- Golden Horde
:"This article refers to the medieval Turkic state. For the Irish rock band, see
The Golden Horde (band)."
Infobox Former Country
native_name = "Алтан Орд"
conventional_long_name = Golden Horde
common_name = Golden Horde
continent = Eurasia
era = Late Middle Ages
event_start = Established after the
Mongol invasion of Rus
year_start = 1240s
Blue Hordeand White Hordeunited
date_event1 = 1379
event2 = Disintegrated into
date_event2 = 1466
event_end = Last remnant subjugated by the
year_end = 1502
p1 = Mongol Empire
s1 = Crimean Khanate
s2 = Qasim Khanate
s3 = Kazan Khanate
s4 = Kazakh Khanate
s5 = Uzbek Khanate
s6 = Astrakhan Khanate
capital = Sarai Batu
common_languages = Mongol, Turkic
government_type = Semi-
elective monarchy, later hereditary monarchy
Orda Khan( White Horde)
year_leader1 = 1226-1280
Batu Khan( Blue Horde)
year_leader2 = 1242-1255
year_leader3 = 1379-1395
Küchük Muhammad( Great Horde)
year_leader4 = 1435-1459
year_leader5 = 1481-1499
title_leader = Khan
The Golden Horde ( _mn. Алтан Орд "Altan Ord"; _tt. Altın Urda; _ru. Золотая Орда, "Zolotaya Orda"; _tr. Altın Ordu) is a Russian designation for the
Mongol[G. Vernadsky, M. Karpovich: "The Mongols and Russia", Yale University Press, 1953] " [http://www.bartleby.com/65/go/GoldenHE.html Empire of the Golden Horde] ", The Columbia Encyclopedia, Sixth Edition, 2001-05.] T. May, " [http://www.accd.edu/sac/history/keller/Mongols/states3.html Khanate of the Golden Horde] ", North Georgia College and State University.] —later Turkicized" [http://www.britannica.com/eb/article-9037242/Golden-Horde Golden Horde] ", in Encyclopaedia Britannica, 2007. Quotation: "also called Kipchak Khanate Russian designation for the Ulus Juchi, the western part of the Mongol Empire, which flourished from the mid-13th century to the end of the 14th century. The people of the Golden Horde were a mixture of Turks and Mongols, with the latter generally constituting the aristocracy."] — Muslim[Russia and the Golden Horde: The Mongol Impact on Medieval Russian History By Charles J. Halperin, pg. 111] khanateestablished in the western part of the Mongol Empireafter the Mongol invasion of Rusin the 1240s: present-day Russia, Ukraine, Moldova, Kazakhstan, and the Caucasus. At its peak, the Golden Horde's territory included most of Eastern Europefrom the Uralsto the right banks of the Dnieper River, extending east deep into Siberia. On the south, the Golden Horde's lands bordered on the Black Sea, the Caucasus Mountains, and the territories of the Mongol dynastyknown as the Ilkhanate.
The origins of the name Golden Horde are uncertain. Some scholars believe that it refers to the camp of Batu and the later rulers of the Horde. In Mongolian, Altan Orda refers to the golden camp or palace ( _mn. Алтан Ордон, "Altan Ordon" = "Golden Palace"). Altan (golden) was also the color connoting imperial status. Other sources mention that Batu had a golden tent, and it is from this that the Golden Horde received its name. While this legend is persistent, no one is positive of the origin of the term. In most contemporary sources, the Golden Horde was referred to as the Khanate of the Qipchaq as the Qipchaq Turks comprised the majority of the nomadic population in the region (the Ulus Jochid).
At his death,
Genghis Khandivided the Mongol Empireamongst his four sons. Jochiwas the eldest, but he died six months before Genghis (his paternity was also in doubt), so the westernmost lands occupied by the Mongols, which included southern Russiaand Kazakhstan, were given to his eldest sons, Batu who eventually became the ruler of the Blue Horde; and Orda, who became the leader of the White Horde. [Edward L. Keenan, Encyclopedia Americanaarticle] [B.D. Grekov and A.Y. Yakubovski "The Golden Horde and its Downfall"]
In 1235, Batu (being the eldest son) with the great general
Subedeibegan an invasion westwards, first conquering the Bashkirsand then moving on Volga Bulgariain 1236. From here, in 1237, he conquered the southern steppes of the Ukraine, forcing the Cumansto flee westwards. Moving north, Batu began the Mongol invasion of Rusand for three years subjugated the Russian principalities, whilst his cousins Kadanand Guyukmoved southwards into Alania.
Using the migration of the Cumans as his
Casus belli, Batu's Horde with an assortment of brothers and cousins including Shiban, Orda, Kadanand Mongke Khancontinued west, raiding Polandand Hungaryand culminating in the Battles of Legnica and Muhi. In 1241, however, the Great Khan Ogedei died in Mongolia, and Batu turned back from his siege of Viennato take part in disputing the succession. The Mongol armies would never again travel so far west.
In 1242, after retreating through Hungary (destroying
Pestin the process), and subjugating Bulgaria[Denis Sinor, " [http://www.deremilitari.org/resources/articles/sinor1.htm The Mongols in the West] ", Journal of Asian History v.33 n.1 (1999).] , Batu established his capital at Sarai, commanding the lower stretch of the Volga River, on the site of the Khazarian capital of Atil. Shortly before that, Batu and Orda's younger brother Shibanleft Batu's army and was given his own enormous ulus east of the Ural Mountainsalong the Ob and Irtysh Rivers.
Mongke Khandied in 1259, the succession war between Kublai Khanand Ariq Bökeessentially marked the end of a united Mongol Empire. The war between Golden Horde under Berke Khanand Ilkhanateunder Hulagu Khan, the Berke-Hulagu warsoon broke out in 1262. Golden Horde became a virtually independent state ever since.
Uzbeg Khanislamicized the Hordein 1315 and used the Mongolian languageas the only diplomatic language, Mongolian script was used by khans until the late 14th century. It is known that Janibegwrote letter in Mongolianto Egypt and Tokhta, Tokhtamyshhad coins with Mongolian script [Sh.Bira - Culture exchange between Mongol Khanates, p 136] . After the overthrow of their nominal suzerain Yuan Emperor [Encyclopedia of Mongolia and Mongol Empire] , Golden Horde lost touch with Mongoliaand China[Russia and the Golden Horde By Charles J. Halperin, page 28] .
The people of the Golden Horde were largely a mixture of Turks and
Mongolswho early adopted Islam. [Russia and the Golden Horde: The Mongol Impact on Medieval Russian History By Charles J. Halperin, pg.111] Most of the Horde's population was Turkic: Kypchaks, Volga Tatars, Khwarezmians, and others. The Horde was gradually Turkified and lost its Mongol identity, while the descendants of Batu's original Mongol warriors constituted the upper class. [ [http://search.eb.com/eb/article-9037242 Encyclopædia Britannica] ] They were commonly named "the Tatars" by the Russians and Europeans. Russians preserved this common name for this group down to the 20th century, whereas most of this group identified themselves with their ethnic or tribal names, some also considered themselves to be Muslims. Most of the population, both agricultural and nomadic, adopted the Kypchak language, developed to the regional languages of Kypchak group after the Horde disintegrated.
The descendents of Batu ruled the Golden Horde from Sarai Batu and later Sarai Berke, controlling an area ranging from the Volga river to the Carpathian mountains and the mouth of the Danube, while the descendents of Orda ruled the area from the
Ural Riverto Lake Balkhash. Russian censuses back then recorded Chinese living quarters in the Tatar parts of Novgorod, Tverand Moscow.
The Horde's supreme ruler was the khan, chosen by the
kurultaiamong Batu Khan's descendants. The prime minister, also ethnically Mongol, was known as "prince of princes", or beklare-bek. The ministers were called viziers. Local governors, or basqaqs, were responsible for levying tribute and extinguishing popular discontent. Civil and military administration, as a rule, were not separated.
The Horde developed as a settled rather than nomadic culture, with Sarai evolving into a populous and prosperous metropolis. In the early 14th century, the capital was moved considerably upstream to
Sarai Berqe, which became one of the largest cities of the medieval world, with 600,000 inhabitants. [Encyclopædia Britannica]
Despite Russian efforts at proselytizing in Sarai, the Mongols clung to their traditional animist or
shamanistbeliefs until Uzbeg Khan(1312-41) adopted Islamas a state religion. Several Russian rulers - Mikhail of Chernigovand Mikhail of Tveramong them - were reportedly assassinated in Sarai, but the khans were generally tolerant and even freed the Russian Orthodox Churchof taxes.
Vassals and allies
The Horde exacted tribute from its subject peoples -
Russians, Armenians, Georgians, Circassians, Alans, Crimean Greeks, Crimean Goths, and others (Balkan bulgars and Serbs). The territories of Christian subjects were regarded as peripheral areas of little interest as long as they continued to pay tribute. These vassal states were never incorporated into the Horde, and Russian rulers early obtained the privilege of collecting the Tatar tribute themselves. To maintain control over Russia, Tatar warlords carried out regular punitive raids to Russian principalities (most dangerous in 1252, 1293, 1382).
There is a point of view, much propagated by
Lev Gumilev, that the Horde and Russian polities concluded a defensive alliance against the fanatical Teutonic knightsand pagan Lithuanians. Enthusiasts point to the fact that the Mongol court was frequented by Russian princes, notably Yaroslavl's Feodor the Black, who boasted his own ulusnear Sarai, and Novgorod's Alexander Nevsky, the sworn brother of Batu's successor Sartaq Khan. A Mongol contingent supported Novgorodians in the Battle of the Iceand novgorodians paid tributes to the Horde.
Sarai carried on a brisk trade with the Genoese trade emporiums on the
Black Sealittoral - Soldaia, Caffa, and Azak. Mamluk Egyptwas the khans' long-standing trade partner and ally in the Mediterranean. Berke, the khan of Kipchak had drawn up an alliance with the Mamluk Sultan Baibarsagainst Ilkhanatein 1261. [Mantran, Robert (Fossier, Robert, ed.) "A Turkish or Mongolian Islam" in "The Cambridge Illustrated History of the Middle Ages: 1250-1520", p. 298]
After Batu's death in 1255, the prosperity of his empire lasted for a full century, until the
assassinationof Jani Begin 1357, though the intrigues of Nogaidid invoke a partial civil war in the late 1290's. The Horde's military clout peaked during the reign of Uzbeg (1312-41), whose army exceeded 300,000 warriors.
Their Russian policy was one of constantly switching alliances in an attempt to keep Russia weak and divided. In the 14th century the rise of
Lithuaniain North East Europe posed a challenge to Tatar control over Russia. Thus Uzbeg Khan began backing Moscowas the leading Russian state. Ivan I Kalita was granted the title of grand princeand given the right to collect taxes from other Russian potentates.
Disintegration and fall
Black Deathof the 1340s was a major factor contributing to the Golden Horde's eventual downfall. Following the disastrous rule of Jani Beg and his subsequent assassination, the empire fell into a long civil war, averaging one new Khan per annum for the next few decades (Though Orda's white horde carried on generally free from trouble until the late 1370's). By the 1380s, Khwarezm, Astrakhan, and Muscovyattempted to break free of the Horde's power, while the lower reaches of the Dnieperwere annexed by Lithuania after its decisive victory in the Battle of Blue Watersand Polandin 1368 (Whilst the eastern principalities were generally annexed with little resistance). Mamai, a Tatar general who did not formally hold the throne, attempted to reassert Tatar authority over Russia. His army was defeated by Dmitri Donskoiat the Battle of Kulikovoin his second consecutive victory over the Tatars. Mamai soon fell from power, and in 1378, Tokhtamysh, a descendant of Orda Khan and ruler of the White Horde, invaded and annexed the territory of the Blue Horde, briefly reestablishing the Golden Horde as a dominant regional power.
After Mamai's defeat, Tokhtamysh tried to restore the dominance of the Golden Horde over Russia by attacking Russian lands in 1382. He besieged
Moscowon August 23, but Muscovites beat off his storm, using firearms for the first time in Russian history. [ru icon [http://www.clio.orc.ru/hm5-1.htm Dmitri Donskoi Epoch] ] On August 26, two sons of Tokhtamysh's supporter Dmitry of Suzdal, dukes of Suzdal and Nizhny Novgorod Vasily and Semyon, who were present in Tokhtamysh's forces, persuaded Muscovites to open the city gates, promising that forces would not harm the city in this case. [ru icon [http://www.moskva.ru/history/mosslob/mosslob9_3.html History of Moscow settlements - Suchevo] ] This allowed Tokhtamysh's troops to burst in and destroy Moscow, killing 24,000 people. [ Great Soviet Encyclopedia, 3rd edition, entry on "Московское восстание 1382", available online [http://slovari.yandex.ru/art.xml?art=bse/00049/92500.htm here] ]
A fatal blow to the Horde was dealt by
Tamerlane, who annihilated Tokhtamysh's army, destroyed his capital, looted the Crimean trade centers, and deported the most skillful craftsmen to his own capital in Samarkand.
In the first decades of the 15th century, power was wielded by
Edigu, a vizier who routed Vytautasof Lithuania in the great Battle of the Vorskla Riverand established the Nogai Hordeas his personal demesne.
In the 1440s, the Horde was again wracked by civil war. This time, it broke up into separate
Khanates: Qasim Khanate, Khanate of Kazan, Khanate of Astrakhan, Kazakh Khanate, Uzbek Khanate, and Khanate of Crimeaall seceding from the last remnant of the Golden Horde - the Great Horde.
None of these new Khanates was stronger than
Muscovite Russia, which finally broke free of Tatar control by 1480. Each Khanate was eventually annexed by it, starting with Kazan and Astrakhan in the 1550s. By the end of the century the Siberia Khanate was also part of Russia, and descendants of its ruling khans entered Russian service.
Crimean Khanatebecame a vassal state of the Ottoman Empirein 1475 and subjugated what remained of the Great Hordeby 1502. Crimean Tatarswreaked havoc in southern Russia, Ukraine and even Poland in the course of the 16th and early 17th centuries but they were not able to defeat Russia or take Moscow. Under Ottoman protection, the Khanate of Crimeacontinued its precarious existence until Catherine the Great annexed it on April 8, 1783. It was by far the longest-lived of the successor states to the Golden Horde.
Mongols favored 10th system, which was inherited from
ChingisKhan. There were 10 political divisions or provinces in Golden Horde.
#Sarai and Kipchak steppes
Reference and notes
Boris Grekovand Alexander Yakubovski, "The Golden Horde and its Downfall".
George Vernadsky, "The Mongols and Russia".
Daily Life in the Mongol Empire
Islam in Europe
List of Khans of the Golden Horde
List of wars in the Muslim world
Mongol invasion of Rus
* Nomadic people
Timeline of the Tataro-Mongol Yoke in Russia
* [http://www.horde.ru The Golden Horde coinage]
* [http://arheo.manefon.org/?cat=79 Golden Horde] — articles at [http://arheo.manefon.org/ the World Archaeology] , in Russian
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