enzyme
enzyme en"zyme ([e^]n"z[imac]m), n. [Pref. en- (Gr. 'en in) + Gr. zy`mh leaven.] (Physiol. Chem.) A protein produced by a living organism, capable of catalyzing a chemical reaction. Almost all processes in living organisms require some form of enzyme to cause the reactions to occur at a rate sufficient to support life. There are a very wide variety of enzymes, each specifically catalyzing a different chemical reaction, the sum of which cause the bulk of the physiological changes observed as life processes. Enzymes, like most proteins, are synthesized by the protein-synthetic mechanism of the living cell, at special sites on ribosomes, using the genetic information in messenger RNA transcribed from the genetic instructions stored as nuleotide sequences in the DNA (or in some viruses, the RNA) of the genome. Some examples of enzymes are: pepsin, diastase, rennet, DNA polymerase, invertase, glucose oxidase, protease, and ribonuclease. There are many other types of enzyme. [1913 Webster +PJC]

Note: The 1913 Webster defined an enzyme as: An unorganized or unformed ferment, in distinction from an organized or living ferment; a soluble, or chemical, ferment. [PJC]


The Collaborative International Dictionary of English. 2000.

Look at other dictionaries:

  • Enzyme —   [zu griechisch en »in« und zýmē »Sauerteig«], Singular Enzym das, s, Biokatalysatoren, veraltete Bezeichnung: Fermẹnte, in allen lebenden Organismen vorkommende, intrazellulär gebildete, hochmolekulare Eiweißstoffe (Proteine), die chemische… …   Universal-Lexikon

  • enzyme — [ ɑ̃zim ] n. f. ACAD. ou m. • 1878; gr. en « dans » et zumê « levain » ♦ Biochim. Substance protéique qui catalyse, accélère une réaction biochimique. ⇒ apoenzyme, coenzyme; vx diastase, ferment, zymase. Il existe un grand nombre d enzymes… …   Encyclopédie Universelle

  • Enzyme — (griech.), eiweißartige Körper, die fermentartig wirken, in Pflanzen und Tieren weit verbreitet sind und in deren Lebensprozeß eine große Rolle spielen. Über ihre Zusammensetzung ist nichts Sicheres bekannt, über gemeinsame Eigenschaften läßt… …   Meyers Großes Konversations-Lexikon

  • Enzyme — Enzyme, von der Zelle hergestellte Biokatalysatoren, die den Ablauf chemischer Reaktionen beschleunigen, ohne dabei selbst im Endprodukt enthalten zu sein; sind unentbehrlich für sämtliche Stoffwechselvorgänge lebender Organismen, da sie den… …   Deutsch wörterbuch der biologie

  • enzyme — 1881, as a biochemical term, from Ger. Enzym, coined 1878 by German physiologist Wilhelm Kühne (1837 1900), from Modern Gk. enzymos leavened, from en in (see EN (Cf. en ) (2)) + zyme leaven (see ZYMURGY (Cf. zymurgy)) …   Etymology dictionary

  • enzyme — ► NOUN ▪ a substance produced by a living organism and acting as a catalyst to promote a specific biochemical reaction. DERIVATIVES enzymatic adjective enzymic adjective. ORIGIN from modern Greek enzumos leavened …   English terms dictionary

  • enzyme — [en′zīm΄] n. [Ger enzym < LGr enzymos, leavened < Gr en , in + zymē, leaven (see ZYME)] any of various proteins, formed in plant and animal cells or made synthetically, that act as organic catalysts in initiating or speeding up specific… …   English World dictionary

  • Enzyme — Biocatalyst redirects here. For the use of natural catalysts in organic chemistry, see Biocatalysis. Human glyoxalase I. Two zinc ions that are needed for the enzyme to catalyze its reaction are shown as purp …   Wikipedia

  • Enzyme — Bändermodell des Enzyms Triosephosphatisomerase (TIM) der Glykolyse, eine stilisierte Darstellung der Proteinstruktur, gewonnen durch Kristallstrukturanalyse. Die TIM gilt als katalytisch perfektes Enzym (siehe Enzymkinetik) …   Deutsch Wikipedia

  • Enzyme — Figure 1: Diagramme d une réaction catalytique qui montre l énergie (E) requise à différentes étapes suivant l axe du temps (t). Les substrats (A et B) en conditions normales requièrent une quantité d énergie considérable (E1) pour atteindre l… …   Wikipédia en Français

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