neuron
(= neurone; nerve cell)
An excitable cell specialized for the transmission of electrical signals over long distances. Neurons receive input from sensory cells or other neurons, and send output to muscles or other neurons. Neurons with sensory input are called "sensory neurons", neurons with muscle outputs are called "motoneurons"; neurons that connect only with other neurons are called "interneurons". Neurons connect with each other via synapses. Neurons can be the longest cells known; a single axon can be several metres in length. Although signals are usually sent via action potentials, some neurons are non-spiking.

Dictionary of molecular biology. 2004.

Look at other dictionaries:

  • neuron — NEURÓN, neuroni, s.m. Element structural şi funcţional de bază al sistemului nervos compus dintr un corp celular protoplasmatic, care conţine un nucleu, şi din prelungiri protoplasmatice; neurocit. [pr.: ne u ] – Din fr. neurone. Trimis de… …   Dicționar Român

  • neuron — (n.) a nerve cell with appendages, 1891, from Ger. Neuron, from Gk. neuron (see NEURO (Cf. neuro )). Used earlier (1884) for the spinal cord and brain …   Etymology dictionary

  • neuron — UK [ˈnjʊərɒn] / US [ˈnʊˌrɑn] or neurone UK / US noun [countable] Word forms neuron : singular neuron plural neurons Word forms neurone : singular neurone plural neurones medical a cell that sends messages to your brain and receives messages from… …   English dictionary

  • neuron — (also neurone) ► NOUN ▪ a specialized cell transmitting nerve impulses. DERIVATIVES neuronal adjective. USAGE In scientific sources the standard spelling is neuron. The spelling neurone is found only in non technical sources. ORIGIN Greek neuron …   English terms dictionary

  • neuron — neùrōn m <G neuróna> DEFINICIJA anat. živčana stanica ETIMOLOGIJA grč. neȗron …   Hrvatski jezični portal

  • neuron — [noo′rōn΄, nyo͞o′rōn΄noor′än΄, nyoor′än] n. [ModL < Gr neuron, NERVE] the structural and functional unit of the nervous system, consisting of the nerve cell body and all its processes, including an axon and one or more dendrites: also neurone… …   English World dictionary

  • Neuron — Neu ron, n.; pl. {Neura}. [NL., from Gr. ney^ron nerve.] (Anat.) 1. The brain and spinal cord; the cerebro spinal axis; myelencephalon. [obsolete] B. G. Wilder. [1913 Webster] 2. (Cell Biology) The characteristic specialized cell that is part of… …   The Collaborative International Dictionary of English

  • neuron — neuron. См. нервная клетка. (Источник: «Англо русский толковый словарь генетических терминов». Арефьев В.А., Лисовенко Л.А., Москва: Изд во ВНИРО, 1995 г.) …   Молекулярная биология и генетика. Толковый словарь.

  • Neuron — (v. gr.), Nerv. Neuronŏsos, Nervenkrankheit. Neuropăthie, Nervenleiden …   Pierer's Universal-Lexikon

  • Neurōn — (griech), nach Waldeyer Bezeichnung der unser Nervensystem bildenden Einheiten. Der N. besteht aus der Ganglienzelle, ihren Cytoplasmafortsätzen (Dendriten) und dem Achsenzylinderfortsatz (Neuriten). Jeder Achsenzylinder gehört einem N. zu. Die… …   Meyers Großes Konversations-Lexikon

  • Neuron — Neurōn (grch.), Nerv; nach Waldeyer die zuerst von Forel aufgestellte anatom. und physiol. Einheit des Nervensystems, bestehend aus Nervenzelle, zugehöriger Nervenfaser und deren Endverästelungen [Tafel: Nervensystem II, 15 u. 16.]. Die einzelnen …   Kleines Konversations-Lexikon

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