Afrikaans

Infobox Language
name=Afrikaans
familycolor=Indo-European
states=South Africa
Namibia
Botswana
Lesotho
Swaziland
region=Southern Africa
speakers=est. 6.45 million (home language)
6.75 million (second or third language)
12 to 16 million (basic language knowledge) estimation October 2007Fact|date=June 2007.
fam2=Germanic
fam3=West Germanic
fam4=Low Franconian
fam5=Dutch
nation=South Africa
agency=Die Taalkommissie
(The Language Commission of the South African Academy for Science and Arts)
iso1=af|iso2=afr|iso3=afr

Afrikaans is an Indo-European language, derived from 17th century Dutch and classified as Low Franconian Germanic, mainly spoken in South Africa and Namibia, with smaller numbers of speakers in Botswana, Angola, Swaziland, Zimbabwe, Lesotho, Zambia and Argentina. [http://www.vandenberg.co.za/southafricansinpategonia1.htm, http://www.vandenberg.co.za/southafricansinpategonia.htm, this website shows that there is a community of afrikaans speakers in the Patagonia, but they are a small group] Due to emigration and migrant labour, there are possibly over 100,000 Afrikaans speakers in the United Kingdom, [Figure for 2001, up 106% from 1991 http://www.tourismtrade.org.uk/Images/Profile_SouthAfrica_tcm12-22701.pdf] with other substantial communities found in Brussels, Amsterdam, Perth, Mount Isa, Toronto and Auckland. It is the primary language used by two related ethnic groups in South Africa: the Afrikaners and the Coloureds or "kleurlinge" or "bruinmense" (including Basters, Cape Malays and Griqua).

Geographically, the Afrikaans language is the majority language of the western one-third of South Africa (Northern and Western Cape, spoken at home by 69% and 58%, respectively). It is also the largest first language in the adjacent southern third of Namibia (Hardap and Karas, where it is the first language of 44% and 40%, respectively).

"Afrikaans" originated from the 17th century Dutch language. The dialect became known as 'Cape Dutch'. Later, Afrikaans was sometimes also referred to as 'African Dutch' or 'Kitchen Dutch', although these terms were mainly pejorative. Afrikaans was considered a Dutch dialect until the late 19th century, when it began to be recognised as a distinct language, and replaced Dutch as an official language of South Africa, alongside English, in 1925. It is the only Indo-European language of significance that underwent distinct development on the African continent. Afrikaans and Dutch are largely mutually intelligible.

History

Afrikaans was originally the dialect that developed among the Dutch speaking Protestant settlers, and the indentured or slave workforce of the Cape area in southwestern South Africa that was established by the Dutch East India Company ( _nl. Verenigde Oost-Indische Compagnie — VOC, _af. Verenigde Oos-Indiese Kompanjie) between 1652 and 1705. A relative majority of these first settlers were from the United Provinces (now Netherlands), though there were also many from Germany, a considerable number from France, and some from Norway, Portugal, Scotland, and various other countries. The indentured workers and slaves were Asians, Malays, Malagasy in addition to the indigenous Khoi and Bushmen.

The Afrikaans School has long seen Afrikaans as a natural development from the South-Hollandic Dutch dialect, but has also only considered the Afrikaans as spoken by the Whites. Some believe that Afrikaans was originally spoken by the Khoisan people solely after using words they heard from the Dutch. Fact|date=February 2008

Though this 'theory' would imply the improbability of a language systematically developing out of a grammatology. Furthermore, this theory would fail to explain the systematic process of simplification from dialectical 17th century Dutch to Afrikaans, its geographically widespread and cohesive nature and also the persistent structural similarities between Afrikaans and other regional Franconic dialects including West Flemish and Zeelandic.

Afrikaans also remains akin to other West-Germanic languages (except English) in that it remains a V2 language which features verb final structures in subordinate clauses, just like Dutch and German.

Dialects

There is evidence to support the existence of a few strongly defined dialects as is also found in the Dutch language area. Following early dialectical studies of Afrikaans it was theorised that three main historical dialects probably existed before the Great Trek in the 1830s. These dialects are defined as the Northern Cape, Western Cape and Eastern Cape dialects. Remnants of these dialects still remain in present-day Afrikaans although the standardising effect of Standard Afrikaans has contributed to a great levelling of differences in modern times. Modern-day Standard Afrikaans itself is said to have developed from the Eastern Cape dialect, as this is where the Great Trek started.

Modern day Afrikaans could be said to include the following dialects:-

- Transvaal-Free State Afrikaans (being the most similar to Standard Afrikaans.) - Malmesbury dialect (characterised by the uvular trill /ʀ/, similar to French)

- Cape Peninsula dialect spoken by the elderly these days and more similar to the so-called Cape Coloured dialects.

- Maleier Afrikaans (A Cape dialect heavily influenced by Arabic and Malay owing to the ethnicity of the speakers, see Cape Malays.)

- Kaapse Afrikaans

- Kalahari Afrikaans

- Griekwa Afrikaans

- Kharkhams Afrikaans

- Baster Afrikaans spoken in Namibia by the Basters of Rehoboth.

- Oorlams Afrikaans

There is also a prison cant known as soebela, or sombela which is based on Afrikaans yet heavily influenced by Zulu. This language is used a secret language in prison and is taught to initiates.

Owing to the mass emigration of mainly white South Africans post-1994 there may be up to a million Afrikaans speakers outside Southern Africa. There is at least one Afrikaans language newspaper in London, Die Stem. and Sydney has radio broadcasts in Afrikaans. This has given rise to the somewhat humorous idea of a dialect of "Buitelands" Afrikaans or "Sout-mielie" Afrikaans- usually influenced by English because most South Africans have emigrated to Anglophone countries. Afrikaans has become to many South Africans what Yiddish once was to the Jewish Community.

tandardisation

The linguist Paul Roberge suggests that the earliest 'truly Afrikaans' texts are doggerel verse from 1795 and a dialogue transcribed by a Dutch traveller in 1825. Printed material among the Afrikaners at first used only standard European Dutch. By the mid-19th century, more and more were appearing in Afrikaans, which was very much still regarded as a set of regional dialects.

In 1861, L.H. Meurant published his " _af. Zamenspraak tusschen Klaas Waarzegger en Jan Twyfelaar," which is considered by some to be the first authoritative Afrikaans text. Abu Bakr Effendi also compiled his Arabic Afrikaans Islamic instruction book between 1862 and 1869, although this was only published and printed in 1877. The first Afrikaans grammars and dictionaries were published in 1875 by the " _af. Genootskap vir Regte Afrikaners" ('Society for Real Afrikaners') in Cape Town.

The First and Second Boer Wars further strengthened the position of Afrikaans. The official languages of the Union of South Africa were English and Dutch until Afrikaans was subsumed under Dutch on 5 May 1925.

The main Afrikaans dictionary is the Woordeboek van die Afrikaanse Taal (WAT), which is as yet incomplete due to the scale of the project, but the one-volume dictionary in household use is the Verklarende Handwoordeboek van die Afrikaanse Taal (HAT). The official orthography of Afrikaans is the "Afrikaanse Woordelys en Spelreëls", compiled by the Taalkommissie.

The Afrikaans Bible

A major landmark in the development of Afrikaans was the full translation of the Bible into the language. Prior to this most Cape Dutch-Afrikaans speakers had to rely on the Dutch Statenbijbel. The aforementioned Statenvertaling had its origins with the Synod of Dordrecht 1637 and was thus in an archaic form of Dutch. This rendered understanding difficult at best to Dutch and Cape Dutch speakers moreover increasingly unintelligible to Afrikaans speakers.

C. P. Hoogehout, Arnoldus Pannevis, and Stephanus Jacobus du Toit were the first Afrikaans Bible translators. Important landmarks in the translation of the Scriptures were in 1878 with C. P. Hoogehout's translation of the "Evangelie volgens Markus" (Gospel of Mark), however this translation was never published. The manuscript is to be found in the South African National Library, Cape Town.

The first official Bible translation of the entire Bible into Afrikaans was in 1933 by J. D. du Toit, E. E. van Rooyen, J. D. Kestell, H. C. M. Fourie, en BB Keet. [cite web
url=http://www.enigstetroos.org/bybelstudie.htm
title=Bybelstudies
accessdate=2008-09-23
last=Bogaards
first=Attie H.
language=af
] [cite web
url=http://www.bybelgenootskap.co.za/afr/bybelgenootskap/jongste_nuus.asp
title=Afrikaanse Bybel vier 75 jaar
accessdate=2008-09-23
date=2008-08-25
publisher=Bybelgenootskap van Suid-Afrika
language=af
] This monumental work established Afrikaans as a "suiwer" and "oordentlike taal", i.e. a "pure" and "suitable language" for religious purposes, especially amongst the deeply Calvinist Afrikaans religious community that had hitherto been somewhat sceptical of a Bible translation out of the original Dutch language to which they were accustomed.

In 1983 there was a fresh translation in order to mark the 50th anniversary of the original 1933 translation and provide much needed revision. The final editing of this edition was done by E. P. Groenewald, A. H. van Zyl, P. A. Verhoef, J. L. Helberg, and W. Kempen.

Afrikaans Version of the Lord's Prayer. Onse Vader. [ [http://www.prayer.su/afrikaans/version/ Onse Vader : Afrikaans ] ]

Onse Vader wat in die hemele is,laat U naam geheilig word.Laat U koninkryk kom,laat U wil geskied,soos in die hemel net so ook op die aarde.Gee ons vandag ons daaglikse brood,en vergeef ons ons skulde,soos ons ook ons skuldenaars vergewe.En lei ons nie in versoeking nie,maar verlos ons van die bose.Want aan U behoort die Koninkryk en die krag en die heerlikheid, tot in ewigheid.Amen.

"'Classic Dutch Protestant version of the Lord's Prayer.Onze Vader"' [ [http://www.prayer.su/dutch/protestantse/ Onze Vader ] ]

Onze Vader die in de hemelen zijt,Uw Naam worde geheiligd;Uw koninkrijk kome;Uw wil geschiede,gelijk in de hemel alzo ook op de aarde.Geef ons heden ons dagelijks brood;en vergeef ons onze schulden,gelijk ook wijvergeven onze schuldenaren;en leid ons niet in verzoeking,maar verlos ons van de boze.Want van U is het koninkrijken de kracht en de heerlijkheidtot in eeuwigheid.Amen.

Grammar

Comparison with Dutch, German and English

Orthography

In Afrikaans many consonants are dropped from the earlier Dutch (see also the grammar section for a description of how consonant dropping affects the morphology of Afrikaans adjectives and nouns). This is a similar process to what happened with modern English. (compare: Afrikaans; r
_nl. een' as in Dutch. 'A book' is ' _af. 'n boek', whereas in Dutch it would be ' _nl. een boek'. (Note that ' _af. 'n ' is still allowed in Dutch; Afrikaans uses only ' _af. 'n ' where Dutch uses it next to ' _nl. een'. When letters are dropped an apostrophe is mandatory. Note that this "′n" is usually pronounced as a weak vowel ( [IPA|ə] ; like the Afrikaans 'i') and is not as a consonant. The Afrikaans word "een" is the number 'one'.

Other features include the use of 's' instead of 'z', and therefore, 'South Africa' in Afrikaans is written as " _af. Suid-Afrika", whereas in Dutch it is " _nl. Zuid-Afrika". (This accounts for .za being used as South Africa's internet top level domain.) The Dutch letter 'IJ' is written as 'Y', except where it replaces the Dutch suffix "—lijk", as in " _nl. waarschijnlijk = _af. waarskynlik". It is interesting to note that the use of the hard 'k' is analogous to the pronunciation in parts of West Flanders. Also noteworthy is that, although the first 90 VOC settlers came from Haarlem in the Northern Netherlands, the majority of the population of that city at that time consisted of Southern Dutch immigrants.(Recent academic research also points to Afrikaans probably being a modern perpetuation of an earlier Dutch dialect, Amsterdams (Paardekoper)).

The letters "c, q" and "x" are rarely seen in Afrikaans, and words containing them are almost exclusively borrowings from French, English, Greek, or Latin. This is usually because words that had "c" and "ch" in the original Dutch are spelt with "k" and "g" respectively in Afrikaans (in many dialects of Dutch (including the Hollandic ones), a "g" is prounced like a "ch" (IPA IPA|/x/), which explains the use of the "g" in Afrikaans language). Similarly original "qu" and "x" are spelt "kw" and "ks" respectively. For example " _af. ekwatoriaal" instead of 'equatoriaal' and " _af. ekskuus" instead of 'excuus'.

Diacritics

All letters in the Latin alphabet are acceptable in Afrikaans, although for non-loan words only the 26 letters of the English alphabet and certain vowels with diacritics are used.

The vowels with diacritics in non-loanword Afrikaans are: á, é, è, ê, ë, í, î, ï, ó, ô, ú, û, ý. These thirteen letters are pronounced the same way as their non-diacritic counterparts in isolation. For the purpose of alphabetic ordering, these diacritic letters are regarded as equivalent to their non-diacritic counterparts. It is not acceptable to replace them by their non-diacritic equivalents in situations where typing the diacritic forms may be difficult. In the early days of e-mail and on primitive computer systems, the diacritics were often left out or written next to the character, and computer illiterate users may still do so today.

When a sentence is written in the uppercase, the diacritic letters stay in the lowercase form. {Citation needed.}

Initial apostrophes

A few short words in Afrikaans take initial apostrophes. In modern Afrikaans, these words are always written in lower case (except if the entire line is uppercase), and if they occur at the beginning of a sentence, the next word is capitalised. Three examples of such apostrophed words are 't, 'k, 'n . The most common is 'n , which is the indefinite article, and the other two may soon be regarded as archaic.

:'k Het hom lief (I love him) "similar to Dutch words: ik heb hem lief":'k 't Dit gesê (I said it) " similar to Dutch words: ik heb dit gezegd":'n Man loop daar (A man walks there) "similar to Dutch words: een man loopt daar":Daar is 'n man (There is a man)"similar to Dutch words: daar is een man"

The apostrophe and the following letter are regarded as two separate characters, and is never written using a single glyph, although a single character variant of the indefinite article appears in Unicode, Unicode|ʼn.

Some modern word processors have autocorrect features that incorrectly treat an apostrophe (also known as a 9-quote) at the beginning of a word as a single quote (also known as a 6-quote).

In non-stylised fonts, it is acceptable to use a straight quote for the apostrophe, and this is often done in electronic communication.

Table of characters

Afrikaans phrases

Afrikaans is a very centralised language, meaning that most of the vowels are pronounced in a very centralised (i.e. very schwa-like) way. Although there are many different dialects and accents, the transcription should be fairly standard.

* _af. Hallo! Hoe gaan dit? IPA| [ɦaləu ɦu xaˑn dət] Hello! How are you? (more closely 'How goes it?')Closely in Dutch: "Hallo! Hoe gaat het?"
* _af. Baie goed, dankie. IPA| [bajə xuˑt danki] Very well, thanks.Closely in Dutch: "Vrij goed, dankje."
* _af. Praat jy Afrikaans? IPA| [prɑˑt jəi afrikɑˑns] Do you speak Afrikaans?Closely in Dutch: "Praat jij Afrikaans?"
* _af. Praat jy Engels? IPA| [prɑˑt jəi ɛŋəls] Do you speak English?Closely in Dutch: "Praat jij Engels?"
* _af. Ja. IPA| [jɑˑ] Yes.
* _af. Nee. IPA| [neˑə] No.
* _af. 'n Bietjie. IPA| [ə biki] A little.Closely in Dutch: "Een beetje."
* _af. Wat is jou naam? IPA| [vat əs jəu nɑˑm] What is your name?
* _af. Die kinders praat Afrikaans. IPA| [di kənərs prɑˑt afrikɑˑns] The children are speaking Afrikaans.Closely in Dutch: "De kinderen praten Afrikaans."
* _af. Ek het jou lief.IPA| [ək hət yo lif] (English: I love you. More closely 'I You love') ( German: Ich liebe dich)

Note:- The word Afrikaans means African (in the general sense) in the Dutch language. Although considered wrong, to avoid confusion the word "Zuid-Afrikaans", lit. "South African", is sometimes used when referring to the Afrikaans language specifically. This problem also occurs in Afrikaans itself, resolved by using the words Afrika and Afrikaan to distinguish from Afrikaans(e) and Afrikaner respectively.

An interesting sentence having the same meaning and written (but not pronounced as it sounds more closely to Dutch) identically in Afrikaans and English is:
* My pen was in my hand. (IPA| [məi pɛn vas ən məi hɑnt] )Closely in Dutch: "Mijn pen was in mijn hand."

Similarly the sentence:
* My hand is in warm water. (IPA| [məi hɑnt əs ən varəm vɑˑtər] )Closely in Dutch: "Mijn hand is in warm water"has almost identical meaning in Afrikaans and English although the Afrikaans "warm" corresponds more closely in meaning to English "hot" and Dutch "heet" (Dutch "warm" corresponds to English "warm", but is closer to Afrikaans in pronunciation).

Sample text in Afrikaans

Psalm 23. 1983 Translation

1. Die Here is my Herder, ek kom niks kort nie.2. Hy laat my in groen weivelde rus. Hy bring my by waters waar daar vrede is.3. Hy gee my nuwe krag. Hy lei my op die regte paaie tot eer van Sy naam.4. Selfs al gaan ek deur donker dieptes, sal ek nie bang wees nie, want U is by my. In U hande is ek veilig.

"The Lord is my shepherd I shall not be in want: He makes me lie down in green pastures, he leads me beside quiet waters:He restores my soul. he guides me in paths of righteousness for his name's sake." Even though I walk through the valley of the shadow of death, I will fear no evil for you are with me ; your rod and staff they comfort me""

Sociolinguistics

Afrikaans is the first language of approximately 60% of South Africa's Whites, and over 80% of the Coloured (mixed-race) population. The race with the highest number of Afrikaans speakers are the Coloureds (three million), followed closely by whites (2.6 million). Some 200,000 black South Africans speak it as their home language. [ [http://www.vryheidsfront.co.za/a/toespraak.asp?id=12 Toespraak ] ] Large numbers of Bantu-speaking and English-speaking South Africans also speak it as their second language.

Some state that the term "Afrikaanses" should be used as a term for all people who speak Afrikaans, irrespective of ethnic origin, instead of 'Afrikaners', which refers to an ethnic group, or 'Afrikaanssprekendes' (lit. people that speak Afrikaans). Linguistic identity has not yet established that one term be favoured above another and all three are used in common parlance. [ [http://vryeafrikaan.co.za/lees.php?id=115 Die dilemma van ‘n gedeelde Afrikaanse identiteit: Kan wit en bruin mekaar vind? ] ]

It is also widely spoken in Namibia, where it has had constitutional recognition as a national, but not official, language since independence in 1990. Prior to independence, Afrikaans, along with German, had equal status as an official language. There is a much smaller number of Afrikaans speakers among Zimbabwe's white minority, as most have left the country since 1980. Afrikaans was also a medium of instruction for schools in Bophuthatswana Bantustan [ [http://www.geocities.com/haigariep/BopE.html Armoria patriæ - Republic of Bophuthatswana ] ] .

Many South Africans living and working in Belgium, The Netherlands, Australia, New Zealand, Canada, the United States, and the United Kingdom are also Afrikaans speakers; and there is now an Afrikaans newspaper in London, called [http://www.diestem.co.za "Die Stem"] . New Zealand has an Afrikaans club which is based in Auckland and which organises Afrikaans dances and meetings (http://www.afrikaans.org.nz/).

Afrikaans has been influential in the development of South African English. Many Afrikaans loanwords have found their way into South African English, such as 'bakkie' ('pickup truck'), 'braai' ('barbecue'), 'tekkies' ('sneakers'). A few words in standard English are derived from Afrikaans, such as 'aardvark' (lit. 'earth pig'), 'trek' ('pioneering journey', in Afrikaans lit. 'pull' but used also for 'migrate'), 'spoor' ('animal track'), 'veld' ('Southern African grassland' in Afrikaans lit. 'field'), 'boomslang' ('tree snake') and apartheid ('segregation'; more accurately 'apartness' or 'the state or condition of being apart').

In 1976, high school students in Soweto began a rebellion in response to the government's decision that Afrikaans be used as the language of instruction for half the subjects taught in non-White schools (with English continuing for the other half). Although English is the mother tongue of only 8.2 per cent of the population, it is the language most widely understood, and the second language of the majority of South Africans. [ [http://www.sagoodnews.co.za/public_sector/govt_info_available_online_in_all_official_languages.html Govt info available online in all official languages - South Africa - The Good News ] ] Afrikaans is more widely spoken than English in the Northern and Western Cape provinces, several hundred kilometers from Soweto. The Black community's opposition to Afrikaans and preference for continuing English instruction was underscored when the government rescinded the policy one month after the uprising: 96% of Black schools chose English (over Afrikaans or native languages) as the language of instruction. [Black Linguistics: Language, Society and Politics in Africa and the Americas, by Sinfree Makoni, p. 120S] Many historians Who|date=July 2007 argue that the language issue was a catalyst for the uprising rather than a major underlying cause (which was racial oppression). Others Who|date=July 2007 argue that the primary cause of the uprising was one specific aspect of the government's language instruction decision: that non-White (i.e., Black, Coloured and Indian) South African children be denied instruction in all but the most basic topics of mathematics, sciences, fine arts, etc. The government justified this policy by claiming that non-White South Africans would never have an occasion to use such knowledge; "see History of South Africa."

Under South Africa's democratic Constitution of 1996, Afrikaans remains an official language, and has equal status to English and nine other languages. The new policy means that the use of Afrikaans is now often reduced in favour of English, or to accommodate the other official languages. In 1996, for example, the South African Broadcasting Corporation reduced the amount of television airtime in Afrikaans, while South African Airways dropped its Afrikaans name " _af. Suid-Afrikaanse Lugdiens" from its livery. Similarly, South Africa's diplomatic missions overseas now only display the name of the country in English and their host country's language, and not in Afrikaans.

In spite of these moves (which have upset many Afrikaans speakers), the language has remained strong, with Afrikaans newspapers and magazines continuing to have large circulation figures. Indeed the Afrikaans language general interest family magazine Huisgenoot, has the largest readership of any magazine in the country. In addition, a pay-TV channel in Afrikaans called KykNet was launched in 1999, and an Afrikaans music channel, MK, in 2005. A large number of Afrikaans books are still published every year, mainly by the publishers Human & Rousseau, Tafelberg Uitgewers, Struik, and Protea Boekhuis.

Afrikaans music is also flourishing, from retro pop artist like Nicholis Louw, Eden, and Shine 4 to more forceful/avant garde outfits (Kobus!, Fokofpolisiekar, Buckfever Underground etc.) singing in the language.

Modern Dutch and Afrikaans share 85 plus per cent of their vocabulary.Afrikaans speakers are able to learn Dutch within a comparatively short period of time. Native Dutch speakers pick up written Afrikaans even more quickly, due to its simplified grammar, whereas understanding spoken Afrikaans might need more effort. Afrikaans speakers can learn a Dutch accent with little training. This has enabled Dutch and Belgian companies to outsource their call centre operations to South Africa [ [http://www.eprop.co.za/news/article.aspx?idArticle=4739 SA holds its own in global call centre industry - eProp Commercial Property News in South Africa - Commercial Properties For Sale / To Let / To Rent in South Africa ] ] .

Afrikaans has two monuments erected in its honour. The first was erected in Burgersdorp, South Africa, in 1893, and the second, better-known Afrikaans Language Monument (" _af. Afrikaanse Taalmonument") was built in Paarl, South Africa, in 1975.

Future of Afrikaans

Post-apartheid South Africa has seen a loss of government support for Afrikaans, in terms of education, social events, media (TV and Radio), and general status throughout the country, given that it now shares its place as official language with ten other languages. Nevertheless, Afrikaans remains more prevalent in the media - radio, newspapers and television [Oranje FM, Radio Sonder Grense, Jacaranda FM, Rapport, Beeld, Die Burger, Die Son, Afrikaans news is run everyday, on pay channels it is provided as second language on all sports, Kyknet] - than all the other official languages, except for English. More than 300 titles in Afrikaans are published per year [Hannes van Zyl [http://www.oulitnet.co.za/taaldebat/multilin.asp] ] . Further, some legal advertising is still provided in the Government Gazette bilingually [Search a Regional Gazette for 'eiendom'(property). [http://www.gics.co.za/] ] , in English and Afrikaans.

Afrikaans is still viewed negatively by some. Through all the problems of depreciation and migration that Afrikaans faces today, the language still competes well, with Afrikaans DSTV channels (pay channels) and high newspapers and CD sales as well as popular internet sites.

Afrikaans Music

Afrikaans language music has a long history in South Africa, probably originating with the first songs that Dutch East India Company or V.O.C. sailors sang by the slopes of Table Mountain. The 19th century is probably when most of the tunes known to this day finally assumed their more or less modern forms. This was the period of the Great Trek, the Zulu Wars, Boer Wars and the gold rush on the Witwatersrand, all factors that contributed to the formation of a South African, and chiefly, Afrikaans identity. This was of course reflected in the songs of the white and coloured South African peoples. There is also a growing Afrikaans language Hip-Hop scene with a number of groups, mostly Cape Coloured in origin. Interestingly, these groups have had some success in The Netherlands where, owing to intelligibility between Afrikaans and Dutch, Kaapse Hip-Hop has become quite popular.

See also

* Aardklop Arts Festival
* Arabic Afrikaans
* Languages of South Africa
* List of Afrikaans language poets
* List of English words of Afrikaans origin
* Afrikaans speaking population in South Africa
* South African Translators' Institute

Notes

References

*Roberge, P. T., 2002. "Afrikaans - considering origins", in "Language in South Africa", Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, United Kingdom. ISBN 0-521-53383-X
*South African Afrikaans: [http://www.southafrican.za.net/afrikaans.html History] [http://www.southafrican.za.net/sa-slang.html Slang]

External links

General

* [http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=afr The Ethnologue: Afrikaans]
* [http://www.wordgumbo.com/ie/ger/afr/index.htm Wordgumbo: Afrikaans]
* [http://www.language-museum.com/a/afrikaans.php Afrikaans sample at Language Museum]
* [http://www.roepstem.net/engels.html An introduction to Afrikaans]
* [http://www.sois.uwm.edu/afrikaans Learn Afrikaans Online at www.afrikaans.us]
* [http://www.baylanguagebooks.co.uk Largest supplier of Afrikaans language learning material on the web]
* [http://afrikaans.free.fr/index_uk.php Afrikaans thematic vocabulary]

Portals and links lists

* [http://www.grou.co.za Grou] - Afrikaans search engine and Afrikaans portal
* [http://www.litnet.co.za/cgi-bin/giga.cgi Litnet] - Literature, culture and debate
* [http://www.dieknoop.co.za Die Knoop] - A very large list of links to Afrikaans websites
* [http://woes.co.za/ Woes.co.za] - A popular multi-user blog
* [http://www.southafrican.za.net/afrikaans.html The New South African - Afrikaans] - More about South Africa's official languages.
* [http://www.kuier.co.za/ Kuier.co.za] - A popular multi-user blog
* [http://www.afrikaners.org.za/ afrikaners.org.za] - An Afrikaans portal containing links to other Afrikaans related site
* [http://www.uitsaaines.co.za/ Uitsaaines.co.za] - An International Afrikaans Music Radio Station on the Internet..click Luister

Organisations

* [http://www.fak.org.za/ Federasie van Afrikaanse Kultuurvereniginge (FAK)] - Federation of Afrikaans Cultural Associations
* [http://www.atkv.org.za/ Afrikaanse Taal- en Kultuurvereniging (ATKV)] - Afrikaans Language and Cultural Association
* [http://www.vriende.za.net/ Vriende van Afrikaans] - Friends of Afrikaans
* http://www.afrikaans.com/ - Stigting vir Bemagtiging deur Afrikaans

pell checkers

* [http://www.spel.co.za Spel.co.za] - Commercial spell checker for Microsoft Office
* [http://www.wspel.co.za/ WSpel] - Free spell checker for Microsoft Office
* [http://translate.org.za/content/view/1610/54/ Translate.org.za] - Open source spell checker for OpenOffice.org, Mozilla Firefox and Mozilla Thunderbird

Dictionaries

* [http://www.websters-online-dictionary.org/translation/Afrikaans/ Afrikaans Dictionary] - with definitions (approx 8763 words)
* [http://www.wordgumbo.com/ie/ger/afr/erafreng.htm Afrikaans to English] - from Wordgumbo.com (5129 words)
* [http://www.wordgumbo.com/ie/ger/afr/erengafr.htm English to Afrikaans] - from Wordgumbo.com (6397 words)
* [http://www.majstro.com/Web/Majstro/taleninfo/afr_en.php Afrikaans-English-Afrikaans Online Dictionary] - sometimes using Esperanto as intermezzo (7975 Afrikaans words)
* [http://www.dicts.info/dictlist1.php?l=Afrikaans Afrikaans at Dict.info] - Afrikaans into 57 languages (roughly 2300 words each) and Afrikaans-English (10 127 words)
* [http://www.timeless.co.za/eblok/afrikaans.html Elektroblok] - Crossword Puzzle Solver and Thesaurus Dictionary (4 Million Afrikaans and English words, synonyms and hints)


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Look at other dictionaries:

  • Afrikaans — Gesprochen in Sudafrika  Südafrika Namibia   …   Deutsch Wikipedia

  • Afrikaans — Parlée en  Afrique du Sud  Namibie …   Wikipédia en Français

  • Afrikáans — Afrikaans Afrikáans Hablado en  Sudáfrica  Namibia …   Wikipedia Español

  • afrikaans — AFRIKÁANS subst. Dialect al limbii olandeze vorbit de urmaşii burilor în Republica Africa de Sud. [pr.: africáns] – Din engl. Afrikaans, fr. afrikaans. Trimis de ana zecheru, 21.01.2005. Sursa: DEX 98  AFRIKÁANS n. Varietate a limbii olandeze… …   Dicționar Român

  • afrikaans — ou afrikans [ afrikɑ̃s ] adj. et n. m. • 1952; mot néerl. ♦ Parler néerlandais d Afrique du Sud (langue officielle de ce pays, avec l anglais). ● afrikaans nom masculin Langue néerlandaise parlée en Afrique du Sud dont c est une des langues… …   Encyclopédie Universelle

  • Afrikaans — (n.) the Dutch language as spoken in S.Africa, 1892, from Du. Afrikaansch Africanish (see AFRIKANDER (Cf. Afrikander)) …   Etymology dictionary

  • afrikaans — |àfricãs| adj. 2 g. s. 2 g. s. m. [Linguística] Ver africânder.   ‣ Etimologia: palavra inglesa, do africânder …   Dicionário da Língua Portuguesa

  • afrikaans — /afriˈkans, ol. ɑfriˈkãːns/ [vc. ol., propriamente «africano»] s. m. inv. lingua boera, boero …   Sinonimi e Contrari. Terza edizione

  • afrikaans — (izg. àfrikāns) m DEFINICIJA lingv. varijanta nizozemskog jezika kojim govore Buri (jedan od službenih jezika u Južnoafričkoj Republici) ETIMOLOGIJA vidi Afrikaner …   Hrvatski jezični portal

  • afrikaans — {{/stl 13}}{{stl 8}}rz. mnż, ndm {{/stl 8}}{{stl 7}} język Afrykanerów (potomków kolonistów holenderskich osiadłych w Afryce Płd.), wywodzący się z dialektów holenderskich, jeden z dwóch (obok ang.) języków urzędowych w Republice Płd. Afryki… …   Langenscheidt Polski wyjaśnień

  • afrikaans — sustantivo masculino 1. Africano, lengua …   Diccionario Salamanca de la Lengua Española

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