plasmid
(= episome)
A small, independently-replicating, piece of cytoplasmic DNA that can be transferred from one organism to another. Linear or circular DNA molecules found in both pro- and eukaryotes capable of autonomous replication. ‘Stringent’ plasmids occur at low copy number in cells, ‘relaxed’ plasmids at high copy number, ca 10-30. Plasmids can become incorporated into the genome of the host, or can remain independent. An example is the F-factor of E.coli. May transfer genes, and plasmids carrying antibiotic-resistant genes can spread this trait rapidly through the population. Described largely from bacteria and protozoa. Widely used in genetic engineering as vectors of genes (cloning vectors).

Dictionary of molecular biology. 2004.

Look at other dictionaries:

  • Plasmid — Plas mid, n. (Molecular genetics) A piece of DNA, usually circular, functioning as part of the genetic material of a cell, not integrated with the chromosome and replicating independently of the chromosome, but transferred, like the chromosome,… …   The Collaborative International Dictionary of English

  • plasmid — plasmid. См. плазмида. (Источник: «Англо русский толковый словарь генетических терминов». Арефьев В.А., Лисовенко Л.А., Москва: Изд во ВНИРО, 1995 г.) …   Молекулярная биология и генетика. Толковый словарь.

  • Plasmid — Plasmid, außerhalb des Bakterienchromosoms bei Protocyten in Ein oder Mehrzahl im Cytoplasma liegendes kleines, ringförmiges DNA Molekül, das ebenfalls genetische Information enthält und sich autonom repliziert. Ein P. kann z.B. Resistenzgene… …   Deutsch wörterbuch der biologie

  • plasmid — 1952, from PLASMA (Cf. plasma) + id …   Etymology dictionary

  • plasmid — [plaz′mid] n. [ PLASM(A) + ID] a small, DNA containing, self reproducing cytoplasmic element that exists outside the chromosome, as in some bacteria: because it can alter a hereditary characteristic when introduced into another bacterium, it is… …   English World dictionary

  • Plasmid — Figure 1: Illustration of a bacterium with plasmid enclosed showing chromosomal DNA and plasmids. In microbiology and genetics, a plasmid is a DNA molecule that is separate from, and can replicate independently of, the chromosomal DNA …   Wikipedia

  • Plasmid — Abb. 1: Schematische Darstellung eines Bakteriums mit chromosomaler DNA (1) und Plasmiden (2) …   Deutsch Wikipedia

  • plasmid — /plaz mid/, n. Microbiol. a segment of DNA independent of the chromosomes and capable of replication, occurring in bacteria and yeast: used in recombinant DNA procedures to transfer genetic material from one cell to another. [1950 55; PLASM +… …   Universalium

  • Plasmid — A self replicating (autonomous) circle of DNA distinct from the chromosomal genome of bacteria. A plasmid contains genes normally not essential for cell growth or survival. Some plasmids can integrate into the host genome, be artificially… …   Medical dictionary

  • plasmid — (plaz mid) A double stranded DNA molecule that can exist and replicate independently of the chromosome or may be integrated with it. A plasmid is stably inherited, but is not required for the host cell s growth and reproduction …   Dictionary of microbiology

  • plasmid — plazmidė statusas T sritis ekologija ir aplinkotyra apibrėžtis Organizmo paveldimumo veiksniai, esantys ląstelės citoplazmoje ir peduodantys genetinę informaciją ne per chromosomas. Turi žiedo pavidalo dvispiralę deoksiribonukleino rūgšties… …   Ekologijos terminų aiškinamasis žodynas

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