- Abu Sayyaf
:"Sword of God" redirects here. For the 7th century Arab Muslim military commander known as the "Sword of God", see
Khalid ibn al-Walid. For the album by Quasi, see " The Sword of God"Infobox War Faction
name=Abu Sayyaf Group.
Islamic insurgency in the Philippines
active=1990s - currently
Abu Sabaya† Khadaffy Janjalani† Abdurajik Abubakar Janjalani†
Jolo, The Philippines
Pro-government Muslim militias
battles=Insurgency in the PhilippinesThe Abu Sayyaf Group (Arabic: "جماعة أبو سياف"; transl|sem|Jamāʿah Abū Sayyāf, ASG), also known as al-Harakat al-Islamiyya is one of several militant Islamist separatist groups based in and around the southern islands of the Philippines, in
Bangsamoro(Jolo, Basilan, and Mindanao) where for almost 30 years various Muslim groups have been engaged in an insurgency for a state, independent of the predominantly Catholic Philippines. The name of the group is derived from the Arabic ابو, "abu" ("father of") and "sayyaf" ("Swordsmith [http://www.fbi.gov/pressrel/pressrel06/mostwantedterrorists022406.htm FBI Updates Most Wanted Terrorists and Seeking Information – War on Terrorism Lists] , "FBI national Press Release", February 24, 2006] "). The group calls itself "Al-Harakat Al-Islamiyya" or the "Islamic Movement". The name Abu Sayyaf was derived from the kunya adopted by Abdurajak Janajalani when he named his oldest son Sayyaf, thereby becoming Abu Sayyaf or the father of Sayyaf. Abdurajak named his son after the Afghan mujahidcommander Rasul Sayyaf who ran the training camp he attended in Afghanistan.
Since its inception in the early 1990s, the group has carried out
bombings, kidnappings, assassinations, rapes and extortionin what they describe as their fight for an independent Islamic statein western Mindanao and the Sulu Archipelagowith the stated goal of creating a pan-Islamic superstate across southeast Asia, spanning from east to west; the island of Mindanao, the Sulu Archipelago, the island of Borneo( Malaysia, Indonesia), the South China Sea, and the Malay Peninsula( Peninsular Malaysia, Thailandand Myanmar).cite web|url=http://tkb.org/Group.jsp?groupID=204 |title=Abu Sayyaf Group (ASG) |publisher=MIPT Terrorism Knowledge Base |lastaccessyear=2006 |lastaccessmonthday=September 20] The Abu Sayyaf Group seeks a 13 province autonomous region, free from the predominately Catholic government of the Philippines. [Citation
title=Who are the Abu Sayyaf?
date=December 30, 2000
Location and view on Abu Sayyaf
Until his death in a gunbattle on September 4, 2006,
Khadaffy Janjalaniwas considered the nominal leader of the group by the Armed Forces of the Philippines. His older brother Abdurajik Abubakar Janjalani, the founder of Abu Sayyaf, died in December 1998. Confirmation of Khadaffy's death was officially confirmed on January 20, 2007, through DNA analysisof both brother's remains. Both were natives of Isabela City, currently one of the smallest and poorest, or so-called "5th-class" cities of the Philippines. Located on the north of the island of Basilan, Isabela is also the capital of Basilan province, across the Basilan Strait from Zamboanga City. But Isabela City is administered under the Zamboanga Peninsulapolitical region north of the island of Basilan, while the rest of the island province of Basilan is now (since 1996) governed as part of the Autonomous Region in Muslim Mindanao(ARMM) to the east. Consequently, being on the social or political division line, Isabela City and Basilan island have seen some of the fiercest fighting between government troops and the Muslim separatist group Abu Sayyaf through the early 2000s.
The ASG primarily operates in the southern Philippines with members occasionally traveling to
Manila. It is reported that ASG has begun expanding into neighbouring Malaysiaand Indonesiaby the early 2000s.
The ASG is the one of the smallest but strongest of the Islamic separatist groups in Mindanao. Some ASG members have allegedly studied or worked in
Saudi Arabiaand developed ties to mujahadeenwhile fighting and training in the war against the Soviet invasion of Afghanistan.
Abu Sayyaf pro-claimed themselves as
mujahideenand freedom fighters but are not provided support by many people in Moroland including Muslim clerics.
Abu Sayyaf is estimated to have a core membership of 200 with an extended membership of over 2000.cite news|title=Who are the Abu Sayyaf |date=2000-12-30 |publisher=BBC |url=http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/asia-pacific/719623.stm] The ASG's low numbers indicate a lack of support among the local population.
The group was originally not thought to receive funding from outside sources, but intelligence reports from the
United States, Indonesia, and Australiahave found intermittent ties to the Indonesian Jemaah Islamiyahterrorist group. [cite news|title=Bomb hits Philippines ferry |publisher=CNN |date=2005-08-28 |url=http://www.cnn.com/2005/WORLD/asiapcf/08/28/philippines.ferry.blast/index.html] The Philippine government considers ASG to be allied with Jemaah Islamiyahand notes that initial funding came from al-Qaedathrough the brother-in-law of Osama bin Laden, Mohammed Jamal Khalifa, through Islamic charities in the region. cite news|title=The Return of Abu Sayyaf |date=2004-08-30 |publisher=Time Asia Magazine |url=http://www.time.com/time/asia/magazine/article/0,13673,501040830-686107,00.html] cite news|title=Air raids hit Philippines rebels |publisher=BBC |date=2004-11-20 |url=http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/asia-pacific/4027721.stm] [cite news|title=AsiaWeek: 08.31.1999 |publisher=AsiaWeek |date=1999-08-31] Continuing ties to Islamist groups in the Middle East indicate that al-Qaeda may be continuing support. [cite news|title=Gunfight in philippine bomber hunt |publisher=CNN |date=2003-08-10 |url=http://www.cnn.com/2003/WORLD/asiapcf/southeast/08/10/philippine.gunfight/index.html] [cite news|title=Bin Laden Funds Abu Sayyaf Through Muslim Relief Group |date=2000-08-09 |publisher=Philippine Daily Inquirer]
tate Supporters and Other Sources of Funding
The group obtains most of its financing through ransom and extortion. One report estimated its revenues from ransom payments in 2000 alone between $10 and $25 million. According to the State Department, it may also receive funding from radical Islamic benefactors in the
Middle Eastand South Asia. "Libya was a conduit for ransoms paid to Abu Sayyaf and other Filipino Muslim groups... [Libya] also offered money for ‘livelihood projects’ in its role in the 2000 hostage negotiations...this raises the possibility that Libyan money gets channeled to Abu Sayyaf.". [cite web |author=Niksch, Larry |title=Abu Sayyaf: Target of Philippine-U.S. Anti-Terrorism Cooperation |publisher=Federation of American Scientists |date=2002-01-25 |work=CRS Report for Congress |url=http://www.fas.org/irp/crs/RL31265.pdf]
Connections with Foreign Organizations
Links between ASG and Al Qaeda are the subject of debate. It is generally believed that the group received funding from Al Qaeda in the early 1990s through Mohammad Jamal Khalifa, a brother-in-law of Osama bin Laden. Al Qaeda collaborator Ramzi Yousef operated in the Philippines in the mid-1990s and reportedly trained Abu Sayyaf fighters. However, there is little information about recent cooperation between Al Qaeda and ASG. Some have claimed that Abu Sayyaf is subordinate to Al Qaeda, but others contend that because of the group’s blatant use of ransom and extortion for profit, a close association between the two is unlikely. The 2002 edition of the U.S. State Department’s Patterns of Global Terrorism does not mention any ties to Al Qaeda.
Though Janjalani’s first recruits were dissidents from the Moro National Liberation Front (MNLF), radical Islamic groups in the Philippines, such as the separatist
Moro Islamic Liberation Front(MILF) and the MNLF, deny having links with Abu Sayyaf. Both distance themselves from ASG because of its attacks on civilians and its profiteering. The Philippine military, however, has claimed that elements of both groups provide support to Abu Sayyaf.
Abdurajik Abubakar Janjalani, the older brother of Khadaffy Janjalani, had been a teacher from Basilan, who later studied Islamic theologyand Arabicin Libya, Syriaand Saudi Arabiaduring the 1980s.cite web|title=Abu Sayyaf History |publisher=U.S. Pacific Command |date=2000-09-216 |url=http://www.pacom.mil/piupdates/abusayyafhist.shtml] Abdurajik then went to Afghanistan to fight against the Soviet Unionand Afghan Marxist government in the Soviet war in Afghanistan. During that time, he is alleged to have met Osama Bin Laden, and been given $6 million to establish a more Islamic splinter group of the MNLF in the southern Philippines, made up of members of the extant MNLF.cite web|title=Funding Terrorism in Southeast Asia: The Financial Network of Al Qaeda and Jemaah Islamiyah |url=http://www.nbr.org/publications/analysis/pdf/vol14no5.pdf |publisher=The National Bureau of Asian Research |lastaccessyear=2006 |lastaccessmonthdate=September 20|format=PDF]
By then, as a political solution in the southern Philippines, ARMM had been created, in 1989.
Abu Sayyaf Group under Abdurajik Janjalani
MNLF had moderated into an established political party, the ARMM. It was established in 1989, fully institutionalized by 1996 and which eventually became the ruling party on the southern Philippines island of Mindanao.
When Abdurajik Janjalani returned home to Basilan island in 1990, he gathered radical members of the old MNLF who wanted to resume armed struggle for an independent Islamic state and in 1991 founded Abu Sayyaf Group, named after his own alias, which was "Abu Sayyaf".
By 1995 Abu Sayyaf was active in large scale bombings and attacks in the Philippines. Abu Sayyaf's first large-scale action was the beachhead assault on the town of Ipil in
Mindanaoin April 1995. This year also marked the escape of 20 year-old Khadaffy Janjalani from Camp Cramein Manilaalong with another member named Jovenal Bruno.
On December 18, 1998 the founding older brother Abdurajik Janjalani was killed in a firefight with the
Philippine National Policeon Basilan Island. He is thought to have been about age 39 at the time of his death. The death of Aburajik Abubakar Janjalani marked a turning point in ASG operations, shifting from its ideological focus to more general kidnappings, murders and robberies, as the younger brother Khadaffy Janjalani then rose to succeed Aburajik.
Abu Sayyaf Group under Khadaffy Janjalani
The 23 year-old Khadaffy Janjalani then took power of one of Abu Sayyaf's factions in an internecine struggle.cite news|title=Fresh fighting in S Philippines |publisher=BBC |date=2006-09-07 |url=http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/asia-pacific/5322680.stm] He then worked to consolidate his power within Abu Sayyaf, causing the group to appear inactive for a period. After Janjalani's supremacy was secured, Abu Sayyaf began a new tactic, as they proceeded to take hostages.
The group's motive for kidnapping became more financial and less religious during the period of Khadaffy's leadership, according to locals in the areas associated with Abu Sayyaf. The hostage money is probably the method of financing of the group.The group expanded its operations to
Malaysiain 2000 when it abducted foreigners from two different resorts. This action was condemned by many parties including Muslim government such as Libyan and Malaysia. .cite news|title=Manilla captures senior Abu Sayyaf |publisher=CNN |date=2003-12-07 |url=http://www.cnn.com/2003/WORLD/asiapcf/southeast/12/07/philippines.abusayyaf/index.html] [cite news|title=Ex-hostage describes jungle ordeal |publisher=CNN |date=2003-05-09 |url=http://www.cnn.com/2003/US/05/08/cnna.burnham/index.html]
A commander named
Abu Sabayawas killed in 2002 while trying to evade forces.cite web|title=Prominent Abu Sayyaf Commander Believed Dead |url=http://www.ict.org.il/spotlight/det.cfm?id=796 |publisher=Institute for Counter-Terrorism |lastaccessyear=2006 |lastaccessmonthdate=September 20]
Galib Andang, aka Commander Robot, was captured in
Suluin December 2003.cite news|title=Profiles of dead Abu Sayyaf leaders |publisher=BBC |date=2005-03-15 |url=http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/asia-pacific/4350033.stm] cite news|title=Bloody end to Manila jail break |publisher=BBC |date=2005-03-15 |url=http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/asia-pacific/4349471.stm]
A blast at a military base on Jolo island on February 18, 2006 was blamed on Abu Sayyaf by Brig. General Alexander Aleo, an Army officer.cite news|title=Blast at US Philippines army base |publisher=BBC |date=2006-02-18 |url=http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/asia-pacific/4727842.stm] Khadaffy Janjalani was indicted in the
United States District Court for the District of Columbiafor his alleged involvement in terrorist acts, including hostage taking by Abu Sayyaf and murder, against United States nationals and other foreign nationals in and around the Republic of the Philippines.cite news|title=US indicts Abu Sayyaf leaders |publisher=BBC |date=2002-07-23 |url=http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/asia-pacific/2147381.stm]
Consequently on February 24, 2006, Janjalani was among six fugitives in the second and most recent group of indicted fugitives to be added to the
FBI Most Wanted Terroristslist along with two fellow members of Abu Sayyaf, Isnilon Totoni Hapilonand Jainal Antel Sali, Jr.cite news|title=FBI puts al-Zarqawi high on its list |date=2006-02-24 |publisher=CNN |url=http://www.cnn.com/2006/WORLD/meast/02/24/zarqawi.mostwanted/index.html] cite news|title=Tiahrt responds to the Abu Sayyaf terrorist indictments |publisher=United States House of Representatives |url=http://www.house.gov/tiahrt/communications/press_releases/2002/07232002.htm |lastaccessyear=2006 |lastaccessmonthdate=September 20]
On December 13, 2006, it was reported that Abu Sayyaf may have been planning attacks during the
ASEANsummit in the Philippines. The group was reported to have been training alongside Jemaah Islamiyah militants. The plot was reported to have involved detonating a car bomb in the town of Cebu where the summit was scheduled to take place. [cite news|title=Manila Again Denies Terror Plot Led to Postponement of Asia Summits |date=2006-12-13 |publisher=Voice of America (VoA) |url=http://voanews.com/english/2006-12-13-voa11.cfm]
On December 27, 2006, the Philippine military reported that Janjalani's remains had been recovered near Patikul, on Jolo Island, southern Philippines, and that DNA tests had been ordered to confirm the discovery. He was allegedly shot in the neck in an encounter with government troops on September on Luba Hills, Patikul town, Sulu Island.
Jainal Antel Sali, Jr. (aka Abu Solaiman) was killed by government troops on January 16, 2007.
2000 Sipadan Kidnapping Crisis
On Wednesday, May 3, 2000, Abu Sayyaf guerillas armed with M-16s and rocket launchersFact|date=December 2007 beached their high-speed boats on Sipadan, Malaysia's renowned dive resort island, and abducted 21
hostages. As CDNN issued daily reports linking the Abu Sayyaf rebels to Al Qaedaterrorists and warning dive travelers to avoid the area, Malaysia's Ministry of Tourism, the dive industry and local Sipadan dive operators colluded to downplay the threat to tourists.
The rebels have freed two
Malaysiansearly because they are Muslimsand are demanding $2.4 million for the release of the other hostages which include at least 10 foreigners.
According to Philippine military sources, the hostages are being held in Jolo, a town located in a remote province named Sulu in the southern Philippines where the Abu Sayyaf is based. The area is less than one hour away from Sipadan by high-speed boat.
rebelsare fighting Philippinegovernment troops who are trying to free 27 other hostages kidnapped five weeks ago. The rebels have beheaded two of the adult hostages and are threatening to kill five more if government troops do not withdraw
The Abu Sayyaf has demanded the release of various Muslim terrorists including
Ramzi Yousef, who was convicted of masterminding the bombing the World Trade Center in 1993.
Few days after the abduction,
Malaysiapolice chief, Norian Mai, stated that several Malaysians have been arrested on charges of helping gunmen.
More than 12 locals have been detained and police stated that more might be arrested as their investigation continues into the kidnapping of five tourists and resort staff.
Police stated that some of the arrested were former employees of the Sipadan resort who have strong ties with the Philippine fishing community, however, Malaysian
tourismindustry officials have denied the reports.
Kidnapping of Jeffrey Schilling
Jeffrey Schilling, an American citizen and
Muslimconvert, was held by Abu Sayyaf for 8 months after being captured whilst visiting a terrorist camp with his wife, Ivy Osani. Abu Sayyaf demanded a $10 million dollar ransom for his release, but Schilling escaped after more than 7 months and was picked up by the Philippine Marines Corps on the 12 April 2001. [citeweb |url=http://www.cbsnews.com/stories/2001/04/02/world/main283170.shtml |publisher="CBS News" |date=April 12, 2001 |title=US Hostage Freed in Philippines |author= ] [citeweb |url=http://edition.cnn.com/TRANSCRIPTS/0207/23/bn.01.html |title=Larry Thompson, Deputy Attorney General (Live Transcript) |date=July 23, 2002 |publisher=CNN International] Many commentators have been critical of Schilling, who had reportedly walked into the camp. Mr. Schilling claims to have been invited, through a relative of his wife who was a member of Abu Sayyaf. [citeweb |url=http://www.sfgate.com/cgi-bin/article.cgi?file=/chronicle/archive/2001/04/14/MNE165246.DTL |title= What Was Schilling Thinking? Oblivious Oakland Man Sets Himself Up |publisher="San Francisco Chronicle" |date=April 14, 2001 |author=Chip Johnson ]
Martin and Gracia Burnham's Kidnapping
On May 27, 2001, an Abu Sayyaf raid kidnapped about 20 people from Dos Palmas, an expensive resort in Honda Bay, to the north of Puerto Princesa City on the island of Palawan, which had been "considered completely safe". The most "valuable" of the hostages were three Americans - Martin and Gracia Burnham (a missionary couple) and Guillermo Sobero (a Peruvian-American tourist who was later brutally murdered by Abu Sayyaf) for whom Abu Sayyaf demanded $1 million in ransom. [ [http://newsstand.blogs.com/newsstand/2007/01/turns_out_abu_s.html Gracia's enemies] ] The hostages and hostage-takers then returned hundreds of miles back across the Sulu Sea to Abu Sayyaf's home turf on Mindanao island."Manhunt" by Mark Bowden, "The Atlantic", March 2007, p.54 (15)]
According to author
Mark Bowden, the head of the raid was Aldam Tilao, who called himself Abu Sabaya("Bearer of Captives"), and who, out of character for an Islamic leader, wore "a single hoop earring and Oakley sunglasses."
Gracia Burnham, Tilao told her husband "to identify his kidnappers" to authorities "as `the Osama bin Laden Group,` but Burnham was unfamiliar with that name and stuck with" Abu Sayyaf. After returning to Mindanao, Abu Sayyaf operatives conducted numerous raids, "including one at a coconut plantation called Golden Harvest; they took about 15 people captive there and later used bolo knives to hack the heads off two men. The number of hostages waxed and waned as some were ransomed and released, new ones were taken, and others were killed.".
On 7 June 2002, about a year after the raid, Philippine army troops attempted a rescue operation in which two of the three hostages held were killed - Martin Burnham and a Filipino nurse Ediborah Yap - the remaining hostage wounded, and the hostage takers escaped.
In July 2004, Gracia Burnham testified at a trial of eight Abu Sayyaf member and identified six out of the suspects as being her erstwhile captors, including o Alhamzer Limbong alias Kosovo, Abdul Azan Diamla, Abu Khari Moctar, Bas Ishmael, Alzen Jandul and Dazid Baize.
"The eight suspects sat silently during her three-hour testimony, separated from her by a wooden grill. They face the death sentence if found guilty of kidnapping for ransom. The trial began this year and is not expected to end for several months." [ [http://www.graciaburnham.org/pdf/Article_7-30-04.pdf Burham identifies former Abu Captors] ]
Alhamzer Limbong was later killed in a prison uprising. [ [http://www.graciaburnham.org/index.asp?sec=3_1 PHILIPPINES BRACE FOR RETALIATION] Tuesday, March 15, 2005, Associated Press]
Gracia Burnhamhas caused controversy since returning to the US, by claiming that Philippine military officials were colluding with her captors. She made the claim in a book about her experiences called [http://books.google.com/books?id=XtE5QEW0ukUC&dq=In+the+Presence+of+My+Enemies&pg=PP1&ots=aBsO-csyzG&sig=lwOf29qR-dcKscY3A-_qNV0QnJ0&prev=http://www.google.com/search%3Fhl%3Den%26q%3DIn%2Bthe%2BPresence%2Bof%2BMy%2BEnemies%26btnG%3DGoogle%2BSearch&sa=X&oi=print&ct=result&cd=2 "In the Presence of My Enemies"] . In it she complains the Armed Forces of the Philippines "didn't pursue us ... "As time went on, we noticed that they never pursued us."
uperferry 14 Bombing
Superferry 14was a large ferrydestroyed by a bomb on February 27, 2004, killing 116 people in the Philippines' worst terrorist attack, and the world's deadliest terrorist attack at sea.
On that day, the 10,192
tonferry was sailing out of Manila, with about 900 passengers and crew. A television set filled with 8 lb (4 kg) of TNT had been placed on board. 90 minutes out of port, the bomb exploded. 63 people were killed immediately, and 53 were missing and presumed dead.
Despite claims from terrorist groups, the blast was initially thought to have been an accident, caused by a gas explosion. But after divers righted the ferry five months after it sunk, they found evidence of a bomb blast. Also, a man named Redendo Cain Dellosa admitted to planting the bomb on board for the Abu Sayyaf guerrilla group.
Gloria Macapagal-Arroyoannounced on October 11, 2004, that investigators had concluded the explosion was caused by a bomb. She said six suspects had been arrested in connection with the bombing and that the masterminds, Khadaffy Janjalaniand Abu Sulaiman, were still at large. It was believed that Abu Sayyaf bombed Superferry 14 because the company that owned it, WG&A, did not comply with an Abu Sayyaf letter demanding protection money.Fact|date=December 2007
Journalists abducted since 2000
ABS-CBN Broadcasting Corporation/Newsbreak’s reported that Abu Sayyaf abducted at least 20 journalistssince 2000 (mostly foreign journalists), and all of them were eventually released upon payment of ransom. Ces Drilonand cameramen Jimmy Encarnacion and Angelo Valderama were the latest of its kidnap victims. The journalists held captive, inter alia, were: GMA-7television reporter Susan Enriquez (April 2000, Basilan, a few days); 10 Foreign journalists (7 German, 1 French, 1 Australian, and 1 Danish, on May 2000, Jolo, for 10 hours); German Andreas Lorenz of the magazine Der Spiegel(July 2000, Jolo, for 25 days; he was also kidnapped in May); French television reporter Maryse Burgot, and cameraman Jean-Jacques Le Garrec and sound technician Roland Madura (July 2000, Jolo, for 2 months); ABS-CBN television reporter Maan Macapagal and cameraman Val Cuenca (July 2000, Jolo, for 4 days); Philippine Daily Inquirercontributor and Net 25 television reporter Arlyn de la Cruz(January 2002, Zamboanga, for 3 months); and GMA-7 television reporter Carlo Lorenzo and cameraman Gilbert Ordiales (September 2002, Jolo, for 6 days). [ [http://www.abs-cbnnews.com/storypage.aspx?StoryId=121372 abs-cbnnews.com, Abu Sayyaf abducted 20 journalists since 2000] ]
List of attacks attributed to Abu Sayyaf
* April 23 - ASG gunmen raid the Malaysian diving resort of
Sipadan, off Borneo, and flee across the sea border to their Jolo island stronghold with 10 Western tourists and 11 resort workers.
* May 27 - The kidnappers issue political demands including a separate Muslim state, an inquiry into alleged human rights abuses in Sabah and the restoration of fishing rights. They later demand cash multimillion-dollar ransoms.
* July 1 - Filipino television evangelist Wilde Almeda of the Jesus Miracle Crusade (JMC) and 12 of his "prayer warriors" visit the ASG lair. A German journalist is seized the following day.
* July 9 - A three-member French television crew was abducted.
* August 27 - French,
South African and German hostages are freed.
* August 28 - American Muslim convert
Jeffrey Schillingis abducted.
* September 9 - Finnish, German and French hostages are freed.
* September 10 - ASG raids Pandanan island near Sipadan and seizes three Malaysians.
* September 16 - The government troops launch military assault against ASG in Jolo. Two kidnapped French journalists escape during the fighting.
* October 2 - JMC Evangelist "Wilde Almeda" and 12 "prayer warriors" are released by volunteer.
* October 25 - Troops rescue the three Malaysians seized in Pandanan.
* April 12 - Jeffrey Schilling is rescued, leaving Filipino scuba diving instructor, Roland Ullah, in the gunmen's hands.
* May 22 - Suspected Abu Sayyaf gunmen raid the luxurious Pearl Farm beach resort on Samal island in southern Philippines, killing two resort workers wounding three others, but no hostages were taken.
* May 28 - Suspected Abu Sayyaf gunmen raid the Dos Palmas resort off the western Philippines island of Palawan and seize 20 hostages including a US couple and former "
Manila Times" owner Reghis Romero. Arroyo rules out ransom and orders the military to go after the kidnappers.
* May 29 -
Malacañangimposes a news blackout in Basilan province where the Abu Sayyaf are reported to have gone.
* May 30 - US State Department Spokesman Philip Reeker calls for the "swift, safe and unconditional release of all the hostages." An Olympus camera and an ATM card of one the hostages are found in Cagayan de Tawi-Tawi island. Pictures of Abu Sayyaf leaders are released to media by the Armed Forces of the
* May 31 - The military fails to locate the bandits and the
hostagesdespite search and rescue operations in Jolo, Basilan and Cagayan de Tawi-Tawi.
* June 1 -
Militarytroops engage Abu Sayyaf bandits in Tuburan town in Basilan. ASG spokesman Abu Sabayathreatens to behead two of the hostages.
* June 2 - Abu Sayyaf invaded Lamitan town and seize the Jose Maria Torres Memorial Hospital and the Saint Peter's church. Soldiers surround the bandits and engage them in a day-long firefight. Several hostages, including businessman Reghis Romero, were able to escape. Witnesses say the bandits escape from Lamitan at around 5:30 in the afternoon, taking four medical personnel from the hospital.
* June 3 - Soldiers recover the bodies of hostages Sonny Dacquer and Armando Bayona in Barangay Bulanting. They were beheaded.
* June 4 - Military officials ask for a state of emergency in Basilan. President Arroyo turns the request down.
* June 5 - At least 16 soldiers are reported killed and 44 others wounded during a firefight between government troops and Abu Sayyaf bandits in Mount Sinangkapan in Tuburan town.
President Arroyopromises P5 million to the family of retired Col. Fernando Bajet for killing ASG chieftain Abu Sulayman, alias Kumander Yusuf on June 2, 2000. ASG leaders contact a government designated intermediary for possible negotiations.
* June 6 - ASG leader Abu Sabaya tells Radio Mindanao Network that US hostage Martin Burnham sustained a gunshot wound on the back during a recent exchange of gunfire.
* July 21 - A provincial governor and three others were wounded when fighters of the Abu Sayyaf ambushed them in the southern Philippines, the military said.
* August - Six Filipino
Jehovah's Witnesseswere kidnapped and two of them were beheaded. [Citation
title=Abu Sayyaf Group (Philippines, Islamist separatists)
date=January 23, 2007
publisher=Council on Foreign relations
* October - One American serviceman was killed and another seriously injured by a bomb blast in Zamboanga City. [ [http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/asia-pacific/2293205.stm BBC NEWS | Asia-Pacific | Philippines blast targets US troops ] ]
* February 12 - The Philippines expelled an Iraqi diplomat, accusing the envoy of having ties to the Abu Sayyaf terrorist group. Second Secretary Husham Husain has been given 48 hours to leave the country, according to a statement by Philippine Foreign Secretary Blas Ople. The government said it had intelligence that the Iraqi diplomat has ties to the Islamic extremist group. The decision was taken more than a month before the
2003 invasion of Iraq.
* March 5 - Abu Sayyaf claimed responsibility for the bombing of
Davao International Airportin the southern Philippines, killing 21 and injuring 148. [ [http://www.cnn.com/2003/WORLD/asiapcf/southeast/03/04/phili.airport/index.html CNN.com - Philippines airport bomb kills 21 - Mar. 4, 2003 ] ]
* February 24 - A bomb explodes on Superferry 14 off the coast of
Manila, causing it to sink and killing 116 people. This attack is the worst terrorist attack at sea.
* April 9 - A key leader of the Islamic terrorist group Abu Sayyaf was killed, along with five of his men, during a firefight with government troops on a southern Philippine island. Hamsiraji Sali and his men were killed when a platoon of the Philippine army's elite Scout Rangers, who had been on the terrorists' trail, attacked them around midday on the island of Basilan, an Abu Sayyaf stronghold about 885 kilometers, or 550 miles, south of the capital, Manila. Four government soldiers, including a commanding officer, were injured.
* April 10 - Around 50
prisonersincluding many suspected members of the Abu Sayyaf escaped from jail in the southern Philippines, the officials said. Three of the escaped prisoners were later killed and three others have since been recaptured, while three jail guards were wounded in the incident on the island of Basilan. They still did not have a full headcount of those who escaped, but local army commander Colonel Raymundo Ferrer said 53 of the 137 prisoners in the jail on the outskirts of Isabela Cityhad had broken out. [ [http://www.news24.com/News24/World/News/0,,2-10-1462_1510683,00.html 'Abu Sayyaf members escape': World: News: News24 ] ]
* November 17 - A prominent leader of the Islamist group Abu Sayyaf, Jatib Usman, has been killed in ongoing clashes between rebels and the military. Usman was confronted in the most southeastern province of
Tawi-Tawi, an island region which is close to the Borneo coast of Malaysia. [Citation
date=November 17, 2005
title=Philippines: Islamic Militants Resume Battles in South
accessdate=2008-02-18verify credibility|date=February 2008]
*February 3 - Suspected Abu Sayyaf gunmen knocked on door in a farm in Patikul, Mindanao, and opened fire after asking residents if they were Christian. Six people are confirmed dead, including a nine-month baby girl, and five others are seriously wounded.
* March 20 - Declassified documents seized from Saddam Hussein’s government were said to have revealed that Al-Qaeda agents financed by Saddam entered the Philippines through the country’s southern backdoor. [Citation
title=Saddam linked to Abu Sayyaf
date=March 20, 2006
* September 19 - A Filipino Marine officer was killed after the government forces encountered a large group of Abu Sayyaf terrorists earlier day in the outskirts of Patikul town in Sulu, southern Philippines, a military official reported. Five Marine soldiers also were wounded in the clash with some 80 terrorists believed to be led by Abu Sayyaf leader
Radullan Sahiron, alias commander Putol, one of the top terrorist leader based in Sulu province, said the spokesman.
* January 17 - A top Abu Sayyaf leader , Jainal Antel Sali Jr., aka Abu Sulaiman — is killed "in a fierce gun battle with army special forces" on Jolo. [ [http://www.iht.com/articles/2007/01/17/news/phils.php Abu Sulaiman, a leader of the Abu Sayyaf rebel group, has been killed] The Associated Press, January 17, 2007]
* July 11 - Eight Filipino government soldiers were killed, nine others injured and six missing following a fierce clash with Abu Sayyaf rebels backed by armed villagers in the southern island province of Basilan, according to a military source.
*August - The military said it lost 26 soldiers and killed around 30 militants in three days of fighting on the volatile island of Jolo, in the beginning of month. The heaviest toll occurred after militants ambushed a military convoy. [ [http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/asia-pacific/6939753.stm BBC NEWS | Asia-Pacific | Philippine clashes leave 50 dead ] ]
*January 17 - Abu Sayyaf militants raided a convent in the remote southern Philippine island province of Tawi-Tawi and killed a Catholic missionary during a kidnapping attempt. [ [http://www.manilatimes.net/national/2008/jan/17/yehey/top_stories/20080117top2.html Attack on priest] ]
*February 14 - Failed assassination plot of the President of the Philippines, Gloria Arroyo.
*June 8 - ABS-CBN Journalist Ces Drilon and her TV Crew kidnapped. 10 days later they were released after families paid a portion of the ransom.
Most of Abu Sayyaf victims have been Filipinos. However, the group has also targeted Western foreigners for kidnapping because of the larger potential ransom payments, and Americans for ideological reasons. Abu Sayyaf kidnapped an American Bible translator on a southern Philippine island in 1993. In 2000, Abu Sayyaf captured an American Muslim visiting Jolo Island and demanded that the United States release
Sheikh Omar Abdel Rahmanand Ramzi Yousef, who were jailed for their involvement in the 1993 World Trade Center bombing. “We have been trying hard to get an American because they may think we are afraid of them,” a spokesman for Abu Sayyaf said. “We want to fight the American people.”
*flagicon|Egypt "Such acts of violence have nothing to do with Islam as a religion. The Muslim religion promotes peace, brotherhood and justice, the committee quoted the Grand Sheik of Al-Azhar,
Muhammad Sayyid Tantawy, as saying in a statement. "It is better to make individuals accountable for their own actions rather than hold a religion like Islam accountable," the statement said.
*flagicon|Libya The Libyan envoy accused the group of inhumanity and violating the tenets of Islam by holding innocent people. Abdul Rajab Azzarouq, former ambassador to the Philippines, criticised the
kidnappersfor holding people who have nothing to do with the conflict. The hostage-takers should not use religion as a reason to keep the hostages isolated from their families, he said. Islam is against any activity that violates human rights.
*flagicon|Qatar Islamic scholar Sheikh
Yusuf al-Qaradawiin Qatar has denounced the kidnapping and killings committed by the Abu Sayyaf towards civilians and foreigners, asserting that they are not part of the dispute between the Abu Sayyaf and the Philippines government. He stated that it is shameful to commit such acts in the name of the Islamic faith, saying that such acts produce backlashes against Islam and Muslims worldwide. It is known that Qaradawi supports the rights of Muslims in Philippines. Qaradawi spoke of the importance of education in the life of Muslims, stating that educational institutions in the Muslim world should review their educational philosophy in order that it may reflect Islamic values aiming to create pious Muslims good to themselves and non-Muslims as well.
* who represents the world's largest Islamic body, told the Philippine government he was prepared to send an envoy to help save the hostages and issued a statement condemning the rebels. "The Secretary General has pointed out that this operation and the like are rejected by divine laws and that they are neither the appropriate nor correct means to resolve conflicts," the statement said.
Mark Bowden in an Atlantic story on the Martin and
Gracia Burnhamkidnapping and captivity describe the couple as "gently engaged their captors in theological discussion" and finding
jihadists to be shallow, even adolescent, in their faith. Unfamiliar with the Koran, the outlaws had only a sketchy notion of Islam, which they saw as a set of behavioral rules, to be violated when it suited them. Kidnapping, murder, and theftwere justified by their special status as `holy warriors`. One by one they sexually appropriated several of the women captives, claiming them as `wives`."Manhunt" by Mark Bowden "The Atlantic", March 2007, p.60]
Islam in the Philippines
Moro National Liberation Front
Moro Islamic Liberation Front
Operation Enduring Freedom - Philippines
Terrorism in Philippines
Khalid Shaikh Mohammed
* [http://www.fbi.gov/wanted/terrorists/terjanjalani.htm Most Wanted Terrorists] ,
Federal Bureau of Investigation, US Department of Justice
* [http://www.cfr.org/publication/9235/ Council on Foreign Relations: Abu Sayyaf Group (Philippines, Islamist separatists)]
* [http://www.rewardsforjustice.net/english/index.cfm?page=Philippines Reward For Information] (on five ASG members),
Rewards for Justice Program, US Department of State
* [http://www.pbs.org/newshour/terrorism/international/abu_sayyaf.html Profile: Abu Sayyaf] ,
Public Broadcasting Service
* [http://www.atimes.com/se-asia/CJ27Ae09.html Philippines the second front in war on terror?] ,
Asia Times Online
* [http://www.mindanews.com/2003/01/2nd/vws06torres.html Looking for al-Qaeda in the Philippines]
* [http://www.strategicstudiesinstitute.army.mil/pdffiles/PUB625.pdf#search=%22abu%20sayyaf%22 Balik-Terrorism: The Return of Abu Sayyaf (PDF)] ,
Strategic Studies Institute, US Army War College
* [http://www.crisisgroup.org/home/index.cfm?id=3844 Philippines Terrorism: The Role of Militant Islamic Converts]
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