Koran Ko"ran (k[=o]"ran or k[-o]*r[aum]n"; 277), n. [Ar. qor[=a]n; with the Ar. article, Alkoran, Alcoran; = Turk. Pers. qur[^a]n, from Ar. quran, qoran, book, reading, from q[^a]r[^a], read. See {Alcoran}.] The Scriptures of the Muslims, containing the professed revelations to Mohammed; -- called also {Alcoran}. [Written also {Kuran} or {Quran}, Also rarely {Coran} and {Core}.]

Note: The Koran is the sacred book of the Muslims (sometimes called Mohammedans by non-Muslims, a term considered offensive by some Muslims). It is the most important foundation on which Islam rests and it is held in the highest veneration by all Islamic sects. When being read it must be kept on a stand elevated above the floor. No one may read it or touch it without first making a legal ablution. It is written in the Arabic language, and its style is considered a model. The substance of the Koran is held to be uncreated and eternal. Mohammed was merely the person to whom the work was revealed. At first the Koran was not written, but entirely committed to memory. But when a great many of the best Koran reciters had been killed in battle, Omar suggested to Abu-Bekr (the successor of Mohammed) that it should be written down. Abu-Bekr accordingly commanded Zeid, an amanuensis of the prophet, to commit it to writing. This was the authorized text until 23 years after the death of the prophet. A number of variant readings had, however, crept into use. By order of the calif Osman in the year 30 of the Hejira, Zeid and three assistants made a careful revision which was adopted as the standard, and all the other copies were ordered to be burned. The Koran consists of 114 suras or divisions. These are not numbered, but each one has a separate name. They are not arranged in historical order. These suras purport to be the addresses delivered by Mohammed during his career at Mecca and Medina. As a general rule the shorter suras, which contain the theology of Islam, belong to the Meccan period; while the longer ones, relating to social duties and relationships, to Medina. The Koran is largely drawn from Jewish and Christian sources, the former prevailing. Moses and Jesus are reckoned among the prophets. The biblical narratives are interwoven with rabbinical legends. The customs of the Jews are made to conform to those of the Arabians. Islamic theology consists in the study of the Koran and its commentaries. A very fine collection of Korans, including one in Cufic (the old Arabic character), is to be found in the Khedival Library at Cairo, Egypt. [Century Dict. 1906]

The Collaborative International Dictionary of English. 2000.

Look at other dictionaries:

  • Koran —     Koran     † Catholic Encyclopedia ► Koran     The sacred book of the Muslims, by whom it is regarded as the revelation of God. Supplemented by the so called Hadith, or traditions, it is the foundation of Islam ( see Islam (Concept) ) and the… …   Catholic encyclopedia

  • Korân — (mit dem Artikel: Alkoran, der »Vortrag« der göttlichen Offenbarung), das in arabischer Sprache verfaßte, von Abu Bekr und Omar aus Aufzeichnungen und mündlicher Überlieferung der Gläubigen gesammelte und vom Kalifen Othman in offizieller… …   Meyers Großes Konversations-Lexikon

  • Koran — (arab.), Lesen od. Gelesenes, mit dem Artikel Alkoran, die Heilige Schrift der Muhammedaner. Der Inhalt des K. ist sehr mannigfach; Unterredung mit Gott, Erzählung, Belehrung, Ermahnung, Drohung u. Verheißung, bürgerliche u. religiöse… …   Pierer's Universal-Lexikon

  • Koran — [kə ran′, kərän′; kôr′an΄, kôrän΄] n. [Ar qur ān, lit., book, reading, recitation < qara a, to read] the sacred book of Islam: in Muslim belief, it contains revelations made to Mohammed by Allah Koranic adj …   English World dictionary

  • Korân — Korân, Alkorân (d.i. Verkündigung), das arabisch geschriebene Religionsbuch der Mohammedaner, von Abû Bekr gesammelt, vom Kalifen Othman definitiv redigiert, enthält die von Mohammed verkündigten göttlichen Offenbarungen in Reden Lobpreisungen,… …   Kleines Konversations-Lexikon

  • Koran — Koran, das Buch, die heilige Schrift der Muhamedaner, die Grundlage des Islam (s. Muhamed), welche nach der Tradition Muhamed von Gott selbst empfing und aus einer Reihe von Erzählungen, Offenbarungen, Gebeten, Ceremonial und Sittengesetzen… …   Damen Conversations Lexikon

  • Koran — Koran, der, arab. Alkoran = das Buch, die heil. Schrift der Mohammedaner, die ihnen Quelle der Theologie sowie der Rechtsgelehrsamkeit ist. Mohammed war des Schreibens unkundig, viele seiner Anhänger glauben noch heute, der Engel Gabriel habe ihm …   Herders Conversations-Lexikon

  • koran — KORAN: Livre de Mahomet, où il n est question que de femmes …   Dictionnaire des idées reçues

  • Koran — 1610s, from Arabic qur an a reading, recitation, book, from root of quara a he read, recited. Related: Koranic …   Etymology dictionary

  • Koran — the sacred book of Islam, is normally spelt this way in English contexts, although the form Quran or Qur an, a closer transliteration of the Arabic original (meaning ‘recitation’), is also found …   Modern English usage

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