polymerase chain reaction
The first practical system for in vitro amplification of DNA, and as such one of the most important recent developments in molecular biology. Two synthetic oligonucleotide primers, which are complementary to two regions of the target DNA (one for each strand) to be amplified, are added to the target DNA (that need not be pure), in the presence of excess deoxynucleotides and Taq polymerase, a heat-stable DNA polymerase. In a series (typically 30) of temperature cycles, the target DNA is repeatedly denatured (around 90°C), annealed to the primers (typically at 50-60°C) and a daughter strand extended from the primers (72°C). As the daughter strands themselves act as templates for subsequent cycles, DNA fragments matching both primers are amplified exponentially, rather than linearly. The original DNA need thus be neither pure nor abundant, and the PCR reaction has accordingly become widely used not only in research, but in clinical diagnostics and forensic science.

Dictionary of molecular biology. 2004.

Look at other dictionaries:

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  • polymerase chain reaction — n. a technique in which a known DNA sequence is synthesized at high temperatures by means of a polymerase, producing millions of copies for statistical analysis: used in DNA fingerprinting, in detecting minute quantities of cancer cells, etc. * * …   Universalium

  • polymerase chain reaction — n an in vitro technique for rapidly synthesizing large quantities of a given DNA segment that involves separating the DNA into its two complementary strands, binding a primer to each single strand at the end of the given DNA segment where… …   Medical dictionary

  • polymerase chain reaction — n. a technique in which a known DNA sequence is synthesized at high temperatures by means of a polymerase, producing millions of copies for statistical analysis: used in DNA fingerprinting, in detecting minute quantities of cancer cells, etc …   English World dictionary

  • polymerase chain reaction — polymerase chain reaction. См. полимеразная цепная реакция. (Источник: «Англо русский толковый словарь генетических терминов». Арефьев В.А., Лисовенко Л.А., Москва: Изд во ВНИРО, 1995 г.) …   Молекулярная биология и генетика. Толковый словарь.

  • Polymerase chain reaction — PCR redirects here. For other uses, see PCR (disambiguation). A strip of eight PCR tubes, each containing a 100 μl reaction mixture The polymerase chain reaction (PCR) is a scientific technique in molecular biology to amplify a single or a… …   Wikipedia

  • Polymerase Chain Reaction — Die Polymerase Kettenreaktion (englisch Polymerase Chain Reaction, PCR) ist eine Methode, um die Erbsubstanz DNA in vitro zu vervielfältigen. Dazu wird ein Enzym verwendet, die DNA Polymerase. Der Begriff Kettenreaktion beschreibt in diesem… …   Deutsch Wikipedia

  • polymerase chain reaction — polimerazinė grandininė reakcija statusas T sritis augalininkystė apibrėžtis DNR fragmentų dauginimas in vitro. atitikmenys: angl. PCR; polymerase chain reaction rus. полимеразная цепная реакция; ПЦР ryšiai: sinonimas – PGR …   Žemės ūkio augalų selekcijos ir sėklininkystės terminų žodynas

  • Polymerase Chain Reaction — Po|ly|me|ra|se Chain Re|ac|ti|on [pɔ lɪməreɪz tʃeɪn rɪ ækʃn; engl. = Polymerase Kettenreaktion]: svw. ↑ PCR …   Universal-Lexikon

  • polymerase chain reaction — pol′ymerase chain′ reac tion n. lab the laboratory production of numerous copies of a gene by separating the two strands of the DNA containing the gene segment, marking its location with a primer, and using a DNA polymerase to assemble a copy… …   From formal English to slang

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