Hard water
Water Wa"ter (w[add]"t[~e]r), n. [AS. w[ae]ter; akin to OS. watar, OFries. wetir, weter, LG. & D. water, G. wasser, OHG. wazzar, Icel. vatn, Sw. vatten, Dan. vand, Goth. wat[=o], O. Slav. & Russ. voda, Gr. 'y`dwr, Skr. udan water, ud to wet, and perhaps to L. unda wave. [root]137. Cf. {Dropsy}, {Hydra}, {Otter}, {Wet}, {Whisky}.] 1. The fluid which descends from the clouds in rain, and which forms rivers, lakes, seas, etc. ``We will drink water.'' --Shak. ``Powers of fire, air, water, and earth.'' --Milton. [1913 Webster]

Note: Pure water consists of hydrogen and oxygen, {H2O}, and is a colorless, odorless, tasteless, transparent liquid, which is very slightly compressible. At its maximum density, 39[deg] Fahr. or 4[deg] C., it is the standard for specific gravities, one cubic centimeter weighing one gram. It freezes at 32[deg] Fahr. or 0[deg] C. and boils at 212[deg] Fahr. or 100[deg] C. (see {Ice}, {Steam}). It is the most important natural solvent, and is frequently impregnated with foreign matter which is mostly removed by distillation; hence, rain water is nearly pure. It is an important ingredient in the tissue of animals and plants, the human body containing about two thirds its weight of water. [1913 Webster]

2. A body of water, standing or flowing; a lake, river, or other collection of water. [1913 Webster]

Remembering he had passed over a small water a poor scholar when first coming to the university, he kneeled. --Fuller. [1913 Webster]

3. Any liquid secretion, humor, or the like, resembling water; esp., the urine. [1913 Webster]

4. (Pharm.) A solution in water of a gaseous or readily volatile substance; as, ammonia water. --U. S. Pharm. [1913 Webster]

5. The limpidity and luster of a precious stone, especially a diamond; as, a diamond of the first water, that is, perfectly pure and transparent. Hence, of the first water, that is, of the first excellence. [1913 Webster]

6. A wavy, lustrous pattern or decoration such as is imparted to linen, silk, metals, etc. See {Water}, v. t., 3, {Damask}, v. t., and {Damaskeen}. [1913 Webster]

7. An addition to the shares representing the capital of a stock company so that the aggregate par value of the shares is increased while their value for investment is diminished, or ``diluted.'' [Brokers' Cant] [1913 Webster]

Note: Water is often used adjectively and in the formation of many self-explaining compounds; as, water drainage; water gauge, or water-gauge; waterfowl, water-fowl, or water fowl; water-beaten; water-borne, water-circled, water-girdled, water-rocked, etc. [1913 Webster]

{Hard water}. See under {Hard}.

{Inch of water}, a unit of measure of quantity of water, being the quantity which will flow through an orifice one inch square, or a circular orifice one inch in diameter, in a vertical surface, under a stated constant head; also called {miner's inch}, and {water inch}. The shape of the orifice and the head vary in different localities. In the Western United States, for hydraulic mining, the standard aperture is square and the head from 4 to 9 inches above its center. In Europe, for experimental hydraulics, the orifice is usually round and the head from 1/2 of an inch to 1 inch above its top.

{Mineral water}, waters which are so impregnated with foreign ingredients, such as gaseous, sulphureous, and saline substances, as to give them medicinal properties, or a particular flavor or temperature.

{Soft water}, water not impregnated with lime or mineral salts.

{To hold water}. See under {Hold}, v. t.

{To keep one's head above water}, to keep afloat; fig., to avoid failure or sinking in the struggles of life. [Colloq.]

{To make water}. (a) To pass urine. --Swift. (b) (Naut.) To admit water; to leak.

{Water of crystallization} (Chem.), the water combined with many salts in their crystalline form. This water is loosely, but, nevertheless, chemically, combined, for it is held in fixed and definite amount for each substance containing it. Thus, while pure copper sulphate, {CuSO4}, is a white amorphous substance, blue vitriol, the crystallized form, {CuSO4.5H2O}, contains five molecules of water of crystallization.

{Water on the brain} (Med.), hydrocephalus.

{Water on the chest} (Med.), hydrothorax. [1913 Webster]

Note: Other phrases, in which water occurs as the first element, will be found in alphabetical order in the Vocabulary. [1913 Webster]


The Collaborative International Dictionary of English. 2000.

Look at other dictionaries:

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  • hard water — water that contains magnesium, calcium, or iron salts and therefore forms a soap lather with difficulty. * * * Water that contains mineral salts of calcium and magnesium, principally as bicarbonates, chlorides, and sulfates, and sometimes iron.… …   Universalium

  • Hard water — Hard Hard (h[aum]rd), a. [Compar. {Harder} ( [ e]r); superl. {Hardest}.] [OE. hard, heard, AS. heard; akin to OS. & D. hard, G. hart, OHG. herti, harti, Icel. har[eth]r, Dan. haard, Sw. h[*a]rd, Goth. hardus, Gr. kraty s strong, ka rtos, kra tos …   The Collaborative International Dictionary of English

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  • hard water — kietas vanduo statusas T sritis chemija apibrėžtis Vanduo, kurio kietumas >8 mmol/l. atitikmenys: angl. hard water rus. жесткая вода …   Chemijos terminų aiškinamasis žodynas

  • hard water — kietas vanduo statusas T sritis fizika atitikmenys: angl. hard water vok. hartes Wasser, n rus. жёсткая вода, f pranc. eau calcaire, f; eau crue, f; eau dure, f …   Fizikos terminų žodynas

  • hard water — kietas vanduo statusas T sritis ekologija ir aplinkotyra apibrėžtis Gėlas požeminis vanduo, kurio kietis dėl jame ištirpusių kalcio ir magnio druskų yra didesnis kaip 6 mg ekv/l. atitikmenys: angl. hard water vok. hartes Wasser, n rus. жёсткая… …   Ekologijos terminų aiškinamasis žodynas

  • hard water — water with high concentrations of dissolved calcium and magnesium salts, usually found in limestone areas …   Dictionary of ichthyology

  • hard water — water containing a high concentration of minerals and calcium …   English contemporary dictionary

  • hard water — noun water that contains mineral salts (as calcium and magnesium ions) that limit the formation of lather with soap • Ant: ↑soft water • Hypernyms: ↑water, ↑H2O * * * water that contains magnesium, calcium, or iron salts and therefore forms a… …   Useful english dictionary

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