Reduced iron

Reduced iron
Iron I"ron ([imac]"[u^]rn), n. [OE. iren, AS. [=i]ren, [=i]sen, [=i]sern; akin to D. ijzer, OS. [=i]sarn, OHG. [=i]sarn, [=i]san, G. eisen, Icel. [=i]sarn, j[=a]rn, Sw. & Dan. jern, and perh. to E. ice; cf. Ir. iarann, W. haiarn, Armor. houarn.] [1913 Webster] 1. (Chem.) The most common and most useful metallic element, being of almost universal occurrence, usually in the form of an oxide (as hematite, magnetite, etc.), or a hydrous oxide (as limonite, turgite, etc.). It is reduced on an enormous scale in three principal forms; viz., {cast iron}, steel, and {wrought iron}. Iron usually appears dark brown, from oxidation or impurity, but when pure, or on a fresh surface, is a gray or white metal. It is easily oxidized (rusted) by moisture, and is attacked by many corrosive agents. Symbol Fe (Latin Ferrum). Atomic number 26, atomic weight 55.847. Specific gravity, pure iron, 7.86; cast iron, 7.1. In magnetic properties, it is superior to all other substances. [1913 Webster]

Note: The value of iron is largely due to the facility with which it can be worked. Thus, when heated it is malleable and ductile, and can be easily welded and forged at a high temperature. As cast iron, it is easily fusible; as steel, is very tough, and (when tempered) very hard and elastic. Chemically, iron is grouped with cobalt and nickel. Steel is a variety of iron containing more carbon than wrought iron, but less that cast iron. It is made either from wrought iron, by roasting in a packing of carbon (cementation) or from cast iron, by burning off the impurities in a Bessemer converter (then called Bessemer steel), or directly from the iron ore (as in the Siemens rotatory and generating furnace). [1913 Webster]

2. An instrument or utensil made of iron; -- chiefly in composition; as, a flatiron, a smoothing iron, etc. [1913 Webster]

My young soldier, put up your iron. --Shak. [1913 Webster]

3. pl. Fetters; chains; handcuffs; manacles. [1913 Webster]

Four of the sufferers were left to rot in irons. --Macaulay. [1913 Webster]

4. Strength; power; firmness; inflexibility; as, to rule with a rod of iron. [1913 Webster]

5. (Golf) An iron-headed club with a deep face, chiefly used in making approaches, lifting a ball over hazards, etc. [Webster 1913 Suppl.]

{Bar iron}. See {Wrought iron} (below).

{Bog iron}, bog ore; limonite. See {Bog ore}, under {Bog}.

{Cast iron} (Metal.), an impure variety of iron, containing from three to six percent of carbon, part of which is united with a part of the iron, as a carbide, and the rest is uncombined, as graphite. It there is little free carbon, the product is {white iron}; if much of the carbon has separated as graphite, it is called {gray iron}. See also {Cast iron}, in the Vocabulary.

{Fire irons}. See under {Fire}, n.

{Gray irons}. See under {Fire}, n.

{Gray iron}. See {Cast iron} (above).

{It irons} (Naut.), said of a sailing vessel, when, in tacking, she comes up head to the wind and will not fill away on either tack.

{Magnetic iron}. See {Magnetite}.

{Malleable iron} (Metal.), iron sufficiently pure or soft to be capable of extension under the hammer; also, specif., a kind of iron produced by removing a portion of the carbon or other impurities from cast iron, rendering it less brittle, and to some extent malleable.

{Meteoric iron} (Chem.), iron forming a large, and often the chief, ingredient of meteorites. It invariably contains a small amount of nickel and cobalt. Cf. {Meteorite}.

{Pig iron}, the form in which cast iron is made at the blast furnace, being run into molds, called pigs.

{Reduced iron}. See under {Reduced}.

{Specular iron}. See {Hematite}.

{Too many irons in the fire}, too many objects or tasks requiring the attention at once.

{White iron}. See {Cast iron} (above).

{Wrought iron} (Metal.), the purest form of iron commonly known in the arts, containing only about half of one per cent of carbon. It is made either directly from the ore, as in the Catalan forge or bloomery, or by purifying (puddling) cast iron in a reverberatory furnace or refinery. It is tough, malleable, and ductile. When formed into bars, it is called {bar iron}. [1913 Webster]

The Collaborative International Dictionary of English. 2000.

Look at other dictionaries:

  • Reduced iron — Reduce Re*duce (r[ e]*d[=u]s ), v. t. [imp. & p. p. {Reduced} ( d[=u]st ),; p. pr. & vb. n. {Reducing} ( d[=u] s[i^]ng).] [L. reducere, reductum; pref. red . re , re + ducere to lead. See {Duke}, and cf. {Redoubt}, n.] 1. To bring or lead back to …   The Collaborative International Dictionary of English

  • reduced iron — noun : finely divided iron prepared by a chemical process (as by heating ferric oxide at a dull red heat in hydrogen) and used as a tonic * * * reduced iron, a fine, gray black powder, obtained especially by the action of hydrogen on ferric oxide …   Useful english dictionary

  • reduced iron — finely powdered metallic iron obtained by precipitation with hydrogen from a solution of any soluble salt of iron …   Medical dictionary

  • Direct reduced iron — (DRI), also called sponge iron,[1] is produced from direct reduction of iron ore (in the form of lumps, pellets or fines) by a reducing gas produced from natural gas or coal. The reducing gas is a mixture majority of hydrogen (H2) and carbon… …   Wikipedia

  • Direct reduced iron — Als Eisenschwamm (Eisenluppe, Schwammeisen, oft auch DRI für direct reduced iron ) versteht man ein festes Produkt der Direktreduktion. Die Reduktion des Eisenerzes (Hämatit in Pelletform) mit den Gasen Kohlenstoffmonoxid und Wasserstoff ergibt… …   Deutsch Wikipedia

  • direct-reduced iron (DRI) — Смотри железо прямого получения …   Энциклопедический словарь по металлургии

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  • Iron — I ron ([imac] [u^]rn), n. [OE. iren, AS. [=i]ren, [=i]sen, [=i]sern; akin to D. ijzer, OS. [=i]sarn, OHG. [=i]sarn, [=i]san, G. eisen, Icel. [=i]sarn, j[=a]rn, Sw. & Dan. jern, and perh. to E. ice; cf. Ir. iarann, W. haiarn, Armor. houarn.] [1913 …   The Collaborative International Dictionary of English

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  • iron processing — Introduction       use of a smelting process to turn the ore into a form from which products can be fashioned. Included in this article also is a discussion of the mining of iron and of its preparation for smelting.       Iron (Fe) is a… …   Universalium

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