Bukharan People's Soviet Republic

Infobox Former Country
native_name = Бухарская Народная Советская Республика
conventional_long_name = Bukharan People's Soviet Republic
common_name = Bukhara
continent = moved from Category:Asia to Central Asia
region = Central Asia
country = Uzbekistan
status = Satellite state
empire = Soviet Union
government_type = Socialist republic
capital = Bukhara
era = Interwar period
p1 = Emirate of Bukhara
flag_p1 = Flag of Emirate of Bukhara.gif
s1 = Uzbek SSR
flag_s1 = Flag of Uzbek SSR.svg



common_languages = Tajik, Uzbek, Bukhori
religion = Sunni Islam, Sufism (Naqshbandi), Judaism
leader1 = Faizullah Khojaev
year_start = 1920
year_end = 1925
date_start = October 8
date_end = February 17
event_end = Joined the Uzbek SSR
event_pre = Monarchy overthrown
date_pre = 1920-09-02

The Bukharan People's Soviet Republic ( _ru. Бухарская Народная Советская Республика) was the name of Uzbekistan from 1920 to 1925. It was a short-lived Soviet state which governed the former Emirate of Bukhara during the period immediately following the Russian Revolution from 1920-1925. It eventually became part of the Uzbek Soviet Socialist Republic (Uzbek SSR).

History

In 1868, the Russian Empire forced the Emirate of Bukhara to accept protectorate status. Over the next 40 years, the Russians slowly eroded at Bukhara’s territory, although never actually annexing the city of Bukhara itself. However, the emir could not shut out all outside influences, and gradually some of the disaffected youth of Bukhara gravitated to Pan-Turkism, inspired by the Young Turks in the Ottoman Empire, ideas taken from the Islamic Jadid reform movement, and the new Bolshevik-inspired communism. These various ideologies coalesced in the Young Bukharians, led by Faizullah Khojaev. The young Bukharans faced extreme obstacles as the emirate was dominated by conservative Sunni Islamic clergy. The ensuing conflict would pit the secular Young Bukharans and their Bolshevik supporters against the conservative, pro-emir rebels named the Basmachi. This conflict would last more than a decade.

In March 1918 activists of the Young Bukharians informed the Bolsheviks that the Bukharans were ready for the revolution and that the people were awaiting liberation. The Red Army marched to the gates of Bukhara and demanded that the emir surrender the city to the Young Bukharans. As Russian sources report, the emir responded by murdering the Bolshevik delegation, along with several hundred Russian inhabitants of Bukhara and the surrounding territories. The majority of Bukharans did not support an invasion and the ill-equipped and ill-disciplined Bolshevik army fled back to the Soviet stronghold at Tashkent.

However, the emir had won only a temporary respite. By August 1920 the Turkistan Bolsheviks advocated the liquidation of the Bukhara khanate as a centre for counter-revolutionary forces. On 10 August, 1920 Politburo Russian Communist Party (Bolshevik) confirmed orders for the Revolutionary Military Council of Turkistan as regards the "Bukhara question". On 3 August the bolsheviks and the Young Bukharians agreed to act together with the agreement that the Young Bukharians would join the Communist Party. On August 16, 1920 the 4th congress of CPB in Chardjui decided to overthrow the emir.

On 2 September 1920, an army of well-disciplined and well equipped Red Army troops under the command of Bolshevik general Mikhail Frunze attacked the city. After four days of fighting, the emir’s citadel (Arc) was destroyed, the red flag was raised from the top of Kalyan Minaret, and the Emir Alim Khan was forced to flee to his base at Dushanbe in Eastern Bukharan, and finally to Kabul, Afghanistan. On 14 September, the All-Bukharian Revolutionary Committee was set up, headed by Mukhitdinov A. The government - the Council of National Nazirs - was presided over by Faizullah Khojaev. [ [http://www.kitab.uz/cms/?q=node/37 The Bukhara Republic (1920-1924)] , Southern Uzbekistan Historical Database accessed 23 march 2008.]

The Bukharan People's Republic was proclaimed on 8 October 1920 under Faizullah Khojaev. The overthrow of the Emir was the impetus for the Basmachi Revolt, a conservative anti-communist rebellion. In 1922, most of the territory of the republic was controlled by Basmachi, surrounding the city of Bukhara.

During the first few years of the Russian Revolution, Lenin relied on a policy of encouraging local revolutions under the aegis of the local bourgeoisie, and in the early years of Bolshevik rule the Communists sought the assistance of the Jadids, reformists, in pushing through radical social and educational reforms. Only two weeks after the proclamation of the People's Republic, Communist Party membership in Bukhara soared to 14,000 as many local inhabitants were eager to prove their loyalty to the new regime. As the Soviet Union stabilized, it could afford to purge itself of opportunists and potential nationalists. A series of expulsions stripped membership down to 1000 by 1922.

From 19 September 1924 to 17 February 1925, the republic was known as Bukharan Soviet Socialist Republic (Bukharan SSR; Russian: Бухарская Социалистическая Советская Республика). When new national boundaries were drawn up in 1924, the Bukharan SSR voted itself out of existence, and became part of the new Uzbek SSR. Today the territory of the defunct Bukhara SSR is lies mostly in Uzbekistan with parts in Tajikistan and Turkmenistan.

Khojaev, despite his Jadid background, became the first President of the Uzbek SSR. He was later purged and executed in the 1930s together with much of the intelligentsia of Central Asia.

Chairmen of the Provisional (from 6 October 1920, Central) Revolutionary Committee

*Mirza Abdulqodir Mansurovich Mukhitdinov (2 September 1920 - 1921)
*Polat Usmon Khodzhayev (1921 - 23 September 1921)

Chairmen of the Presidium of the Central Executive Committee

*Polat Usmon Khodzhayev (23 September 1921 - April 1922)
*Muin Jon Aminov (April 1922 - 18 August 1922)
*Porsa Khodzhayev (18 August 1922 - 17 February 1925)

See also

* Bukhara
* Basmachi Revolt
* Enver Pasha
* Emirate of Bukhara
* Khorezm SSR

References


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