penicillin G
penicillin pen`i*cil"lin, n. [From Penicillium, the fungus genus from which it was first isolated.] (Chem.) Any of a variety of substances having a structure containing a beta-lactam ring fused to a thiirane ring, to which a carboxyl group is attached, most commonly referring to {benzyl penicillin}. They are notable as powerful antibacterial agents of relatively low toxicity which have found extensive use in medicine for treating bacterial infections. They are categorized as one of the classes of beta-lactam antibiotic. They are produced naturally by some fungi and bacteria, and industrial production processes almost invariably start from some form of the penicillin nucleus produced by fermentation of microorganisms. The fermentation products are then chemically modified to produce derivatives of enhanced potency, safety, or antibacterial spectrum. The first penicillin to see extensive use clinically (during World War II) was {penicillin G}, also called {benzypenicillin}, and commonly simply ``penicillin''. [PJC]

Note: [hand]The characteristic portion of the structure characterizing a penicillin is the bicyclic structure 3,3-Dimethyl-7-oxo-4-thia-1-azabicylo[3.2.0]heptane-2-carboxylic acid. The different penicillins have varying acyl groups forming an amide bond with a nitrogen attached to the 6-carbon of this nucleus. This distinguishes it from the other classes of beta-lactam antibiotic, the {cephalosporins}, {thienamycins} and {sulfazecin}. [PJC]

The Collaborative International Dictionary of English. 2000.

Look at other dictionaries:

  • penicillin G — jē n the penicillin C16H18N2O4S that constitutes the principal or sole component of most commercial preparations and is used chiefly in the form of its stable salts (as the sodium salt C16H17N2NaO4S or potassium salt C16H17KN2O4S) called also… …   Medical dictionary

  • Penicillin G — Strukturformel Allgemeines Freiname Benzylpenicillin Andere Namen …   Deutsch Wikipedia

  • penicillin G — noun the penicillin that constitutes the principal component of many commercial antibiotics • Syn: ↑benzylpenicillin • Hypernyms: ↑penicillin * * * noun see penicillin 2b …   Useful english dictionary

  • penicillin G — noun An alternative name for benzylpenicillin …   Wiktionary

  • penicillin G benzathine — penicillin G ben·za·thine ben zə .thēn, thən n an aqueous suspension of a relatively insoluble salt of penicillin G that provides a low but persistent serum level of penicillin G following intramuscular injection called also benzathine penicillin …   Medical dictionary

  • penicillin G procaine — n an aqueous suspension of equimolar amounts of penicillin G and procaine that provides a low but persistent serum level of penicillin G following intramuscular injection called also procaine penicillin G * * * [USP] a salt having a long… …   Medical dictionary

  • penicillin G potassium — [USP] the potassium salt of penicillin G; administered orally, intramuscularly, or intravenously …   Medical dictionary

  • penicillin G sodium — [USP] the sodium salt of penicillin G; administered intramuscularly or intravenously …   Medical dictionary

  • potassium penicillin G — penicillin G potassium …   Medical dictionary

  • procaine penicillin G — n penicillin G procaine * * * see under penicillin …   Medical dictionary

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