Puppetry is a form of
theatreor performancewhich involves the manipulationof puppets. It is very ancient, and is believed to have originated 30,000 years BC. [ Puppetry and Puppets/Eileen Blumenthal/Thames & Hudson/2005/ISBN-13 978-0-500-51226-5] Puppetry takes many forms but they all share the process of animatinginanimate performing objects. Puppetry is used in almost all human societiesboth as an entertainment– in performance – and ceremonially in ritualsand celebrations such as carnival. [ Strings, Hands, Shadows: A Modern Puppet History/John Bell/Detroit Institute of Art/2000 ISBN 0-89558-156-6]
Most puppetry involves
storytelling. The impact of puppetry depends on the process of transformationof puppets, which has much in common with magic and with play. Thus puppetry can create complex and magical theatrewith relatively small resources.
For information on types of puppets see the
Puppeteers on puppetry
"Through puppetry we accept the outrageous, the absurd or even the impossible, and will permit puppets to say and do things no human could. We allow a puppet to talk to us when no one else can get us to speak. We allow a puppet to smile at us even when we have not been introduced. We also allow a puppet to touch us when a person would lose an arm for the same offence" (Anita Sinclair). [ The Puppetry Handbook by Anita Sinclair, p.3 ]
"Puppetry is a highly effective and dynamically creative means of exploring the richness of interpersonal communication. By its very nature, puppetry concentrates on the puppet rather than the puppeteer. This provides a safety zone for the puppeteer and allows for exploration of unlimited themes through a safe and non-threatening environment for communication". [ Puppetry by David Logan, p.2] He adds, "Designing a puppet involves the same processes that a performer uses in building a character. A puppet must always have a valid reason for being. The marvellous thrill of puppetry is that puppets by their very nature do things that are not humanly possible. This allows for the imagination to explore countless different possibilities" (
David Logan). [ Puppetry by David Logan, p.3]
History of puppetry
Puppetryis a very ancient art form, probably first originating about 30,000 years ago Puppetry and Puppets/Eileen Blumenthal/Thames & Hudson/2005/ISBN-13 978-0-500-51226-5] . Puppets have been used since the earliest times to animate and communicate the ideas and needs of human societies. [ Emotions in Motion by E.A. Dugan ] Some historians claim that they pre-date actors in theatre. There is evidence that they were used in Egyptas early as 2000 BC when string-operated figures of wood were manipulated to perform the action of kneading bread. Wire controlled, articulated puppets made of clay and ivory have also been found in Egyptian tombs. Hieroglyphs also describe 'walking statues' being used in Ancient Egyptian religious dramas. The oldest written record of puppetry can be found in the written records of Xenophon dating from around 422 B.C. [Puppetry by David Logan, p.7]
.Evidence of earliest puppetry comes from the excavations at the
Indus Valley Civilization.Ghosh, Massey, and Banerjee, page 14] Archaeologists have unearthed terracotta dolls with detachable heads capable of manipulation by a string dating to 2500 BC. Other excavations include terracotta animals which could be manipulated up and down a stick—-archiving minimum animation in both cases. The epic " Mahabharata"; Tamil literaturefrom the Sangam Era, and various literary works dating from the late centuries BCE to the early centuries of the Common Era—including Ashokan edicts—describe puppets.Ghosh, Massey, and Banerjee, pages 14-15] Works like the " Natya Shastra" and the " Kamasutra" elaborate on puppetry in some detail.Ghosh, Massey, and Banerjee, pages 15-16] The Javanese " Wayang" theater was influenced by Indian traditions.Bell, page 46] Europeans developed puppetry as a result of extensive contact with the Eastern World.Bell, page 37] Some scholars trace the origin of puppets to India 4000 years ago, where the main character in Sanskrit plays was known as "sutradhara" 'the holder of strings'. [Emotions in Motion by E.A. Dugan ] Chinahas had a flourishing history of puppetry for 2000 years, originally in "pi-ying xi", the "theatre of the lantern shadows", or, as it is more commonly known today, Chinese shadow theatre. By the Song Dynasty(960-1279 AD), puppets played to all social classes including the courts, yet puppeteers (as in Europe) were considered from a lower social strata.In Taiwan, budaixipuppet shows, somewhat similar to the Japanese Bunraku, occur with puppeteers manipulating in the background or underground. Some very experienced puppeteers can manipulate their puppets to perform various stunts (e.g. somersaults in the air). Japanhas many forms of puppetry. Perhaps the most famous is the bunraku. This developed out of Shinto temple rites, gradually becoming a highly sophisticated form of puppetry. Bunraku owes much to the two great puppeteers, Gidayu Takemoto and Monzaemon Chikamatsu. [Puppetry by David Logan, p.60] By 1730 it required three puppeteers to operate each puppet in full view of the audience. Originally, the puppeteers (dressed all in black) would become invisible when standing against a black background, while the torches illuminated only the carved wooden, beautifully painted and costumed puppets.
Korea, the tradition of puppetry is thought to have come from China. The oldest record about puppetry comes from a letter written in 982 A.D. by Choe Seung-roe to the King.A Study of the Korean Puppet Play by Choe Sang-su, p.43] In Korean, the word for puppet is "ggogdu gagsi" Gagsi means a bride or a young woman, the most common model of dolls. A ggogdu gagsi puppet play has eight scenes. Thailandhas Hun Krabok, a rod puppet theatre which is the most popular form of puppetry. Vietnamdeveloped the art form of mua roi nuoc, a water puppetry unique to that country. The puppets are built out of wood and the shows are performed in a waist high pool. A large rod supports the puppet under the water and is used by the puppeteers to control them. The appearance is of various puppets moving over water. The origin of this form dates back seven hundred years when the rice field would flood and the villagers would entertain each other. Eventually, villages would compete against each other with their puppet shows. This led puppet societies to be secretive and exclusive, including an initiation ceremony involving drinking rooster blood. Only recently were women allowed to join the puppet troupes. Indiahas a great tradition of puppetry. In the great Indian epic Mahabharata, there are references to puppets. The Rajasthani Katpuli from India is famous. There are many Indian ventriloquists and puppeteers. Professor Y.K. Padhye was the first Indian ventriloquist, and he introduced this form of puppetry in India in the 1920s. His son, Ramdas Padhye, popularised ventriloquism and puppetry. Satyajit Padhye, son of Ramdas, is a third-generation ventriloquist who continues this form of puppetry.Fact|date=May 2008 Indonesiahas a strong tradition of puppetry. In Java, wayang kulit, an elaborate form of shadow puppetry is very popular. [Puppetry by David Logan, p.40] Javanese rod puppets are also particularly beautiful and have a long history. They are elaborately carved and painted and used to tell fables from Javanese history.
Middle Eastern puppetry, like its other theatre forms, should be seen in the context of its Islamic culture.
Karagoz(the Turkish Shadow Theatre) has widely influenced puppetry in the region. It is thought to have passed from Chinaby way of India. Later, it was taken by the Mongolsfrom the Chinese and transmitted to the Turkish peoples of Central Asia. Thus the art of Shadow Theater was brought to Anatoliaby the Turkish people emigrating from Central Asia. Other scholars claim that shadow theater came to Anatolia in the 16th century from Egypt. The advocates of this view claim that when Yavuz Sultan Selim conquered Egypt in 1517, he saw shadow theatre performed during a party put on in his honour. Yavuz Sultan Selimwas so impressed with it that he took the puppeteer back to his palace in Istanbul. There his 21 year old son, later Sultan Suleyman the Magnificent, developed an interest in the plays and watched them a great deal. Thus shadow theatre found its way into the Ottoman palaces. [Tradition Folk The Site by Hayali Mustafa Mutlu]
In other areas, the style of shadow puppetry known as "khayal al-zill" – an intentionally metaphorical term whose meaning is best translated as ‘shadows of the imagination’ or ‘shadow of fancy' - survives. This is a shadow play with live music, ”the accompaniment of drums, tambourines and flutes...also...“special effects” – smoke, fire, thunder, rattles, squeaks, thumps, and whatever else might elicit a laugh or a shudder from his audience” [Article Saudi Aramco World 1999/John Feeney]
Iran, puppets are known to have existed much earlier than 1000 CE, but initially only glove and string puppets were popular in Iran. [ The History of Theater in Iran: Willem Floor:ISBN 0-934211-29-9: Mage 2005] Other genres of puppetry emerged during the Qajarera (18th-19th century BCE) as influences from Turkey spead to the region. "Kheimeh Shab-Bazi" is a Persian traditional puppet show which is performed in a small chamber by a musical performer and a storytellercalled a "morshed" or "naghal". These shows often take place alongside storytelling in traditional tea and coffee-houses ("Ghahve-Khave"). The dialogue takes place between the morshed and the puppets. [ Mehr News Agency 7.7.07 http://www.mehrnews ] Puppetry remains very popular in Iran, the touring opera Rostam and Sohrab puppet opera being a recent example. [ Iran Daily 1.3.06 http://www.iran-daily.com ]
Ancient Greece and Rome
Although there are few remaining examples of puppets from ancient Greece, history reveals through literature that puppetry was important. The Greek word usually translated as "puppets" is neurospasta, which literally means "string-pulling", from nervus, meaning either sinew, tendon, muscle, string, or wire, and span, to pull.
Aristotlereferenced pulling strings to control heads, hands and eyes, shoulders and legs. [Practical Puppetry/John Mulholland,p.9] Archimedesis known to have worked with marionettes. Fact|date=July 2008 Plato's work is full of references to puppeteering. The 'Iliad' and the 'Odyssey' were presented using puppetry. The roots of European puppetry probably extend back to the Greek plays with puppets played to the 'common people' in the 5th Century BC. By the third century BC these plays would appear in the Theatre of Dionysusat the Acropolis.
Greeceand Romeclay dolls (and a few of ivory), dated from around 500 BC, were found in children's tombs. These dolls had articulated arms and legs, some of which had an iron rod extending up from the tops of their heads. This rod was used to manipulate the doll from above, exactly as is done today in Sicilian puppetry. A few of these dolls had strings in place of the rods. Some authorities believe these ancient figures were mere toys and not puppets, due to their small size. [ [http://www.sagecraft.com/puppetry/definitions/historical/chapter1.html Observations - Chapter One ] ]
Italy - Middle Ages and Renaissance
Italyis considered by many to be the early home of the marionette, thanks to the influence of Roman puppetry. Xenophonand Plutarchrefer to them.Puppetry Today by Helen Binyon, p.11] The Christian church used marionettes to perform morality plays. It is believed that the word marionette actually originates from the little figures of the Virgin Mary, hence the word 'marionette' or 'Mary doll'. [Marionettes: A Hobby for Everyone by Mabel & Les Beaton] Comedy was introduced to the plays as time went by, and ultimately led to an edict banning puppetry from the church. Puppeteers responded by setting up stages outside cathedrals and became ever more ribald and slapstick. Out of this grew the Italian comedy called Commedia dell'Arte. Puppets were used at times in this form of theatre. Sometimes Shakespeare's plays were performed using marionettes instead of actors. [Marionettes Onstage! by Leonard Suib and Muriel Broadman, p.ix]
Sicily, the sides of donkey carts are decorated with intricate, painted scenes from the Frankish romantic poems, such as The Song of Roland. These same tales are enacted in traditional puppet theatres featuring hand-made marionettes of wood; this art is called Opira dî pupi (Opera of the puppets) in Sicilian. The opera of the puppets and the Sicilian tradition of cantastorî (sing stories) are rooted in the Provençal troubadour tradition in Sicilyduring the reign of Frederick II, Holy Roman Emperor, in the first half of the 13th century. A great place to see this marionette art is the puppet theatres of Palermo, Sicily.
Italy - 18th and 19th century
The strong Italian tradition of marionettes eatin the 18th century, producing many skilful performances, including the tragedy "
Dr. Faust". Many of these marionettes survive to this day, and allow students of the art to marvel at their highly defined controls. In the 19th century, the marionettes of the master Pietro Radillobecame even more complex. Instead of just the rod and two strings, Radillo's marionettes were controlled by as many as eight strings, thus increasing the control over the individual body parts of the marionettes.Fact|date=May 2008
The traditional British
Punch and Judypuppetry traces its roots to the 16th centuryto the Italian commedia dell'arte.Puppetry Today by Helen Binyon, p.36] The figure of Punch derives from the stock character of Pulcinella, which was Anglicized to "Punchinello". He is a manifestation of the Lord of Misruleand Tricksterfigures of deep-rooted mythologies. Punch's wife was originally "Joan". In the late 18th and early 19th centuries, the familiar Punch and Judy hand puppet show which existed in Britain was performed in an easily-transportable booth. A resurgence in puppetry was pioneered by The British Puppet and Model Theatre Guild in the early 20th century. Two of the founders, H. W. Whanslaw and Waldo Lanchester, both pushed puppetry to the forefront of British consciousness with publications of books and literature, mainly focusing on the art of the marionette. Lanchester had a touring theatre and a permanent venue in Malvern, Worcestershire, regularly taking part in the Malvern Festival and attracting the attention of George Bernard Shaw. One of Shaw's last plays, Shakes Vs Shav, was written for and first performed in 1949 by the company.Fact|date=May 2008
Current centres of British Puppetry include The
Little Angel Theatrein Islington, London; Norwich Puppet Theatre; The Harlequin Puppet Theatre, Rhos on Sea, Wales; and the Biggar Puppet Theatre, Biggar, Lanarkshire, Scotland. British puppetry now covers a wide range of styles and approaches. Don Austenis one of many British puppeteers who have extended British puppetry, and a number of theatre companies including Horse and Bamboo Theatre, Green Ginger, and Impossible integrate puppetry in their highly visual productions. Political satire was covered through the medium of the puppet in the ground-breaking British television series " Spitting Image", from 1984 to 1996. Puppetry has also been influencing mainstream theatre. Several recent productions combine puppetry and live action, including 'Warhorse' National Theatreand 'Madam Butterfly' English National Opera.Fact|date=May 2008
Netherlands, Denmark, Romania, Russia and France
Many regional variants of Pulcinella were developed as the character spread across Europe. In the Netherlands it is "Jan Klaassen" (and Judy is "Katrijn"); in Denmark "Mester Jackel"; in Russia "Petrushka"; in Romania "Vasilache"; and in France "Polichinelle".Fact|date=May 2008 Only during the French revolution were puppet booths closed. Those puppeteers who dared to take part in political criticism were imprisoned. [Remo Bufano's Book of Puppetry/Arthur Richmond, p.5] In Russia, the Central Puppet Theatre in Moscow and its branches in every part of the country enhanced the reputation of the puppeteer and puppetry in general. [Practical Puppetry/John Mullholland, p.10]
*ru icon [http://www.gtkrm.info Official website of the State Puppet Theater of the Republic of Mordovia] .
Germany and Austria
There is a long tradition of puppetry in Germany and Austria. Much of it derives from the 16th century tradition of the Italian
commedia dell'arte. The German version of the British character of 'Punch' is called Kasperleof Kasparwhile Judy is called Grete. In the eighteenth century, operas were specifically composed for marionette puppets. Gluck, Haydn, [Practical Puppetry/John Mulholland, p.9] de Fallaand Respighiall composed adult operas for marionettes. In 1855, Count Franz Poccifounded the Munich Marionette Theatre. A German dramatist, poet, painter and composer, Pocci wrote a remarkable 40 puppet plays for his theatre. [Puppetry by David Logan, p.10] Albrecht Roserhas made a considerable impact with his marionettes in Stuttgart. His characters "Clown Gustaf" and "Grandmother" are well-known. ["The Complete Book of Puppets" by David Currell, p. 14] "Grandmother", while outwardly charming, is savagely humorous in her observations about all aspects of society and the absurdities of life. [Puppetry by David Logan, p.12] The Salzburg Marionette Theatrewas founded in 1913 by Professor Anton Aicherand is world famous. [Puppetry by David Logan, p.11] Today in Salzburgin Austria, the Salzburg Marionette Theatrestill continues the tradition of presenting full length opera using marionettes in their own purpose built theatre under the direction of Gretl Aicher. [ Puppetry by David Logan, p.11] It performs mainly operas such as Die Fledermausand The Magic Fluteand a small number of ballets such as The Nutcracker. ["The Complete Book of Puppet Theatre" by David Currell, p.12] The Salzburg Marionette Theatreproductions are aimed for adults although children are of course welcome. There is also a marionette theatre at Schoenbrunn Palace in Vienna.
Queen of the Nightfrom a production of Mozart's 'The Magic Flute' by the Salzburg Marionette Theatre, Austria.
The Czech Republic
Marionette puppet theatre has had a very long history in entertainment in
Prague, and elsewhere in the Czech Republic. It can be traced deep into the early part of the Middle Ages.Czech Puppet Theatre by Alice Dubska, Jan Novak, Nina Malikova and Marie Zdenkova, p.6] Marionettes first appeared around the time of the Thirty Years' War. The first noted Czech puppeteer was Jan Jiri Brat, who was born in 1724. He was the son of a local carpenter and created his own puppet theatre. Matej Kopecky was the most famous 19th century Czech puppeteer,ref name="dubska"/> and was responsible for communicating the ideas of national awareness. In 1920 and 1926 respectively, Josef Skupacreated his most famous puppets: comical father Spejbland his rascal son Hurvínek. [Practical Puppetry/John Mulholland, p.19] In 1930, he set up the first modern professional puppet theatre. An important puppet organisation is the National Marionette Theatrein Prague. Its repertoire mainly features a marionette production of Mozart's famous Don Giovanni. The production has period costumes and a beautifully designed eighteenth century setting. There are numerous other companies, including Buchty a Loutky ("Cakes and Puppets"), founded by Marek Becka. Puppets have been used extensively in animated films since 1946. Jiri Trnkawas an acknowledged leader in this area. Miroslav Trejtnaris an acknowledged master puppeteer and teacher of traditional Czech marionette-making skills. [Puppetry by David Logan, p.111]
Throughout this period, puppetry developed separately from the emerging mainstream of actor theatres, and the 'ragged' puppeteers performed outside of theatre buildings at fairs, markets etc - continuing to be classified along with bandits and gypsies. In the 19th century, puppetry faced competition from other forms of theatre such as
vaudevilleand music hall, but it adapted to these challenges, for example: by developing stage acts and participating in the new forms of popular theatre, or reinventing itself in other ways and finding audiences at the newly fashionable seaside resorts.
Sub-Saharan Africa may have inherited some of the puppet traditions of Ancient Egypt. Certainly, secret societies in many African ethnic groups still use puppets (and
masks) in ritual dramas as well as in their healing and hunting ceremonies. Today, puppetry continues as a popular form, often within a ceremonial context, and as part of a wide-range of folk forms including dance, storytelling, and masked performance.
Throughout rural Africa, puppetry still performs the function of transmitting cultural values and ideas that in large African cities is increasingly undertaken by formal education, books, cinema, and television.
Teotihuacanculture (Central Mexico) of 600 AD made figurines with moveable arms and legs as part of their funerary rites. Native North Americansalso used ceremonial puppets.In 1519, two puppeteers accompanied Hernando Cortezon his first journey to Mexico. Europeans brought their own puppet traditions with them, but gradually distinctive styles, forms and puppet characters developed in America. [ Strings, Hands, Shadows: A Modern Puppet History/John Bell/Detroit Institute of Art/2000 ISBN 0-89558-156-6]
Some advances in 20th century puppetry have originated in the USA. Marionette puppetry was combined with television as early as the 1940s, with
Howdy Doodyof the United Statesbeing a notable marionette in this field. Bil Bairddid wonderful work revitalising marionette theatre and puppetry in the United States. He and his wife, Cora Eisenberghad their own marionette theatre in New York. Edgar Bergenalso made a major contribution. [The Radio Years of Bergen and McCarthy (Thesis) by Arthur Funni] In the 1960s Peter Schumann's Bread and Puppet Theaterdeveloped the political and artistic possibilities of puppet theatre in a distinctive, powerful and immediately recognizable way. At roughly the same time, Jim Hensonwas creating a type of soft, foam-rubber and cloth puppet which became known collectively as Muppets. Initially, through the children's television show " Sesame Street", and later in " The Muppet Show" and on film, these inspired many imitators and are today are recognised almost everywhere. Wayland Flowersalso made a major contribution to adult puppetry with his satirical puppet, Madame.
Puppets also have been used in the
Star Warsfilms. The character of Yodais most effective. His voice and manipulation is provided by master puppeteer Frank Oz.
The aboriginal peoples of Australia have a long tradition of oral storytelling which goes back many thousands of years. They used masks and other objects to convey deep and meaningful themes about morality and nature. There are links between as an early form of ritualistic human carnival puppetry. Masks were carved from wood and heavily decorated with paint and feathers. In many of the Pacific countries, there has been a heavy emphasis on ritual.
With the arrival of European settlers, a different sort of puppetry took shape. In
Australiain the 1960s, Peter Scrivenfounded the Marionette Theatre Company of Australiaand had beautiful marionette productions such as The Tintookies, Little Fella Bindi. [ Puppetry by David Logan, p.13] [ [http://www.powerhousemuseum.com/collection/database/?irn=163386&search=sad&
The Explorersand The Water Babies. Bilbar Puppet Theatre, established by Barbara Turnbulland her husband Bill Turnbull (puppeteer)toured Australia extensively under the auspices of the Queensland Arts Councilin 1970s and 1980s. Their puppets are now held in the Moncrieff Library of the Performing Arts, Queensland Performing Arts Centre, Brisbane.
There are a great many thriving puppet companies in Australia. Courses exist at tertiary level at the
Victorian College of the Arts, University of Melbourne. Australian puppeteer Norman Hetheringtonwas famous for his marionette, Mr. Squigglewho featured on an Australian Broadcasting Commission television program for many years from 1 July 1959. The last episode was on 9 July 1999. In every episode he would create several pictures from "squiggles" sent in by children from around the country. Richard Bradshaw OAMis another famous Australian puppeteer. He is currently President of UNIMA Australia, former artistic director of the Marionette Theatre Company of Australia ["The Complete Book of Puppet Theatre" by David Currell, p.50] and is renowned for his shadow puppetry and writing in the field. ["Puppetry" by David Logan, p.13] Rod Hullalso made a contribution with his puppet Emu. In the 1960s, Hull presented a children's breakfast televisionprogramme in Australia. Snuff Puppetsis one of Australia's modern puppet theatre troupes. Based in Melbourne, their work is full of wild black humour, political and sexual satire and a hand made visually aesthetic. Snuff Puppets has performed in over 15 countries, including tours to major festivals in Asia, South America and Europe. There is an annual winter festival of puppets at the City of Melbourne's ArtPlay and at Federation Square in Melbourne. In New Zealand, a similar history has taken place.
From early in the 19th century, puppetry began to inspire artists from the 'high-art' traditions. In 1810,
Heinrich von Kleistwrote an essay 'On the Marionette Theatre', admiring the "lack of self-consciousness" of the puppet.
Puppetry developed throughout the
twentieth centuryin a variety of ways. Supported by the parallel development of cinema, television and other filmed media it now reaches a larger audience than ever. Another development, starting at the beginning of the century, was the belief that puppet theatre, despite its popular and folk roots, could speak to adult audiences with an adult, and experimental voice, and reinvigorate the high art tradition of actors' theatre. [Strings, Hands, Shadows: A Modern Puppet History/John Bell/Chapter 6/Detroit Institute of Art/2000 ISBN 0-89558-156-6] Sergei Obraztsovexplored the concept of "kukolnost" ('puppetness'), despite Stalin's insistence on realism. Other pioneers, including Edward Gordon Craigand Erwin Piscatorwere influenced by puppetry in their crusade to regalvanise the mainstream. Maeterlinck, Shaw, Lorcaand others wrote puppet plays, and artists such as Picasso, Jarry, and Legerbegan to work in theatre.
Throughout the world, innovatory puppeteers such as
Tony Sarg, Waldo Lanchester, John Wright, Bil Baird, Joan Baixas, Sergei Obratsov, Philipe Genty, Peter Schumann, Jim Henson, Kevin Augustine, and Julie Taymorhave continued to develop the forms and content of puppetry. Puppetry is now probably more familiar through television than live performance, but this still flourishes throughout the world. In the world of theatre, puppetry continues to be influential, and despite its 'outsider' status acts as an invigorating and rejuvenating influence on its mainstream relative.
UNIMA - International Puppetry Association
UNIMA , the International Puppetry Association, was founded in
Praguein the 1920s. In 1981, Jacques Felixmoved UNIMA's headquarters to Charleville-Mézières, France. There are national branches throughout the world; examples being POA (Puppeteers of America), PUK (Puppetry UK) and UNIMA Australia which represent puppetry as an art form in their countries. The most recent UNIMA World Congress and International Puppetry Festival was held in Perth, Australia from 2-12 April, 2008.
List of puppets and puppet shows
puppetfor types of puppetry and puppets
* For information about puppetry technique or the use of puppets, see the respective articles on each kind of puppet.
* [http://www.unima.org Union Internationale de la Marionnette] - International organization of puppeteers and puppet enthusiasts
* [http://www.unima.org.au UNIMA Australia] - Australian branch of the International organisation of puppeteers
* [http://www.puppet.org The Center for Puppetry Arts] - Puppetry Museum and Theater in Atlanta, GA, US.
* [http://www.puppetry.info The Puppetry Homepage] - Contains links and information about all types of puppets and puppetry.
* [http://puppetvision.blogspot.com PuppetVision Blog] - Popular weblog about puppetry and its role in film, video and digital media.
* [http://puppetrylab.com PuppetryLab] - Articles and training videos related to puppet manipulation and puppeteer education.
* [http://www.unimahellas.org Greek Centre of UNIMA] - Puppetry in Greece
Books and Articles
last = Baird
first = Bil
authorlink = Bil Baird
title = The Art of the Puppet
publisher = Plays
id= ISBN 10 0823800679
last = Beaton
first = Mabel
authorlink = Mabel Beaton
coauthors = Les Beaton
title = Marionettes: A Hobby for Everyone
location = New York
last = Bell
first = John
authorlink = John Bell
title = Shadows: A Modern Puppet History
publisher = Detroit Institute of Art
location = Detroit, USA
id= ISBN 0 89558 156 6
last = Binyon
first = Helen
authorlink = Helen Binyon
title = Puppetry Today
publisher = Studio Vista Limited
location = London
last = Choe
first = Sang-su
authorlink = Choe Sang-su
title = A Study of the Korean Puppet Play
publisher = The Korean Books Publishing Company Ltd.
last = Currell
first = David
authorlink = David Currell
title = An Introduction to Puppets and Puppetmaking
publisher = New Burlington Books, Quintet Publishing Limited
location = London
id= ISBN 1 85348 389 3
last = Dubska
first = Alice
authorlink = Alice Dubska
coauthors = Jan Novak, Nina Malikova, Marie Zdenkova
title = Czech Puppet Theatre
publisher = Theatre Institute
location = Prague
id= ISBN 80 7008 199 6
last = Dugan
first = E.A.
authorlink = E.A. Dugan
title = Emotions in Motion
publisher = Galerie Amrad
location = Montreal, Canada
id= ISBN 0 9693081 5 9
last = Feeney
first = John
authorlink = John Feeney
title = Puppet
publisher = Saudi Aramco World
last = Funni
first = Arthur
authorlink = Arthur Funni
title = The Radio Years of Bergen and McCarthy (Thesis)
location = The Margaret Herrick Library
last = Hayali
first = Mustafa Mutlu
authorlink = Mustafa Mutlu Hayali
title = Tradition Folk The Site
publisher = Theatre Department, Ankara University Faculty of Language, History and Geography
location = Ankara, Turkey
last = Latshaw
first = George
authorlink = George Latshaw
title = The Complete Book of Puppetry
publisher = Dover Publications
location = London
id= ISBN 978-048640-952-8
last = Lindsay
first = Hilaire
authorlink = Hilaire Lindsay
title = The First Puppet Book
publisher = Ansay Pty Ltd
location = Leichardt, NSW, Australia
id= ISBN 0 909245
last = Logan
first = David
authorlink = David Logan
title = Puppetry
publisher = Brisbane Dramatic Arts Company
location = Brisbane, Queensland, Australia
id= ISBN 9780980456301
last = Robinson
first = Stuart
authorlink = Stuart Robertson
coauthors = Patricia Robertson
title = Exploring Puppetry
publisher = Mills & Boon Limited
location = London
last = Sinclair
first = Anita
authorlink = Anita Sinclair
title = The Puppetry Handbook
publisher = Richard Lee Publishing
location = Richmond, Victoria, Australia
id= ISBN 0 646 39063 5
last = Suib
first = Leonard
authorlink = Leonard Suib
coauthors = Muriel Broadman
title = Marionettes Onstage!
publisher = Harper & Row, Publishers
location = New York
id= ISBN 0 06 014166 2
title = Wayland Flowers Dies: Ventriloquist Was 48
publisher =The New York Times
October 12 1988
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