operated it as a separate division.[8] In 1956, the Dayton Company opened Southdale, the world's first fully enclosed two-level shopping center in the Minneapolis suburb of Edina, Minnesota.[9][verification needed] The company became a retail chain with the opening of its second store in Southdale.

1962–1971: Founding of Target

Target's original bullseye logo, used from 1962 until 1968.

While working for the Dayton company, John F. Geisse developed the concept of upscale discount retailing, and became the founder of Target from concept to large discount chain. On May 1, 1962 the Dayton Company, using Geisse's concepts, opened its first Target discount store located at 1515 West County Road B in the Saint Paul suburb of Roseville, Minnesota. The name "Target" originated from Dayton's publicity director, Stewart K. Widdess, and was intended to prevent consumers from associating the new discount store chain with the department store. The new subsidiary, Target Stores, ended its first year with four units, all in Minnesota. Target Stores lost money in its initial years, but reported its first gain in 1965, with sales reaching $39 million, allowing a fifth store to open in Minneapolis. Bruce Dayton launched the B. Dalton Bookseller specialty chain in 1966, which became the largest hardcover bookseller in the United States.[7] The bookseller chain was named after the founder, but with the y in Dayton replaced with an l. Target Stores expanded outside of Minneapolis by opening two stores in Denver, Colorado and sales exceeded $60 million. In 1967, the Dayton Corporation was established and it went public with its first offering of common stock, and it opened two more Target stores in Minnesota resulting in a total of nine units.[10]

This SuperTarget in Roseville, Minnesota sits on the site of the first Target store, which opened in 1962 and was torn down and replaced by this much larger store in 2005.

In 1968, Target changed its bullseye logo to a more modern look, and expanded into St. Louis, Missouri, with two new stores. That year, Target Stores experienced a transition phase: Target's president, Douglas J. Dayton, went back to the parent Dayton Corporation and was succeeded by William A. Hodder, and senior vice president and founder John F. Geisse left the company. He was later hired by St. Louis-based May Department Stores, where he founded the Venture Stores chain.[10] Target Stores ended the year with 11 units and $130 million in sales. In 1969, it acquired the Lechmere electronics and appliances chain that operated in New England, and expanded Target Stores into Texas and Oklahoma with six new units and its first distribution center in Fridley, Minnesota.[11] The Dayton Company also merged with the Detroit-based J.L. Hudson company that year, to become the Dayton-Hudson Corporation consisting of Target and five major department store chains: Dayton's, Diamond's of Phoenix, Arizona, Hudson's, John A. Brown of Oklahoma City, Oklahoma, and Lipmans. In 1970, Target Stores added seven new units, including two units in Wisconsin, and the 24-unit chain reached $200 million in sales.[10] That year, Dayton-Hudson also acquired the Team Electronics specialty chain that was headed by Stephen L. Pistner.[12]

1971–1982: Turnaround

Target script used from 1974 through 2004. Changes from the original logo are that its brandmark is a single red ring with a red dot in the middle,[13] and its wordmark uses the Helvetica typeface.[14]

In 1971, Dayton-Hudson acquired sixteen stores from the Arlan's department store chain in Colorado, Iowa, and Oklahoma. That year, two of those units reopened as Target stores, and in 1972 the other fourteen were reopened to make a total of 46 units. This caused the chain to experience another major transition phase: It reported its first decrease in profits since its initial years, as a result of the chain's rapid expansion and the top executives' lack of experience in discount retailing. Its loss in operational revenue was due to overstocking and carrying goods over multiple years regardless of inventory and storage costs. By then, Dayton Hudson considered selling off the Target Stores subsidiary. In 1973, Stephen Pistner, who had already revived Team Electronics and would later revive Montgomery Ward and Ames, was named chief executive officer of Target Stores, and Kenneth A. Macke was named Target Stores' senior vice president. The new management saved the chain by marking down merchandise to clean out its overstock and by allowing only one new unit to open that year. In 1975, it opened two stores, reaching 49 units in nine states and $511 million in sales. That year, the Target discount chain became the company's top revenue producer.[10]

In 1976, Target opened four new units and reached $600 million in sales. That year, Macke was promoted to president and chief executive officer of Target Stores. In 1977, Target Stores opened seven new units, and Stephen Pistner became president of Dayton Hudson, with Macke succeeding him as chairman and chief executive officer of Target Stores. The senior vice president of Dayton Hudson, Bruce G. Allbright, moved to Target Stores and succeeded Kenneth Macke as president. In 1978, the company acquired Mervyns and became the 7th largest retailer in the United States. Target Stores opened eight new stores that year, including its first shopping mall anchor store in Grand Forks, North Dakota. In 1979, it opened 13 new units to a total of 80 Target stores in eleven states and $1.12 billion in sales.[10][15] In 1980, it sold its Lipmans department store chain of six units to Marshall Field's, which rebranded the stores as Frederick & Nelson.[8] That year, Target Stores opened seventeen new units, including expansions into Tennessee and Kansas. It also acquired the Ayr-Way discount retail chain of 40 stores and one distribution center from Indianapolis-based L.S. Ayres & Company, which it reopened in 1981 as Target stores. That year, Stephen Pistner left the parent company to join Montgomery Ward, and Kenneth Macke succeeded him as president of Dayton Hudson.[16] Floyd Hall succeeded Kenneth Macke as chairman and chief executive officer of Target Stores. Bruce Allbright left the company to work for Woolworth, where he was named chairman and chief executive officer of Woolco. Bob Ulrich also became president and chief executive officer of Diamond's Department Stores in 1981.[17] In addition to the Ayr-Way acquisition, Target Stores expanded by opening fourteen new units and a third distribution center in Little Rock, Arkansas, to a total of 151 units and $2.05 billion in sales.[10]

1982–2000: Nationwide expansion

Since the launch of Target Stores to this point, it had focused its expansion in the Central United States. In 1982, it expanded into the West Coast of the United States by acquiring 33 FedMart stores in Arizona, California, and Texas and opening a fourth distribution center in Los Angeles.[18] That year, Bruce Allbright returned to Target Stores as its vice chairman and chief administrative officer, and the chain expanded to 167 units and $2.41 billion in sales. The 33 units acquired from FedMart were reopened as Target stores in 1983. Also in 1983, it founded the Plums off-price apparel specialty store chain with four units in the Los Angeles area, with an intended audience of middle-to-upper income women.

In 1984, it sold its Plums chain to Ross Stores after only 11 months of operation, and it sold its Diamond's and John A. Brown department store chains to Dillard's.[19][20][21] Meanwhile, Target Stores added nine new units to a total of 215 stores and $3.55 billion in sales. Floyd Hall left the company and Bruce Allbright succeeded him as chairman and chief executive officer of Target Stores. In May 1984, Bob Ulrich became president of the Dayton Hudson Department Store Division, and in December 1984 became president of Target Stores.[17]

In 1986, the company acquired 50 Gemco stores from Lucky Stores in California, allowing Target Stores to become the dominant retailer in Southern California as the chain grew to a total of 246 units. It also opened a fifth distribution center in Pueblo, Colorado. Dayton-Hudson sold the B. Dalton Bookseller chain of several hundred units to Barnes & Noble.[7] In 1987, the acquired Gemco units reopened as Target units, and Target Stores expanded into Michigan and Nevada, including six new units in Detroit, Michigan, to compete directly against Detroit-based Kmart, leading to a total of 317 units in 24 states and $5.3 billion in sales. Bruce Allbright became president of Dayton Hudson, and Bob Ulrich succeeded him as chairman and chief executive officer of Target Stores.[17] In 1988, Target Stores expanded into the Northwestern United States by opening eight units in Washington and three in Oregon, to a total of 341 units in 27 states. It also opened a distribution center in Sacramento, California, and replaced the existing distribution center in Indianapolis, Indiana, from the Ayr-Way acquisition with a new one.[10]

In 1989, it expanded by 60 units, especially in the Southeastern United States where it entered Florida, Georgia, North Carolina, and South Carolina to a total of 399 units in 30 states with $7.51 billion in sales.[10] This included an acquisition of 31 more stores from Federated Department Stores' Gold Circle and Richway chains in Florida, Georgia, and North Carolina, which were later reopened as Target stores.[18] It also sold its Lechmere chain that year to a group of investors including Berkshire Partners, a leveraged buy-out firm based in Boston, Massachusetts, eight Lechmere executives, and two local shopping mall executives.[11]

In 1990, it acquired Marshall Field's from BATUS Inc. and Target Stores opened its first Target Greatland general merchandise superstore in Apple Valley, Minnesota. In 1991, Target Stores had opened 43 Target Greatland units, and sales reached $9.01 billion. In 1992, it created a short-lived chain of apparel specialty stores called Everyday Hero with two stores in Minneapolis.[18] They attempted to compete against other apparel specialty stores such as GAP by offering private label apparel such as its Merona brand. In 1993, it created a chain of closeout stores called Smarts for liquidating clearance merchandise, such as private label apparel, that did not appeal to typical closeout chains that were only interested in national brands.[22] It operated four Smarts units out of former Target stores in Rancho Cucamonga, California, Des Moines, Iowa, El Paso, Texas, and Indianapolis, Indiana that each closed out merchandise in nearby distribution centers.[23] In 1994, Kenneth Macke left the company, and Bob Ulrich succeeded him as the new chairman of Dayton-Hudson.[12]

In 1995, Target Stores opened its first SuperTarget hypermarket in Omaha, Nebraska. It also closed the four Smarts units after only two years of operation.[23] Its store count increased to 670 with $15.7 billion in sales, and in 1996 to 736 units with $17.8 billion in sales.[24] In 1997, both of the Everyday Hero stores were closed.[25] Target's store count rose to 796 units, and sales rose to $20.2 billion.[24] In 1998, it acquired Greenspring Company's multi-catalog direct marketing unit, the Rivertown Trading Company, from Minnesota Communications Group, and it acquired the Associated Merchandising Corporation, an apparel supplier.[26][27] Target Stores grew to 851 units and $23.0 billion in sales.[24] In 1999, it acquired Fedco and its ten stores in a move to expand its SuperTarget operation into Southern California. It reopened six of these stores under the Target brand and sold the other four locations to Wal-Mart, Home Depot, and the Ontario Police Department, and its store count rose to 912 units in 44 states with sales reaching $26.0 billion.[15][24][28] On September 7, 1999, it relaunched its Target.com website as an e-commerce site and as part of its discount retail division. The site initially offered merchandise that differentiated its stores from its competitors, such as its Michael Graves brand.[29]

Map of Target stores in the US (click to enlarge)

2000–2011: Target Corporation

The point of sale in a Target store
Former Bullseye Bodega subsidiary in Midtown Manhattan, now a Delta Air Lines ticket office

In January 2000, Dayton Hudson Corporation changed its name to Target Corporation and its ticker symbol to TGT; by then, between 75 percent and 80 percent of the corporation's total sales and earnings came from Target Stores, while the other four chains—Dayton's, Hudson's, Marshall Field's, and Mervyns—were used to fuel the growth of the discount chain, which expanded to 977 stores in 46 states and sales reached $29.7 billion by the end of the year.[15] It also separated its e-commerce operations from its retailing division, and combined it with its Rivertown Trading unit into a stand-alone subsidiary called target.direct.[30] In 2001, it announced that its Dayton's and Hudson's stores would operate under the Marshall Field's brand, which was the most recognizable name in the Department Stores Division.

Target Stores expanded into Maine, reaching 1053 units in 47 states and $33.0 billion in sales.[24][31] Around the same time, the chain made a successful expansion into the Pittsburgh market, where Target capitalized on the collapse of Ames Department Stores that happened coincidentally at the same time as Target's expansion into the area. In 2002, it expanded to 1147 units, which included stores in San Leandro (Bayfair Mall), Fremont, and Hayward, California, and sales reached $37.4 billion, and in 2003 it reached 1225 units and $42.0 billion in sales.[15]

On June 9, 2004, Target Corporation announced its sale of the Marshall Field's chain to St. Louis, Missouri-based May Department Stores, which would become effective July 31, 2004. As well, on July 21, 2004, Target Corporation announced the sale of Mervyns to an investment consortium including Sun Capital Partners, Inc., Cerberus Capital Management, L.P., Lubert-Adler/ Klaff and Partners, L.P., which was finalized September 2. Target Stores expanded to 1308 units and reached $46.8 billion USD in sales. In 2005, it reached 1397 units and $52.6 billion in sales, and in 2006 it expanded to 1488 units and sales reached $59.4 billion.[15][32]

In May 2005, Target began operation in Bangalore, India, and these operations currently support all Target business units.[33] In 2006, Target completed construction of the Robert J. Ulrich Center in Embassy Golf Links in Bangalore, and Target planned to continue its expansion into India with the construction of additional office space at the Mysore Corporate Campus and successfully opened a branch at Mysore[34]

On January 9, 2008, Bob Ulrich announced his plans to retire as CEO, and named Gregg Steinhafel as his successor. This is due to Target Corporation policy which requires its high ranking officers to retire at the age of 65. Ulrich's retirement as CEO was effective May 1, but he remained the chairman of the board until the end of the 2008 fiscal year.

On March 4, 2009, Target expanded outside of the continental United States for the first time. Two stores were opened simultaneously on the island of Oahu in Hawaii, along with two stores in Alaska. Despite the economic downturn, media reports indicated sizable crowds and brisk sales. The opening of the Hawaii stores leaves Vermont as the only state in which Target does not operate.

In August 2010 and "after a lengthy wind-down", Target began a nationwide closing of its remaining 262 garden centers, reportedly due to "stronger competition from home-improvement stores, Wal-Mart and independent garden centers. In addition,starting September 2010, numerous Target locations have added a fresh produce department to their store. "[35]

2011–present: Target Canada and City Target

On January 13, 2011, Target announced its first international expansion, into Canada, when it purchased the leaseholds for up to 220 stores of the Canadian sale chain Zellers, which is owned by the Hudson's Bay Company. The deal was announced to have been made for 1.8 billion dollars. For the moment, they will continue to operate as Zellers outlets until Target decides which sites it will renovate and rebrand under its name and logo. Target Corp. CEO Gregg Steinhafel has stated that the retailer is "excited to bring the Target brand to Canada", adding that 70% of Canadians were familiar with the brand and that 10% of Canadians had shopped at their stores in the past 12 months.[36] The company has also stated that the company wishes to provide Canadians with a "true Target-brand experience", hinting that its product selection in Canada could vary little from that found in its United States stores. Target Canada plans to have at least 100–150 stores opened in Canada by 2013 and 2014.[37]

The first City Target will open in 2012. City Target is the name for a downtown, smaller format Target store. The assortment will be edited towards urban living, but will carry many of the same products. The stores will still look and feel like Target but many will be multi-level stores in existing landmark buildings, not the usual strip mall or stand-alone locations. The first stores are set to open in Chicago, LA and New York in mid-2012, and Puerto Rico in 2013-2014.

Corporate affairs

Headquarters

Target Plaza South, a portion of the Target Corporation headquarters complex; the building features the Target Light System, created by 3M.[38]

Today, Target Corporation has its headquarters on Nicollet Mall in Minneapolis,[39] near the site of the original Goodfellows store.[citation needed] The complex includes Target Plaza North and Target Plaza South. Ryan Companies developed the complex, and Ellerbe Becket served as the architect. Target had the approximately $260-million complex developed to provide one location of office space for 6,000 employees. The 14-story Target Plaza North has 600,000 square feet (56,000 m2) of office and retail space, while the 32-story Target Plaza South has 1,250,000 square feet (116,000 m2) of space.[40]

Subsidiaries

As well as the main retail subsidiary, Target Stores, the company owns several other subsidiaries, which include:

  • Financial and Retail Services (FRS) formerly Target Financial Services (TFS): issues Target's credit cards, known as the Target REDcard (formerly the Target Guest Card), issued through Target National Bank (formerly Retailers National Bank) for consumers and through Target Bank for businesses. Target Financial Services also oversees GiftCard balances. Target launched its PIN based debit card, the Target Check Card which was later re-branded the Target Debit Card. The Target Debit Card withdraws funds from the customer's existing checking account, and allows for up to $40 "cash back." The debit card allows customers to save five percent of each purchase, as well as designate a school for Target's Take Charge of Education program, and accumulate pharmacy rewards.
  • Target Sourcing Services (TSS): This global sourcing organization locates merchandise from around the world for Target and helps import the merchandise to the United States. Such merchandise include garments, furniture, bedding, and towels. TSS has 27 full-service offices, 48 quality-control offices, and seven concessionaires located throughout the world. TSS employs 1,200 people. Its engineers are responsible for evaluating the factories that do business with Target Corporation for quality, as well as labor rights and transshipment issues.[41] TSS was acquired by Target Corporation in 1998, was founded in 1916 as the Associated Merchandising Corporation, and was previously owned by the clients it served.[42] In 2009 Target Sourcing Services ceased operations in its department store group, the division of the former Associated Merchandising Corporation that acted as a buying office for Saks Incorporated, Bloomingdale's, Stage Stores Inc., TJ Maxx, and Marshalls.[27] Today's Target Sourcing Services locates merchandise exclusively for Target Stores and Target.com.
  • Target Commercial Interiors: provides design services and furniture for office space and originated in the home furniture department at Dayton’s.[43] Currently, Target Commercial Interiors has an unusually high market share of Fortune 500/1000 business customers, and are expanding to attract small to medium sized businesses, as well as home offices. This subsidiary has six showrooms in Illinois, Minnesota, and Wisconsin, including a first-of-its-kind retail concept store and showroom in Bloomington, Minnesota that opened on June 23, 2005.
  • Target Brands: owns and oversees the company's private label products, including the grocery brands Archer Farms and Market Pantry, Sutton & Dodge, their premium meat line, and the electronics brand Trutech. Target issued a re-launch of the Target brand as up & up to include an expanded product selection and a new design. The up & up brand offers essential commodities including household, health care, beauty, baby, and personal care products. The brand claims to offer products of equal quality to national brands at a fraction of the cost, averaging a savings of 30 percent.[44] As of September 2009, up & up carries over 800 product offerings across 40 categories.[45] In addition, Bullseye Dog is a trademark, and the Bullseye Design and 'Target' are registered trademarks of Target Brands.
  • Target.com: owns and oversees the company's e-commerce initiatives, such as the Target.com domain. Founded in early 2000 as target.direct, it was formed by separating the company's existing e-commerce operations from its retailing division, and combining it with its Rivertown Trading direct marketing unit into a stand-alone subsidiary.[30] In 2002, target.direct and Amazon.com's subsidiary Amazon Enterprise Solutions created a partnership in which Amazon.com would provide order fulfillment and guest services for Target.com in exchange for fixed and variable fees. After the company sold Marshall Field's and Mervyns in 2004, target.direct became Target.com. The domain target.com attracted at least 288 million visitors annually by 2008 according to a Compete.com survey.[46] In August 2009, Target announced that they would build and manage a new Target.com platform, independent of Amazon.com. This new platform was to launch in 2011, in advance of the holiday season. Prior to the announcement, Target and Amazon had extended their partnership until 2011.[47] In January 2010, Target announced their vendor partners for the re-paltforming project. These partners include Sapient, IBM, Oracle, Endeca, Autonomy, Sterling Commerce and HUGE (digital agency) among others.[48] The re-platformed Target.com officially launched on August 23rd, 2011 effectively ending the partnership with Amazon.com.[49]

Stores

Target

Target is a chain of discount stores that are about 95,000 to 135,000 square feet (12,000 m²) and carry hardlines, softlines (clothing), and a limited amount of groceries, mostly non-perishable. Specifically, Target stores carry clothing, shoes, jewelry, health and beauty products, electronics, compact discs, DVDs, bedding, kitchen supplies, sporting goods, toys, pet supplies, automotive supplies, and hardware supplies. They also carry seasonal merchandise such as patio furniture during the summer and Christmas decorations during November and December. Many stores, depending upon location, may also have Target Optical, Target Clinic, a portrait studio, and a garden center and most all new locations built after 2004 include Target Photo, Target Pharmacy, Starbucks Coffee, Jamba Juice, and/or a Pizza Hut Express standard in addition to "Target Café". It has also been reported that Cold Stone Creamery and Target have signed a deal to test in-store ice cream shops in three stores.[50] In early 2010 Target updated all references from "Food Avenue" to "Target Café".

The Nicollet Mall, downtown Minneapolis Target, two stories with a varied façade to mimic multiple buildings; the tower in the background is Target Corp. headquarters.
The exterior of the Target in busy West Hollywood, California.

While many Target stores share a fairly common big-box store layout, the company has been flexible with its designs. Target operates unique stores across the country in urban locations or within malls, in which a standard one-story building would not be feasible. These stores encompass multiple floors with both sales floor area and off stage areas such as offices or storage rooms spanning a number of these floors. Vertical transportation is provided in the store by escalator, elevator, or Vermaport, a specialized escalator for carts.

The first Target stores included leased supermarkets in addition to general merchandise, which during the time was a common practice by discount retailers as they attempted to offer a one-stop shopping experience to customers. Douglas Dayton stated in 1967 that "we believe that the discount-grocery store is a necessary ingredient in what we offer the customer. After all, food sales are about 40% of all department store-type merchandise sales, so the two kinds of stores go hand-in-hand and are what people think of when they think of a discount store." However, by the end of the decade, Target started moving away from this general merchandise and leased supermarket practice. In 1969, Target opened its first store consisting of only general merchandise.[18] As an effort to continue to compete and stand out in the competitive U.S. food market, meat and produce were placed with grocery in two general merchandise Target stores as a test project in early 2009, and many stores are now being expanded to new and re-modeled locations.[51]

The exterior of new Target store in Miami, Florida which takes cues from local architecture.

In the past, the one-hour photo processing labs were not owned by Target but by Qualex, a subsidiary of Eastman Kodak, and were staffed by employees of Qualex, not Target. However, in June 2005, Target spokeswoman Brie Heath announced that Target Corporation will replace the Qualex photo labs with their own labs running Kodak equipment, and will staff them with Target employees. Unlike the previous Qualex labs, all photo processing is done "in house", including next-day, digital, and Kodak Perfect Touch processing, although a few labs have been replaced with "send-out" only service with a self-service Kodak Picture Kiosk. A select number of "test" stores are running with Fujifilm equipment instead of Kodak.[52] Target has also partnered with Yahoo! Photos for online photo services, including ordering prints online for one-hour store pickup. This ended in September 2007. Target Photo now partners with Kodak Gallery, Shutterfly, and Photobucket.

By September 2010, Target Stores with garden centers had stopped stocking live plants and most garden supplies; in about 350 of its stores, Target used some of the space to stock an expanded selection of fresh food, meat and produce, with the remaining 700 stores gaining space for seasonal items.[35]

PFresh

Throughout 2009, a new store prototype was developed for general merchandise stores. These stores, dubbed PFresh, include an array of perishable and frozen foods, meat, and dairy. Produce selections include select, barcoded fruits and vegetables, and pre-bagged items like bananas to eliminate the need for scales and weight-based pricing. They do not have an in-house bakery or deli, but carry a small number of baked goods and pre-packed deli items. Product includes a few national brands, but heavily focus on Target's owned-brand products such as Archer Farms and Market Pantry. The initial rollout of PFresh included about 100 stores. Most of these were existing stores that remodeled and expanded space to accommodate the new grocery layout, but some newly built stores that opened in 2009 incorporated the new format as well. The PFresh concept will be rolled out across 350 stores, either by remodel or as new store openings, by 2010. On average, a PFresh store is about 1,500 square feet (140 m2) larger than a general merchandise Target store, but is not labeled a SuperTarget as these stores' grocery aisles are still markedly smaller than those of the hypermarket.[53]

Target Greatland

The exterior of a typical Target Greatland in Mount Laurel, New Jersey. Unlike smaller Target stores, Target Greatlands feature double entrances.

Target Greatland is a chain of general merchandise superstores, with a size of about 150,000 square feet (14,000 m²). Like SuperTargets (below), they carry a larger selection of general merchandise than a pre-2004 basic Target store; however, they do not have a full-line of groceries like meat, bakery, deli, produce and dairy.

The first Target Greatland opened in Apple Valley, Minnesota, in 1990, but has since been remodeled, expanded, and rebranded as a SuperTarget. From 2005 to 2008, the company reorganized the sales floor, allowing them to double the grocery space and move some departments to streamline the layout to better match a typical Target floorplan. Prominent features include double entrances on single level stores along with an expanded Target Café. The Target Café may include a Pizza Hut Express, Taco Bell Express, and/or a Starbucks. The construction of new Target Greatland stores has been phased out in favor of building general merchandise stores with a selection of perishable grocery items. Current Target Greatland stores are being converted to general merchandise Target stores or SuperTarget stores.

SuperTarget

SuperTarget logo, 2006–present.
The exterior of a typical SuperTarget in Salt Lake City, Utah. Shown is the merchandise loading lane between the double entrances on the front of the building.

SuperTarget is a chain of hypermarkets that are about 174,000 sq ft (16,200 m2)[54] and feature double entrances on one-story stores. The first SuperTarget opened in Omaha, Nebraska in 1995, and the second SuperTarget opened in Lawrence, Kansas the same year.[55] As of October 2008, Target operated 218 SuperTarget stores in 22 US states, the majority of those are in Texas and Florida, with sizable numbers in Minnesota and Colorado.[15][56]

Until 2006, the store logo spelled "Super" in green script, while newer locations are signed in red block letters in the Helvetica typeface in favor of a streamlined brand look.[14] These stores offer everything found in a regular Target as well as a full grocery selection, fresh produce, bakery and deli, with most locations having a Target Optical. Many SuperTargets feature Starbucks Coffee, Pizza Hut Express, Taco Bell Express, Target Pharmacy, The Studio @ Target (a portrait studio), Target Photo, and a Wells Fargo Bank or U.S. Bank. In the past, some SuperTargets featured an E-Trade trading station in place of a bank, though E*TRADE removed all of their SuperTarget branches in June 2003[57] without any prior notice. Mitchell Caplan, E*TRADE's CEO at that time, said that "We were not able to make it into a profitable distribution channel...[w]e're better off exiting." E*TRADE also sent a letter of notification to their customers informing them about this change. A select few stores in Maryland and the Twin Cities have a new Target Clinic concept.[58] Unlike other hypermarkets, like Wal-Mart Supercenters, SuperTargets are not open 24 hours.

CityTarget

On February 15, 2011, Target announced plans to open its newest store concept, called CityTarget. The first store will be opened in Chicago.[59][60] The store will allocate approximately 55,000 sq ft (5,100 m2) to its sales floor. CityTarget stores will carry fresh food, clothing, and apartment essentials. Items too bulky for urban apartments or for customers to carry will not be stocked in a CityTarget, even if such items are commonly available in traditional Target stores.

Urban stores

Target has used its urban store concept to open multiple story stores in city centers such as in Annapolis, The Bronx, Brooklyn, Queens, Los Angeles, Glendale, Chicago, Pasadena, California, San Diego, Seattle, Stamford, Washington, D.C., Atlanta, Miami, New Orleans, and Minneapolis within the corporation's headquarters complex. In July 2010, a Target store opened in New York's East Harlem.[61] The company also opened an urban store in Pittsburgh's East Liberty neighborhood in July 2011.[62]

Building stores in these environments carries an elevated cost which is offset by the high potential for business that these stores can bring in. The Target store located on Nicollet Mall in Minneapolis features a three-story glass entrance and a design that sets it apart from suburban Target stores. This urban store alone cost Target Corporation US$16.3 million.[63] This concept has also been used to convert Super Target stores from former Bullock's, Montgomery Ward, J. W. Robinson's, Robinsons-May and Younkers stores.[64]

Distribution centers

Regional distribution centers

As of January 2010, Target Corporation operated 26 distribution centers across the United States.[65] Target opened three new distribution centers in 2006 (Rialto, California, DeKalb, Illinois) and one in 2009 (Newton, North Carolina) to support the growth of its stores. With the exception of vendor supplied items, such as greeting cards and soda, these distribution centers ship items directly to Target stores. Also, unlike Wal-Mart, Target's grocery selection does not come from their own distribution centers, but from the companies that Target has partnered with.[7]

The retail chain's first distribution center opened in Fridley, Minnesota, in 1969. It included a computerized distribution system and was known as the Northern Distribution Center. During this time, the chain consisted of seventeen stores after having expanded into Oklahoma and Texas.[10]

On August 9, 2004, Target announced to their suppliers that they were going to perform a trial on the effects of radio frequency identification on the efficiency of supply chain management in the Dallas/Fort Worth Metroplex. This trial involved one Target distribution center and ten nearby Target stores. Here, RFID tags would be placed on the bar codes of pallets and cartons to track the goods from the suppliers to the distribution center, and from the distribution center to the stores.[66] As of 2009 RFID has been phased out of the Dallas/Fort Worth Metroplex stores.

On January 27, 2009, Target announced the closing of its distribution center in Maumelle, Arkansas, the second-oldest in the company. The reason cited was the need to ensure that Target remains competitive in the long-term.[67]

Food distribution centers

SuperTarget and PFresh stores require fresh produce, refrigerated and frozen items. Food distribution centers owned by SuperValu have been utilized by Target for many years. In October 2003, SuperValu’s facility in Phoenix, Arizona was converted to serve Target exclusively.[68] The same change was implemented at the SuperValu center in Fort Worth, Texas.[69] A new distribution center was constructed by Target in Lake City, Florida to serve the southeast, but it is operated by SuperValu.[68] A fourth center in Cedar Falls, Iowa opened in 2009 and is unique to its counter-parts as it is located adjacent to a standard Target Distribution Center, each utilizing the same dispatch office.[69] Other warehouses owned by SuperValu are still used in other regions, but Target plans to replace those over the next few years.[68] In Colorado, stores are serviced through FreshPack Produce Inc. of Denver, Colorado.[7] In the mid-Atlantic Region/Philadelphia market, C&S Whole Grocers services the fresh produce, meat, dairy, bakery, & frozen needs to "PFresh" stores.

Import warehouses

The company operates four facilities to receive shipments from overseas manufacturers and suppliers. They are located near ports at Rialto, California; Savannah, Georgia; Lacey, Washington; and Suffolk, Virginia. Merchandise received is sent directly to Regional Distribution centers.[69]

Fulfillment centers

Internet sales orders from the Target Direct division, which operates from the Target.com website, are processed by the facility in Woodbury, Minnesota, with some support from Savannah, Georgia and other vendors. New centers opened in Ontario, California and Tucson, Arizona in 2009.[69]

Products and image

Typical interior of a Target store
A newer Target Store design that opened in 2008 in Manahawkin, New Jersey.

Target Corporation competes directly against other discount retailers, mainly Walmart and Kmart. Since its founding, it has intended to differentiate its stores from its competitors by offering what it believes is more upscale, trend-forward merchandise at lower costs, rather than the traditional concept of focusing on low-priced goods. Douglas J. Dayton, one of the Dayton brothers, explained John Geisse's concept:

"We will offer high-quality merchandise at low margins, because we are cutting expenses. We would much rather do this than trumpet dramatic price cuts on cheap merchandise."[10]

As a result, Target stores tend to attract younger and more educated and affluent customers than Walmart, among other competitors. The median Target shopper is 41 years old, the youngest of all major discount retailers that Target competes directly against. The median household income of Target's customer base is roughly $63,000 US$. Roughly 76% of Target customers are female, and more than 45% have children at home. About 80% have attended college and 48% have completed college.[15][56] 97% of American consumers recognize the Target Bullseye logo.

In October 2008, Target announced plans to fight the perception that their products are more expensive than those of other discount retailers. It planned to add perishables to their inventory, cut back on discretionary items, and spend three-quarters of their marketing budget on advertising that emphasizes value and includes actual prices of items featured in ads. Target also planned to slow its expansion from about 100 stores a year down to 70 stores a year.[70][71][72]

Target stores are designed to be more attractive than large box-department stores by having wider aisles, drop ceilings, a more attractive presentation of merchandise and generally cleaner fixtures and store personnel. Special attention is given to the design of the store environment: Graphics reinforce its advertising imagery, while shelves are dressed with contemporary signage, backdrops and liners, often printed on inexpensive material such as paper, corrugated and foam boards. Some stores, particularly those in the vicinity of major airports, have a bullseye painted on the roof that can be seen from above: the stores in Rosemont, Illinois, near O'Hare International Airport and Richfield, Minnesota, adjacent to Minneapolis-St.Paul International Airport are among such locations.[73] Target doesn't use music in its stores, nor does it promote items or services through its public address system.

Some people jokingly give Target the pseudo-French pronunciation /tɑrˈʒeɪ/ tar-zhay, as though it were an upscale boutique. This trend is incorrectly believed to have been started by Oprah Winfrey, when she used the French pronunciation to refer to the store on her television show; it has actually been traced back to 1962, the year the first Target store opened; this was reinforced by a 1980s television advertisement starring Didi Conn. This pronunciation has also led some people to incorrectly believe that the company is French-owned.[7] In recognition of the nickname's popularity and cachet, Target Corporation licensed its name and logo to Brand Central LLC in 2006, complete with accent over the letter "E", for a new line of clothing intended for more up-scale fashion customers. The line, "Targét Couture" was originally sold at Los Angeles-based store Intuition, which deals with high-end brands.[74][75]

Target uses a practice that was derived in 1989 from The Walt Disney Company[7] by calling its customers "Guests", its employees "Team Members", and its supervisors "Team Leaders". Also, managers are known as "Executive Team Leaders (ETLs)" and the Store Manager is known as the "Store Team Leader (STL)". Further up the "chain of command" are "District Team Leaders (DTL)," "Group Team Leaders (GTL)," Regional Team Leaders (RTL) (Sometimes also Regional Vice President), then corporate-level executives.

Target stores do not sell firearms. In the early 1990s, they ceased sales of toy guns that looked realistic and limited its toy gun selection to ones that were brightly colored and oddly shaped. They do not sell tobacco products and have not sold cigarettes since 1996.[76] This is a key point of differentiation with Target's chief competitor Walmart which offers firearms and tobacco at many stores.

Target has many exclusive deals with various designers and name-brands, including Michael Graves, Isaac Mizrahi, Mossimo Giannulli, Fiorucci, Liz Lange, and Converse among others. To further increase their fashion profile, Target also created its fashion-forward Go International line, which hires famous designers to design collections available only for a few months. Target, after hiring architect Michael Graves to design the scaffolding used to renovate the Washington Monument and contributing $6 million USD to the restoration plan, introduced its first designer line of products in 1999, the Michael Graves Collection of housewares and home decor products.[77] Walmart and Kmart have followed Target's lead by signing exclusive designers to their stores as well. Target also partners with well-established national brands to create exclusive collections for its stores. Recently, Sony created a line of electronics under the Sony LIV name geared toward women. The collection included a CD player that resembled a purse and a CD player that was equipped to be mounted under the kitchen counter. Another example of this is Target having an exclusive deal with Food Network for selling DVDs of TV shows featuring popular chefs such as Rachael Ray, Alton Brown, and Paula Deen. In July 2006, Target started selling two-tone pink edition Apple iPods through a partnership with Colorware. Sometimes manufacturers will create red-colored items, exclusively for Target. In 2002, Nintendo produced a red special edition variant of the Game Boy Advance, which featured the Target logo above the screen.[78]

In 2005, IFC began a partnership with Target to promote a selection of independent films, both in Target stores and on IFC Monday nights at 9:00 pm Eastern. Originally titled IFC Cinema Red, the promotion was rebranded on air asThe Spotlight in 2007. The in-store headers refer to the selected titles as IFC Indies – Independent films chosen for Target by the Independent Film Channel.[79]

GiftCards

The Target GiftCard is the retailing division's stored-value card or gift card. Target sells more gift cards than any other retailer in the United States and is one of the top sellers, by dollars and units, in the world.[80] The unique designs of their cards contribute to their higher sales, as well as Target's policy of no expiration dates or service fees.[81] Past and current designs include lenticular, "scratch and sniff" (such as peppermint during the Christmas season), glow in the dark, LED light-up, a gift card on the side of a bubble blower, a gift card that can function as a CD-ROM, and even a giftcard that allows the sender to record a voice message. A current environmentally friendly giftcard is made from bioplastic manufactured from corn.[82] Target rolled out a new MP3 player giftcard for the 2006 holiday season. It holds 12 songs and must be purchased with an initial value of at least $50.

Beginning in January 2010, Target Stores will roll out Mobile GiftCards, through which one can produce a GiftCard barcode on any web-capable cell phone. This data matrix barcode can be scanned at a Target POS like any physical card barcode, and balances can be stored, retrieved, and gifted with the convenience of a cell phone.[citation needed]

Some of these unique design ideas are patented, and these patents are assigned to the Target Brands subsidiary. For example, some such Target GiftCard designs feature a wooden front side. On May 24, 2005, the United States Patent and Trademark Office granted U.S. patent D505,450 for the "ornamental design for a credit or stored value card with wood layer" to inventors Amy L. Lauer and John D. Mayhew.[83] U.S. patent 7004398, for the "stored-value card assembly including a stored-value card, an edible product, and a wrapper", was granted to Michael R. Francis and Barry C. Brooks on February 28, 2006.[84] Both patents have been assigned by their inventors to Target Brands, Inc.

Target GiftCards are also collectors items. Some of the first gift cards issued are valued at over $300 (even though the card doesn't have any money on it). Every year Target introduces new Holiday GiftCards. In 2007, Target's Holiday GiftCards featured a wind-up flashlight, a musical gift card, a gift card that lights up, and a scented gift card.

ClearRx

Target ClearRx prescription bottles.

In 2005, Target introduced a major revision of prescription bottles, which it calls the ClearRx system. The redesigned bottles are color coded, flattened-out and turned upside down providing more room for the label. This system was based on the patent[85] by student Deborah Adler and was named one of TIME's "Most Amazing Inventions of 2005".[86]

Philanthropy

Target Corporation is consistently ranked as one of the most philanthropic companies in the US. It ranked No.22 in Fortune Magazine's "World's Most Admired Companies" for 2010, largely in part to the donation efforts of the company as a whole.[87] According to a November 2005 Forbes article, it ranked as the highest cash-giving company in America in percentage of income given (2.1%).[88] Target donates around 5 percent of its pre-tax operating profit; it gives over $3 million a week (up from $2 million in years prior) to the communities in which it operates. It also gives a percentage of charges from its Target Visa to schools designated by the cardholders. To date, Target has given over $150 million to schools across the United States through this program.

Further evidence of Target's philanthropy can be found in the Target House complex in Memphis, Tennessee, a long-term housing solution for families of patients at the city's St. Jude Children's Research Hospital. The corporation led the way with more than $27 million in donations, which made available 96 fully furnished apartments for families needing to stay at St. Jude over 90 days.

Target has a standard no-solicitation rule at its properties, as it seeks to provide a "distraction-free shopping experience for its guests." Exemptions to this policy were previously made for the Salvation Army red kettles and bell-ringers outside Target stores during the holidays through Christmas. In 2004, however, Target asked the organization to explore alternate methods to partner with Target. Target donates to local Salvation Army chapters through its grant program and annually to the United Way of America (the Salvation Army is a member of the United Way coalition).

In 2005, Target and the Salvation Army[89] created a joint effort called "The Target/Salvation Army Wish List," where online shoppers could donate goods to the organization for Hurricane victims by buying them directly from Target.com between November 25, 2005, and January 25, 2006. In 2006, they created another joint effort called "The Target/Salvation Army Angel Giving Tree,"[90] which is an online version of the Salvation Army's Angel Tree program;[91] in addition to donating proceeds made from the sales of limited edition Harvey Lewis angel ornaments within Target's stores. During the Thanksgiving holiday of 2006, Target and the Salvation Army partnered with magician David Blaine to send several families on a shopping spree the morning of Black Friday. The challenge held that if Blaine could successfully work his way out of a spinning gyroscope by the morning of Black Friday, then several families would receive $500 shopping certificates. The challenge was completed successfully by Blaine.[92]

During disasters, Target has been a major benefactor for relief efforts. Target provided monetary and product donations during the September 11 attacks; it also donated money for relief efforts for the 2004 tsunami in South Asia and donated $1.5 million (US) to the American Red Cross in the aftermath of Hurricane Katrina in 2005. It also allowed its store properties in the affected area to be used as command centers for relief organizations. It also donated supplies such as water and bug spray.

Target will often donate its unused, returned or seasonal merchandise (particularly clothing) to Goodwill Industries.

Environmental record

Target Corporation agreed to reduce their sales on all materials containing polyvinyl chloride (PVC).[93] Testers found toxic lead and phthalates and large amounts of PVC in toys, lunchboxes, baby bibs, jewelry, garden hoses, mini blinds, Christmas trees, and electronics.[93] Several studies have shown that chemicals in vinyl chloride can cause serious health problems for children and adults.[93] The University of Illinois Medical Center in Chicago states that people who use products containing PVC can become exposed with harmful toxic phthalates and lead, which eventually can become a big contributor with dioxins.[93] Lois Gibbs, executive director of the Center for Health, Environment and Justice stated, "Target is doing the right thing by moving away from PVC and switching to safer alternatives."[93] Other companies reducing the PVC on their shelves include Wal-Mart, Microsoft, Johnson & Johnson, Nike, and Apple.[93] Target stores have been taking environmental measures by reusing materials within their stores and recycling certain products like broken hangers, cardboard, rechargeable batteries, etc.[94] Target is beginning to reduce energy use with energy-efficient storefronts, and reducing waste with recycling programs.[95] Also, all Target stores in the U.S. use plastic carts with metal frames. In mid-2006, Target took it a step further when it began introducing a newer cart design made entirely of plastic. It also uses the same design in its hand-use baskets.[96]

Target released a 13-page report in 2007 that outlined their current and future plans for becoming more earth-friendly according to LEED. Such efforts include installing sand filtration systems for the store's wastewater. Recycling programs will be aimed at garment hangers, corrugated cardboard, electronics, shopping carts, shrink wrap, construction wastes, carpeting and ceiling tiles and roofing materials. All stores in Oklahoma will be partnered with Oklahoma Gas & Electric to exclusively use wind power for all Target stores in order to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. Stores nationwide use only LED and fluorescent lights and low-flow restrooms that reduce waste water by 30%. Some Target stores are installing roof gardens or green roofs, which absorb storm water and cut down on surface runoff, mitigate temperature fluctuations and provide habitats for birds. There are currently four green-roof Target stores in Chicago.

Target carries over 700 organic and alternative products from brands such as Archer Farms, Burt's Bees, and Method Products. They also sell clothes made from organic cotton, non-toxic cleaners, low-energy lighting and electronics, non-toxic and non-animal tested cosmetics, and furniture made from recycled materials. As of June 2007, Target has been offering reusable shopping bags as an alternative to disposable plastic bags. Target gift cards are made from corn-based resins. All of the stores' packaging is done with a modified paperboard/clamshell option and has goals for phasing out plastic wrap completely.[97]

In collaboration with MBH Architects, Target's first "green" building was a 100,000+ square foot Target store built in 1995 in Fullerton, California. It was a part of the EPA Energy Star Showcase for its use of skylights that cut the original energy consumption by 24% with a 5-year payback.[98] Target and MBH Architects were awarded the "Green Lights Partner/Ally of the Year Award".[99]

Target is the only national retailer employing a Garment Hanger reuse program, which keeps millions of pounds of metal and plastic out of landfills. In 2007, this program prevented 434 million hangers from entering landfills.

On June 15, 2009, the California Attorney General and 20 California District Attorneys filed a lawsuit in Alameda County alleging that Target stores across the state have been illegally dumping hazardous wastes in landfills.[100]

On October 1, 2009 Target Corporation agreed to pay a $600,000 civil penalty for importing and selling a variety of toys with lead paint levels which were higher than is legally allowed. The Consumer Products Safety Commission alleged that “Target knowingly imported and sold the illegal Chinese-made toys between May 2006 and August 2007.”[101] A similar problem occurred a few months later in February 2010, when Target pulled Valentine's Day "message bears" from its shelves at the request of the California attorney general's office. The bears, which were manufactured in China, contained more lead than is permissible under federal law for children under 12.[102]

Target Forensic Services

In 2006, The Washington Post revealed that Target is operating two sophisticated criminal forensics laboratories, one at its headquarters and the other in Las Vegas.[103] Originally, the lab was created with the role of investigating internal instances of theft and fraud and other criminal actions that have occurred on its own properties. Eventually, the company began offering pro bono services to law enforcement agencies across the country. Target's Forensic Services has assisted agencies at all levels of government, including federal agencies such as the United States Secret Service, Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco and Firearms and the Federal Bureau of Investigation. The labs have become such a popular resource for law enforcement that Target has had to restrict its assistance to violent felonies.[104][105]

Criticism and controversy

Practices that cause some concern include lack of a living wage policy, lack of labor unions, and Target's contribution to urban sprawl.[106] Liza Featherstone, contributing editor to the "The Nation" magazine and author of Selling Women Short: The Landmark Battle for Workers' Rights at Wal-Mart, stated the following in an interview.

Aesthetically, we all like Target better, but their wages are in many places low or just as low, and they all represent the Wal-Martization of our economy, which is the exchange of low prices for poor work conditions.
Liza FeatherstoneThe Trouble with Wal-Mart: An interview with Liza Featherstone[107]

In 2004, the company's decision to bar the Salvation Army from soliciting donations at its stores generated much negative publicity (see Philanthropy section above). In addition, Target refuses to let Toys for Tots collect toys on their properties. Target said that, in the face of rising requests from other charities, it could no longer justify the exemption for the Salvation Army.[108]

In 2005, Planned Parenthood protested Target policy involving a conscience clause that allows pharmacists to refuse to dispense the emergency contraceptive, Plan B Levonorgestrel, based on religious beliefs, as long as the employee ensures that the prescription is filled by another pharmacist in a timely manner. Defenders of Target applaud the company for upholding the employee's freedom of conscience, while critics feel this policy fails to uphold the pharmacist's duty of care.[109]

In July 2007, Target Corporation was fined $120,000 by the United States Environmental Protection Agency for selling outlawed aerosol confetti string. The EPA said that the fine stemmed from Minneapolis-based Target's sale of Horrible Spooky String, a children's sprayable confetti product that violates the Clean Air Act because it contains banned hydrochlorofluorocarbons (HCFC). Such chemicals deplete the ozone layer and their sale or distribution in "non-essential" products has been prohibited in the United States.[110]

As of May 2010, members of the gay and lesbian community have been boycotting Target over donations to anti-gay groups and politicians.[111] Among Representative Michele Bachmann's top 20 campaign contributors in 2010, Target was Number 1.

In July 2010, Target Corporation donated $150,000 to Minnesota Forward, a primarily Republican[112] political action committee funded by Minnesota corporations. Minnesota Forward began using these funds to run television ads, on behalf of 2010 Republican gubernatorial candidate Tom Emmer. Minnesota State Representative Ryan Winkler said it was unwise for Target Corporation to back Emmer, because his views on immigration, LGBT rights, and decreasing the minimum wage for restaurant workers could upset Target shoppers.[113] The LGBT community and progressive groups expressed outrage at Target Corporation for its indirect support of Emmer, and some have called for a boycott of Target stores.[114] Pop singer and LGBT advocate Lady Gaga responded to the news by revoking an exclusive deluxe release of her second studio album Born This Way.[citation needed]

Diversity

The company states that individuality may include a wide spectrum of attributes such as personal style, age, race, gender, ethnicity, sexual orientation, language, physical ability, religion, family, citizenship status, socio-economic circumstances, education and life experiences.[115]

The Target employee diversity program is called "The Strength of Many. The Power of One."[116] It specifically seeks to work with vendors and contractors that are owned by minorities or women.[117]

It has long extended domestic-partner benefits to straight, gay, and lesbian employees. However, it does not extend its employee discount to domestic partners, or same sex spouses stating the reason is it uses IRS guidelines of who can be claimed on federal taxes to determine who is eligible for the discount. It had received a 100 on the Human Rights Campaign Corporate Equality Index Score, prior to donating funds to Minnesota Forward.[118] In addition, Target Corporation was named one of the "100 Best Companies for Working Mothers" in 2004 by Working Mother.[119]

The National Association for the Advancement of Colored People has repeatedly given Target failing grades on its annual Economic Reciprocity Initiative report card, a measure of the company's "commitment to the African-American citizenry". In 2003 and 2005, the NAACP has rated Target an "F" on this report; in 2004, Target was rated a "D-".[120][121][122] In 2006, when Target was asked why it didn't participate in the survey again,[123] a representative explained, "Target views diversity as being inclusive of all people from all different backgrounds, not just one group."[124]

In February 2006 the National Federation of the Blind (NFB) filed a class action discrimination lawsuit in Northern California's Alameda County Superior Court, claiming that Target’s commercial website, "contains thousands of access barriers that make it difficult, if not impossible, for blind customers to use."[125] Target Corporation settled the lawsuit in October 2008 paying $6 million and agreeing to work with the NFB over the next three years improving the usability of the Target.com site.[126]

On August 24, 2009 the United States Equal Employment Opportunity Commission (EEOC) filed a discrimination lawsuit against national retailer Target Corporation for unlawfully denying reasonable accommodation to an employee with multiple disability-based impairments and substantially reducing his work hours due to the medical conditions.[127] According to the claims in the U.S. EEOC press release, Target’s actions violated Title I of the Americans With Disabilities Act (ADA) and Title I of the Civil Rights Act of 1991.[128]

Major sponsorships

The Target Chip Ganassi Racing IndyCar visiting Purdue University

Target owns the naming rights to the Target Center and Target Field in Minneapolis. It also is a long-time sponsor of the IndyCar and NASCAR racing teams of Chip Ganassi Racing. Target's relationship with Ganassi in IndyCar go back to 1990, sponsoring Eddie Cheever, and some of their most famous drivers in the 1990s include Arie Luyendyk, Michael Andretti and Bryan Herta. In the late 1990s, Target Chip Ganassi racing had a four-year run of winning championships in CART winning 1996 with Jimmy Vasser, 1997 and 1998 with Alex Zanardi, and 1999 with Juan Pablo Montoya. Ganassi won their first Indianapolis 500 in 2000, with Montoya dominating the race, leading 167 of 200 laps. The team moved full-time into the rival Indy Racing League in 2003, and won in its first year of full-time competition, with Scott Dixon. Dixon won the championship again in 2008. The 2009 season marked the 20th Anniversary of the Target race program (1990–present). Franchitti won his second career IndyCar championship, and with Scott Dixon finishing second, gave Target a one-two sweep in the IndyCar Series. Dixon and Franchitti won 10 of 17 races (Dixon-5, Franchitti-5) and tied the team record from 1998 where Alex Zanardi and Jimmy Vasser combined to win 10 in the 19-race 1998 CART season. In 2010, Franchitti won the Indianapolis 500 in commanding fashion. He also won series championship for the Target team, by 5 points over 2nd place finisher Will Power.

Target started sponsoring stock cars in 2001 with Sterling Marlin, when Chip Ganassi bought into the Felix Sabates stock car team. In the 2002 NASCAR season, the No.41 Chip Ganassi Target car was driven by Jimmy Spencer; and from 2003 to 2005, Casey Mears drove the car. In 2006, Reed Sorenson took over the No.41 when Mears moved to a different Chip Ganassi car on the same team. Sorenson drove the car through the 2008 season and Target has also had some major sponsorship time on the Ganassi Racing No.40 car with Dario Franchitti and Jeremy Mayfield who subbed for the injured Franchitti. The 40 team has since been shut down. For 2009, the Target sponsorship moved to the No.42 driven by Juan Pablo Montoya with the newly formed Earnhardt Ganassi Racing. Target also sponsored Earnhardt Ganassi Racing's No.8 car driven by Aric Almirola, which it co-sponsors in some races with other sponsors such as Guitar Hero and TomTom until the team was disbanded in May 2009.

The Target Chip Ganassi[129] car driven by Dario Franchitti won the 94th running[130] of the Indianapolis 500 on Sunday May 30, 2010.[131]

Target Corporation is a major sponsor of the annual Minneapolis Aquatennial, where it hosts the Target Fireworks Show. It is the largest annual fireworks show west of the Mississippi River, and the fourth largest annual fireworks show in the United States.[132]

Target also sponsors the Museum of Modern Art in Manhattan, New York. It hosts Target Free Friday Nights, providing to all visitors free admission to the museum during Fridays after 4 pm The company also hosts Target First Saturdays at the Brooklyn Museum. A similar Target-sponsored program at the Los Angeles County Museum of Art called "Free after Five" provides free admission in the evening throughout the week. Tuesdays are free at the Museum of Contemporary Art in Chicago, Illinois, courtesy of Target. In its hometown of Minneapolis, Target sponsors the Target Free Thursday Nights at the Walker Art Center, where admission is free after 4 pm as well as in its sister-city Saint Paul hosting "Target Third Free Sundays" at the Minnesota Children's Museum. In Boston, Massachusetts, Target sponsors $1 Friday Nights at Boston Children's Museum from 5:00 – 9:00 pm

Target is the founding sponsor of the Weekend America radio program. Target often supports major awards shows such as the Oscars, Emmys, Grammys, and the Golden Globes. In the past, it has participated in the Tournament of Roses Parade with a corporate float.

Holiday advertising

Promoting Christmas sales is a hallmark of Target's advertising. Target has enlisted many singing personalities to promote its holiday sales. Amy Grant and Charlotte Church have been among the spokespersons seen over the years. One particular Christmas campaign featured LeAnn Rimes and the Looney Tunes characters (Bugs Bunny, etc.).

See also

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Notes and references

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  2. ^ International directory of company ... – Google Books. Google Books. September 22, 2008. http://books.google.com/books?id=g9W6AAAAIAAJ&q=1969+%22dayton-hudson%22&dq=1969+%22dayton-hudson%22. Retrieved February 21, 2010. 
  3. ^ "Company News – Company News – Dayton Hudson Says It Will Change Its Name To Target". The New York Times. January 14, 2000. http://www.nytimes.com/2000/01/14/business/company-news-dayton-hudson-says-it-will-change-its-name-to-target.html. Retrieved February 21, 2010. 
  4. ^ a b c d e f g "2010 Form 10-K/A". United States Securities and Exchange Commission. http://www.sec.gov/Archives/edgar/data/27419/000104746911002032/a2201861z10-k.htm. 
  5. ^ Barwise, Patrick (August 16, 2004). "Bullseye: Target's Cheap Chic Strategy – HBS Working Knowledge". Hbswk.hbs.edu. http://hbswk.hbs.edu/archive/4319.html. Retrieved February 21, 2010. 
  6. ^ "Wal-Mart Set to Repeat Share Gains, Grab Target Sales (Update3)". Bloomberg. January 2, 2009. http://www.bloomberg.com/apps/news?sid=aX.YYXT2sDwI&pid=20601087. Retrieved February 21, 2010. 
  7. ^ a b c d e f g Rowley, Laura (2003) On Target: How the World's Hottest Retailer Hit a Bull's-eye John Wiley & Sons; Hoboken, New Jersey. ISBN 0-471-25067-8.
  8. ^ a b Lipman Wolfe and Co., June 24, 2006.
  9. ^ Dayton's and Southdale Stores, Rudder & Finn, October 7, 1956.
  10. ^ a b c d e f g h i j From Roseville to Greatland, Target still hits the mark, Discount Store News, September 17, 1990.
  11. ^ a b Lechmere, Inc. company history, FundingUniverse.com.
  12. ^ a b Ulrich moving up at DH: speculation mounts about naming a successor – Robert Ulrich becomes chairman of Dayton Hudson Corp, Discount Store News, Richard Halverson, May 2, 1994.
  13. ^ Target Logo: Design and History. FamousLogos.us. Retrieved May 10, 2011.
  14. ^ a b The Helvetica Hegemony, Slate, Mia Fineman, May 25, 2007.
  15. ^ a b c d e f g "Community of Grand Forks". University of North Dakota. http://www.und.nodak.edu/dept/grad/html/gfinfo.html. Retrieved June 11, 2007. 
  16. ^ Calling It Quits, Time, John S. Demott, May 20, 1985.
  17. ^ a b c Leadership paves the way to company strength, DSN Retailing Today, April 10, 2006.
  18. ^ a b c d 1962–1992 Dayton's dream is on Target, Discount Store News, April 20, 1992.
  19. ^ Plums fall doesn't cause too many shock waves, Discount Store News, Sidney Rutberg, February, 1984.
  20. ^ Dayton Hudson, sour on Plums, sells its 11-month-old off-pricer, Discount Store News, March 19, 1984.
  21. ^ Dayton-Hudson In Dillard Deal, The New York Times, August 10, 1984.
  22. ^ Target sets test of new Smarts closeout store, Discount Store News, Richard Halverson, May 3, 1993
  23. ^ a b Target Stores to Close Experiemental [sic] Clearance Outlets, The Indianapolis Star, July 27, 1995.
  24. ^ a b c d e Target Corporation 2000 Annual Report, Target Corporation.
  25. ^ Target closes Everyday Hero in Mall of America, Minneapolis/St. Paul Business Journal, September 11, 1997.
  26. ^ MPR parent sells Rivertown Trading Co. to Dayton Hudson, Minnesota Public Radio, March 23, 1998.
  27. ^ a b Associated Merchandising Corporation, The American Chamber of Commerce in Thailand.
  28. ^ Target buys Fedco for SuperT, Discount Store News, July 26, 1999.
  29. ^ Target may step up NE rollouts; debuts long-awaited e-tail site, Discount Store News, September 20, 1999.
  30. ^ a b Target is the name, Discount Store News, February 21, 2000.
  31. ^ Target Corporation 2001 Annual Report, Target Corporation.
  32. ^ Target Corporation Fourth Quarter Earnings Per Share $1.29, Target Corporation, February 27, 2007.
  33. ^ Target Website
  34. ^ Target Website
  35. ^ a b Mark Albright (August 13, 2010). "Target closing all garden centers, including 90 in Florida". St. Petersburg Times. The Miami Herald. http://www.miamiherald.com/2010/08/13/v-print/1774478/target-closing-all-garden-centers.html. Retrieved 2010-08- 16. 
  36. ^ msnbc.msn.com
  37. ^ pressroom.target.com
  38. ^ Target Lights create evolving Minneapolis landmark, Minneapolis/St. Paul Business Journal, April 11, 2003.
  39. ^ "Corporate Headquarters." Target Corporation. Retrieved on July 8, 2010. "Target Corporate Headquarters 1000 Nicollet Mall Minneapolis, MN 55440"
  40. ^ "Target Office Towers." City of Minneapolis. Retrieved on July 8, 2010.
  41. ^ Vendor Compliance, Target Corporation.
  42. ^ Target Sourcing Services/AMC History, Target Corporation.
  43. ^ Michelle Bruch, Target taking over Crate & Barrel space on Nicollet Mall, Downtown Journal, December 14, 2007.
  44. ^ "Target up & up Brand Offers Great Quality at Low Prices". http://pressroom.target.com/pr/news/up-and-up-release.aspx. Retrieved November 30, 2010. 
  45. ^ "up & up". http://pressroom.target.com/pr/news/up-and-up.aspx. Retrieved November 30, 2010. 
  46. ^ "Site Profile for target.com (rank #28) | Compete". Siteanalytics.compete.com. http://siteanalytics.compete.com/target.com?metric=uv. Retrieved February 21, 2010. 
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